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    ABSTRACT: We updated and expanded a previous systematic literature review examining the impact of tobacco control interventions on socioeconomic inequalities in smoking. We searched the academic literature for reviews and primary research articles published between January 2006 and November 2010 that examined the socioeconomic impact of six tobacco control interventions in adults: that is, price increases, smoke-free policies, advertising bans, mass media campaigns, warning labels, smoking cessation support and community-based programmes combining several interventions. We included English-language articles from countries at an advanced stage of the tobacco epidemic that examined the differential impact of tobacco control interventions by socioeconomic status or the effectiveness of interventions among disadvantaged socioeconomic groups. All articles were appraised by two authors and details recorded using a standardised approach. Data from 77 primary studies and seven reviews were synthesised via narrative review. We found strong evidence that increases in tobacco price have a pro-equity effect on socioeconomic disparities in smoking. Evidence on the equity impact of other interventions is inconclusive, with the exception of non-targeted smoking cessation programmes which have a negative equity impact due to higher quit rates among more advantaged smokers. Increased tobacco price via tax is the intervention with the greatest potential to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in smoking. Other measures studied appear unlikely to reduce inequalities in smoking without specific efforts to reach disadvantaged smokers. There is a need for more research evaluating the equity impact of tobacco control measures, and development of more effective approaches for reducing tobacco use in disadvantaged groups and communities.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Tobacco control

  • No preview · Article · May 2013 · BMJ (online)
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Poorer cancer survival in Indigenous populations contributes to health inequalities in both New Zealand and Australia. Methods: We reviewed recent evidence of cancer treatment and outcomes among Māori and non-Māori New Zealanders and examined the range of factors that may contribute to poorer survival in Māori. Results: There is clear evidence that Māori have poorer cancer survival compared with other ethnic groups, particularly European New Zealanders. Two recent studies show that Māori patients receive poorer quality treatment for cancers of the lung and colon, even after adjusting for patient factors. These findings suggest the need to consider how the health-care system as a whole may disadvantage Indigenous patients. Discussion: We present a framework for considering how inequalities may arise in the delivery of cancer care, taking account of the health system as a whole - including the structure and organization of cancer services - as well as treatment processes and patient factors. A key feature of this framework is that it directs attention towards system-level factors affecting cancer care, including the location, resourcing and cultural focus of services. Our analysis suggests a need to look beyond individual patient factors in order to improve the quality and equity of cancer services and to optimize cancer survival in Indigenous populations.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2012 · ANZ Journal of Surgery
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