The Maria Grzegorzewska University
Recent publications
Background Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) are globally widely used. Scientific literature generally defines four phases of substance use (initiation, continuation, increase and decrease); however, there is limited understanding of what influences these different phases of ATS use. The ATTUNE study investigated which factors shape individual phases of use, or ATS use patterns. In this article, we report on these phases into and out of ATS use, and propose a set of recommendations for prevention, harm reduction and treatment of the different phases of ATS use. Methods Qualitative, semi-structured interviews ( n = 237) were conducted in five different European countries with participants who had used ATS, varying from a few times in a lifetime to daily. Results Amphetamine and MDMA were the most commonly used ATS. Yet, types of ATS used differed between the countries. We found that people who use ATS have various motives for and dynamic patterns of ATS use with alternating phases of increase, continuation, decrease and sometimes dependence. Cessation was pursued in different ways and for diverse reasons, such as mental health problems and maturing out. Availability seemed not an issue, regardless of the type of ATS, phase or country. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that tailor-made interventions are needed for the diverse types of people who use ATS and different phases or patterns of ATS use, to reduce possible harms of use. We recommended a set of interventions for the different ATS phases. These include drug checking services, peer-led information, self-management of ATS use, mental health support to help people cope with stressful life events and prevent uncontrolled use, and follow-up support after treatment.
Background The aim of this study is to compare depression and loneliness among adult siblings of people on the autism spectrum, adult siblings of normotypic individuals, and adults raised alone (only child). In recent years, an increasing interest in the perspective of siblings of children diagnosed with autism has been observed, with studies among this population particularly concerned with the developmental trajectories of children and adolescents at “high risk” for ASD, rarely focusing on their mental well-being.Methods The respondents filled out: the survey on sociodemographic data designed by the authors, Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI, measure of depression), and De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale (DJGLS, assessment of loneliness).ResultsA rise in BDI and an increase in the DJGLS score were predicted by having a sibling diagnosed with ASD. Those effects were independent of subjects’ sex, educational status, place of residence, or a number of siblings.Conclusion The results underline a fundamental need for the development of mental hygiene programs for families where children with autism spectrum are accompanied by healthy siblings.
Across five studies (total N > 3,600), we report the psychometric properties of the Polish version of the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (VVIQ-2PL). Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed a unidimensional structure of this instrument; measurement invariance concerning participants’ gender was established as well. The VVIQ-2PL showed excellent test-retest reliability, high internal consistency, and adequate construct validity. As predicted, art students scored significantly higher in visual mental imagery than the non-artist group. We discuss these findings alongside future research directions and possible modifications of VVIQ-2PL.
Objectives: We examined associations between the severity of symptoms of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) and depression and recent suicidal ideation among bereaved family members. Methods: Individuals who survived the death of a family member 1-8 year earlier (N = 225) were surveyed using self-report measures in the cross-sectional study. Regression analyses were conducted to test the multivariable effects of PGD and depression symptom severity-including their interactive effect-on recent suicidal ideation among the full sample and subsample of suicidal ideators (n = 38). Results: The severity of PGD symptoms was positively associated with frequency of recent suicidal ideation in the full sample and subsample of suicidal ideators. Depressive symptoms were positively related to suicidal ideation in the full sample; however, they were significant only in the presence of PGD symptoms in the subsample of suicidal ideators. Conclusions: Severity of PGD and depression symptoms are positively associated with suicidal ideation among bereaved individuals, highlighting the need to attend to both PGD and depressive symptoms in understanding risk for suicidal ideation among bereaved individuals. K E Y W O R D S bereavement, complicated grief, major depressive disorder, prolonged grief disorder, suicide
Aim: In this paper, we analyze the potential of various digital tools such as gamification-based applications or digital currencies in enabling the social engagement in climate change mitigation processes by encouraging pro-environmental behaviors. Therefore, as a result of this study, we aim to develop a conceptual framework for a green digital tool, dedicated to cities seeking to shape their resilience by supporting bottom-up initiatives and encouraging residents to join the effort through educational interventions. Methods: The study was divided into four steps using a variety of methodological approaches, including a review of the SLR literature, analysis of the successes and failures of existing solutions, and qualitative workshops with stakeholders. Findings: The conceptual basis of the proposed solution has been developed based on the existing knowledge on pro-environmental nudging and lessons learnt from existing solutions. Value/originality: The developed conceptual framework can contribute to local economies while promoting social solidarity. It has the potential to build communities which can act together for the purpose of urban climate resilience because, from the very beginning, it is co-created together with residents. Practical implementation and beneficiaries: The concept described in this paper can serve cities as a supportive solution, shaping climate change awareness and attitudes toward active engagement.
Background The approach to the education and professional advancement of physiotherapists is particularly relevant today. To date, no studies have compared the perceptions of physiotherapists regarding professional issues in geographically close European countries such as Poland and Germany. Therefore, this study’s purpose was to compare Polish and German physiotherapists’ perceptions related to their profession, entry-level education, and career opportunities. Methods We recruited 565 physiotherapists from Poland and 560 physiotherapists from Germany. An opinion polling method based on a questionnaire was applied in the study. The survey was conducted in 48 facilities located throughout the territories of the two countries. The assessment focused on the following three issues: 1) professional education (form and content of educational programs, organizational aspects, and effects of education); 2) professional development and career opportunities; and 3) the relationship between years of service and perceptions of professional education, career satisfaction and advancement opportunities. Results German respondents rated specific aspects of their education, development opportunities and professional careers more highly than their Polish counterparts ( p = 0.001). A highly significant negative correlation was identified in both groups between all the assessed aspects of professional education and years of service (0.9 ≤ |R| < 1, p = 0.001). Conclusions Opinions on their professions expressed by physiotherapists from closely neighboring countries, namely, Poland and Germany, were surprisingly disparate. Compared to their Polish colleagues, German physiotherapists viewed their experiences more favorably vis-a-vis entry-level education, career opportunities, and professional status. Further study is needed to establish whether these findings reflect actual differences, sampling bias, or other factors.
Earlier studies have shown that self-criticism is a robust correlate of suicidal behavior (SB) and suicidal ideation (SI). However, research results regarding the relationship between dependency and SB/SI are mixed. Several studies have also shown that depressive symptoms mediate the relationship between dependency and/or self-criticism and SB/SI. We propose here that: (i) self-criticism may be a moderator of the relationship between dependency and a prior history of SB and SI and recent SI; and (ii) depressive symptoms and borderline personality disorder (BPD) may mediate the relationship between dependency and self-criticism and SB/SI. Young adults (n = 240), aged 18-39 years, completed self-report measures. Self-criticism was a robust correlate of SB and SI in multivariable analyses. Dependency was positively related to SB and SI only at high levels of self-criticism. Moreover, all indirect relationships between dependency and self-criticism and SB and SI via BPD, and some via depressive symptoms, were significant. The results indicate that self-criticism is a robust risk factor for SB/SI in early adulthood. Dependency may be a risk factor, but only at high levels of self-criticism, and/or when dependency-related BPD and/or depressive symptoms are present.
Information on personality development (and its linguistic predictors) in the aftermath of a critical life event among depressive patients is relatively limited. The study’s aim was to verify two hypotheses: (1) Participants with depression will use concrete rather than abstract language to describe their most recent critical life event and its psychological consequences and (2) The more abstract the language used, the higher the level of personality development. 16 Cognitive Behavioral Therapy patients suffering from depression participated in the study (M = 34 years old; SD = 4.02). Their level of personality development was assessed qualitatively by two independent coders. The coding system was based on the Positive Disintegration Theory (Dąbrowski 1964). We used typology from the Linguistic Category Model (Semin and Fiedler 1991) to analyse the level of abstractness vs. concreteness. Depressed patients were classified as either abstract language speakers or concrete language speakers. There were equal numbers of both types of speakers. Moreover participants consistently used one type of language, regardless of whether they were describing the critical life event itself or its psychological consequences. As expected, using higher levels of language abstractness when speaking correlated with possessing higher levels of personality development. Our findings provide practitioners with useful knowledge on the benefits of using abstract language to improve supportive strategies when dealing with people in crisis and modify the psychotherapeutic protocols used to treat depression.
Objectives The aim of the study was to determine the influence of oral, oropharyngeal, laryngeal and hypopharyngeal dysplasia and cancer diagnosis on motivation to smoking cessation in patients. Consecutively, we assessed the competence of ENT specialists in counseling anti-smoking therapies. Methods Questionnaire of expected support, Schneider motivation test and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) were administered to 50 smoking patients. The online survey was collected from 152 ENT doctors. Results Mean FTND score was 4.58 and Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI) was 3.1. Patients with oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer showed the greatest dependence to nicotine 7.67 and 5.25, respectively, and with hypopharyngeal cancer had the lowest 3.5, ( p = 0.039). The ranges of HSI were significantly higher for younger patients ( p = 0.036). 35 patients were adequately motivated to quit smoking, and their mean age was statistically higher ( p = 0.05). Self-reported motivation to smoking cessation was 76%. Of 152 surveyed doctors, only 39% declared knowledge of the diagnostic and therapeutic cessation interventions. 75% showed interest in the training programs.
Previous studies have shown that making hostile attributions, that is, attributing hostile intentions to other people mainly in ambiguous situations, increases the likelihood of aggressive behavior. Moreover, fathers' hostile attributions are associated with the aggressiveness of their children. There is also a positive relationship between hostile attributions and vulnerable narcissism among adults. However, currently, there are no empirical studies that test the connections between fathers' VN and the hostile attributions of both fathers and sons. To address this gap, the current study included 77 dyads of sons and fathers. Although fathers' hostile attributions subfactors (intentionality, blame ascription, and angry feelings in ambiguous situations) were not associated with sons' hostile attributions subfactors, fathers' angry feelings, as well as the sons' blame ascription and angry feelings, were related to fathers' vulnerable narcissism. Furthermore, fathers' vulnerable narcissism predicted sons' angry feelings which are, in turn, associated with sons' aggressiveness. The observation that fathers' vulnerable narcissism may have an impact on sons' angry feelings in ambiguous situations, which in turn is related to sons' aggression may be a crucial insight for therapeutic interventions for adolescents with aggression problems and suggests a need to focus on the father-son relationship.
The present research examines psychological concomitants of support for anti-abortion laws in Poland in the wake of the Constitutional Tribunal’s 2020 ruling restricting access to abortion in cases of fetal malformations. Results of two cross-sectional studies conducted on representative samples of Poles (Study 1, N = 994 and Study 2, N = 432) indicated that support for an almost total abortion ban was associated with national narcissism – a belief in the national in-group’s greatness that is contingent on its external validation. In both studies, the relationship between national narcissism and support for anti-abortion laws was mediated by hostile, but not benevolent, sexism. Study 2 additionally showed that this effect remained significant even when we accounted for other important variables, such as individual narcissism or prejudice towards people with Down syndrome. Overall, our results indicate that national narcissism may play an important role in shaping anti-abortion attitudes.
The aim of the study was to analyse teachers' interactions with students in order to track the differences in the messages given to pupils depending on their gender, and to study the opinions of students about the behaviour of their teachers. As part of the research, 34 hours of lessons (divided into 17 hours of mathematics and 17 hours of Polish language lessons) were observed. Additionally, the opinions of 68 students (34 girls and 34 boys) were analysed. The study employs mixed methods of data analysis (Stromquist 2007), combining a qualitative approach based on elements of grounded theory (Glaser, Strauss 2017) with quantitative comparisons of the frequency of the teacher's behavior, using χ 2 tests. The results indicate the differing nature of teachers' interactions with girls and boys; the number of interactions and their quality are more favourable in the case of boys. Girls are more often overlooked, and their achievements and contributions are less frequently noticed. In addition, students are aware of the differences in how they are treated by their teachers, pointing out, inter alia, to the importance of providing equal treatment to all students.
This article aims to explore social bonding strategies of 35 older Americans who in‐migrated to nonmetropolitan areas in the United States upon their retirement. The qualitative research covered Leelanau County in Michigan and Transylvania County in North Carolina as examples of important but less studied retirement destinations compared to the elderly's residential mobility to the Sun Belt region. The main research problem addressed was to what extent older in‐migrants create and develop social bonds in their new places of residence, how and with whom. The analysis showed that the interviewees connect with others mostly through volunteering and community engagement, practices related to hobbies and leisure, as well as by joining local churches and religious groups. Their social relationships, however, are often limited to other ‘transplants’, and raise concerns about support needed when their health deteriorates.
The study was conducted using a mixed methods approach combining lesson observations and interviews with teachers. A total of 204 hours of observation in 34 classes of 7th and 8th graders (aged 13-14 in the Polish primary school system) were conducted to investigate teachers' behaviour that may exacerbate gender stereotypes and gender bias in the classroom. Moreover, the 25 female teachers conducting the observed lessons were interviewed to identify: (i) teachers' awareness of stereotypical behaviours of girls and boys during classes ; (ii) teachers' awareness of possible causes of these behaviours; (iii) teachers' responses to these behaviours, including actions that could deepen gender stereotypes; and (iv) teachers' sensitivity to the gender polarised content of school textbooks. The results of the study show that teachers, although they are aware of the existence of gender stereotypes and declare their willingness to counteract them, tend to strengthen rather than eliminate these stereotypes with the strategies and actions undertaken. They have difficulty recognising possible reasons for the occurrence of stereotypical student behaviour and have little awareness of the gender-polarised content of school textbooks. The results of the study are discussed, inter alia, in light of the concept of the vicious circle of stereotypes and self-fulfilling prophecies in education.
Bullying victimization has several consequences for the psychological well-being of marginalized people, including body dysmorphic concerns and paranoid ideation, a relatively stable way of thinking characterized by suspiciousness and mistrust of others. Men who have sex with men (MSM) report a greater risk of homophobic bullying victimization (HBV), and previous research has indicated that MSM face a higher risk of body dysmorphic concerns, particularly in reference to their muscles. The aim of this study is to examine the association between HBV and muscle dysmorphic concerns in a sample of MSM, and to test the hypothesis that paranoid ideation mediates the association between HBV and muscle dysmorphic concerns. The sample consisted of 270 Italian-speaking MSM aged 18–64 years (M = 34.3; SD = 11.4). We administered an anonymous online questionnaire to collect data about sociodemographics, previous HBV experiences, muscle dysmorphic concerns and paranoid ideation using internationally validated instruments. Our results suggest that HBV positively predicts both higher levels of paranoid ideation and muscle dysmorphic preoccupation. Moreover, the results indicate that paranoid ideation is a mediator of the relationship between HBV and MD. Implications for research and clinical practice are discussed.
This study aims to understand the long-term relation between comprehensive job resources and the three basic psychological needs at work (autonomy, relatedness and competence). The study was conducted in a progressive design on a sample of 1025 Polish human service professionals. Based on a typology of job resources, the three aggregated job resources index related to the task, leadership and interpersonal relations were created and the effects of each of them on the satisfaction and frustration of the three basic psychological needs, measured after 8 months, were tested. The analysis conducted by using of structural equation modelling showed that task resources are associated with the three basic psychological needs more strongly than two other kinds of resources and that that both leadership and interpersonal resources were related to the satisfaction and frustration of all the needs to the same extent. The results are discussed in the paradigm of the Conservative of Resources and the Self Determination theories.
A vast number of studies have shown that trust is related to socially desirable traits and behaviors. In the present research we have investigated the relationship between generalized trust and beliefs about the importance of socially responsible behaviors (SRB) during the pandemic – namely, following the sanitary regime and getting vaccinated. Basing on the previous findings we assumed that trustful people would be more convinced of the benefits of complying with the pandemic restrictions and getting vaccinated. The hypothesis stated that people with high levels of trust who had COVID-19 or whose close persons had been infected would be the most likely to believe in socially responsible behaviors. We recruited 405 people from the general population (age range 18–65) to participate in an online study conducted via a research platform. The analysis using linear regression has shown that people, whose close persons had suffered from COVID-19 were more inclined to believe in the importance of SRB. The level of trust also predicted the beliefs about the importance of socially responsible behaviors in mitigating the pandemic. Trust was positively related to SRB, except for people whose close persons had been infected with COVID-19. Regardless of the level of trust, people with such experience tended to assess SRB as important to combat the pandemic. These results have shed light on the importance of trust in developing the strategy of fighting the COVID-19 pandemic.
Insecure attachment style and borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms are related to the severity of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and can also complicate its course and treatment. We propose a theoretical model of relationships between adult attachment style and BPD and AUD symptom severity in which the sense of identity is a mediator. The aim of our study was to test this model in a sample of male inpatients with AUD. Male inpatients with AUD (N = 114) aged 22–72 years (M = 43.05; SD = 9.84) completed the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised, the Multidimensional Identity Questionnaire, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and the Borderline Symptom List 23. Results showed that the sense of identity fully mediated the positive relationship between attachment anxiety and BPD symptom severity. There was also a positive indirect effect of attachment avoidance on BPD symptoms via weaker sense of identity. Contrary to hypothesis, AUD symptom severity was not related to attachment, identity or BPD symptoms in our sample. Sense of identity could be a possible target for interventions for insecurely attached men with AUD to reduce BPD symptoms.
Exclusion has multiple adverse effects on individual’s well-being. It induces anger and hostile cognitions leading to aggressive behavior. The purpose of this study was to test whether exclusion would affect recognition of anger on ambivalent faces of the excluders. We hypothesized that exclusion would elicit more anger encoding (hostility bias) than inclusion, but this effect would be mitigated by anodal tDCS of right VLPFC or left DLPFC—regions engaged in negative affect regulation. Participants (N = 96) were recognizing emotions (anger, sadness, happiness) on ambiguous faces of individuals who—as they were told—liked them or not. Results showed that exclusion induced more sadness bias. tDCS to VLPFC decreased anger and increased sadness recognition on excluders’ faces compared with includers’ faces, expressing a mixture of these two emotions. Additionally, stimulation to VLPFC and DLPFC decreased latencies for faces expressing sadness (sad-angry and happy-sad) but increased for happy-angry faces. Stimulation to VLPFC also increased reaction time to excluders faces while stimulation of DLPFC decreased reaction latency to includers faces. Results were discussed with the reference to the form of exclusion, motivational mechanism affected by disliking but also to lateralization (valence vs. arousal theory) and cortical regions engaged in encoding sadness after a threat to belonging.
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536 members
Aleksandra Gajda
  • Department of Education
Agnieszka Olechowska
  • Institute of Support of Human Development and Education Deaprtment of Early Education
Jolanta Zagrodzka
  • Applied Psychology
Anna Zajenkowska
  • Department of Psychology
Katarzyna Ita Bieńkowska
  • Department of Speech Therapy and Educational Linguistics
Szczęśliwicka 40, 02-353, mazowieckie, Poland
Head of institution
Barbara Marcinkowska
+48 22 589 36 00