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    ABSTRACT: We describe a formation scenario of Enceladus constrained by the deuterium-to-hydrogen ratio (D/H) in the gas plumes as measured by the Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer. We propose that, similarly to Titan, Enceladus formed from icy planetesimals that were partly devolatilized during their migration within the Kronian subnebula. In our scenario, at least primordial Ar, CO, and N 2 were devolatilized from planetesimals during their drift within the subnebula, due to the increasing temperature and pressure conditions of the gas phase. The origin of methane is still uncertain since it might have been either trapped in the planetesimals of Enceladus during their formation in the solar nebula or produced via serpentinization reactions in the satellite's interior. If the methane of Enceladus originates from the solar nebula, then its D/H ratio should range between ∼4.7 × 10 −5 and 1.5 × 10 −4 . Moreover, Xe/H 2 O and Kr/H 2 O ratios are predicted to be equal to ∼7 × 10 −7 and 7 × 10 −6 , respectively, in the satellite's interior. On the other hand, if the methane of Enceladus results from serpentinization reactions, then its D/H ratio should range between ∼2.1 × 10 −4 and 4.5 × 10 −4 . In this case, Kr/H 2 O should not exceed ∼10 −10 and Xe/H 2 O should range between ∼1 × 10 −7 and 7 × 10 −7 in the satellite's interior. Future spacecraft missions, such as Titan Saturn System Mission, will have the capability to provide new insight into the origin of Enceladus by testing these observational predictions.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2016 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The history of Palestine has caused communities to be displaced and relocated, entailing that speech communities have been dismantled and created anew. The coastal cities of Jaffa and Gaza exemplify this reality. This study analyzes speakers from Jaffa, some of whom remained there and others residing in Gaza as refugees. Through an examination of three variables, (ʕ), (AH), and (Q), we shed light on the effects of dialect contact while highlighting the link between dialect contact and identity formation and maintenance. All three variables are found to be in varied states of change as a result of contact with other varieties of Arabic, as well as with Modern Hebrew. We conclude that (Q), through its high social salience, works to create and maintain a sense of community identity for Jaffan refugees in Gaza at a time when the speech of the larger Jaffa community is undergoing substantial linguistic change.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Sociolinguistics
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    ABSTRACT: Future crisis management systems needresilient and trustworthy infrastructures to quickly develop reliable applications and processes, andensure end-to-end security, trust, and privacy. Due to the multiplicity and diversity of involved actors, volumes of data, and heterogeneity of shared information;crisis management systems tend to be highly vulnerable and subjectto unforeseen incidents. As a result, the dependability of crisis management systems can be at risk. This paper presents a cloud-based resilient and trustworthy infrastructure (known as rDaaS) to quickly develop securecrisis management systems. The rDaaSintegrates the Dynamic Data-DrivenApplication Systems (DDDAS) paradigm into a service-oriented architectureover cloud technology andprovidesa set of resilient DDDAS-As-A Service (rDaaS)components to build secure and trusted adaptable crisis processes. The rDaaSalso ensures resilience and security by obfuscating the execution environment andapplying Behavior Software Encryption and Moving Technique Defense. A simulation environment for a nuclear plant crisis managementcase study is illustrated to build resilient and trusted crisis response processes.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Procedia Computer Science

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