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ABSTRACT: Narrow-bore instruments are commonly perceived to be brighter than wide-bore models of the same kind of instrument. This effect is closely related to the effect of the bore profile of a brass instrument on the potential for non-linear propagation of sound within the tube. This paper reports on practical tests with trumpets of different bore diameters, experiments with loudspeaker excitation of instruments, and simulations. The brassiness curves of a range of low instruments with similar Brassiness Potential but differing in their absolute bore diameters are compared. The relative importance of the two effects is explored.
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ABSTRACT: The process of coal gasification for synthetic gas production is currently seeing renewed interest due to the possibility it offers as a clean coal technology. The technology faces some financial challenges if it is to replace traditional pulverised coal combustion as a method for power generation without the help of government subsidisation. The report set out to investigate the aspects of gasifier design which provided high capital costs and to look at ways in which new future technology might be able to reduce these. The report consequently completed a preliminary design of a new novel gasifier, which was based on the findings.
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ABSTRACT: The concept of off-grid hybrid wind energy system is financially attractive and more reliable than stand-alone power systems since it is based on more than one electricity generation source. One of the most expensive components in a stand-alone wind-power system is the energy storage system as very often it is oversized to increase system autonomy. In this work, we consider a hybrid system which consists of wind turbines, photovoltaic panels, diesel generator and battery storage. One of the main challenges experienced by project managers is the sizing of components for different sites. This challenge is due to the variability of the renewable energy resource and the load demand for different sites. This paper introduces a sizing model that has been developed and implemented as a graphical user interface, which predicts the optimum configuration of a hybrid system. In particular, this paper focuses on seeking the optimal size of the batteries and the diesel generator usage. Both of these components are seen to be trade-offs from each other. The model simulates real time operation of the hybrid system, using the annual measured hourly wind speed and solar irradiation. The benefit of using time series approach is that it reflects a more realistic situation; here, the peaks and troughs of the renewable energy resource are a central part of the sizing model. Finally, load sensitivity and hybrid system performance analysis are demonstrated.
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