The College of New Jersey
  • Ewing, United States
Recent publications
Knowing who owns what is challenging because it is often invisible to direct perception. Yet, the concept of ownership can be instrumental for organizing representations of the world. Here we investigated whether 16-month-olds (N = 64) can already use ownership to mentally organize a scene, binding representations of individual objects into higher order sets to overcome working memory limits. We found that infants failed to remember four identical objects when a single social agent possessed all four (Experiment 1). However, when two distinct agents possessed two identical objects each, infants successfully remembered all four by chunking them into two sets of two (Experiments 2 and 3). Infants were not merely using the agents as perceptual landmarks; they failed to chunk when two objects each were placed in front of distinctive inanimate objects (Experiment 4). Together, these results suggest that infants can harness abstract knowledge of personal ownership to organize the contents of memory.
This study examined preservice teacher coursework and experiences related to student trauma, classroom management, and self-care during a junior-year clinical placement (N = 25), as well as through follow-up interviews with a subgroup of participants one year later (N = 8). An inductive, thematic analysis led to the identification of four broad themes related to teacher–student relationships, field-based learning, adopting a philosophy of control versus flexibility, and the professional practice of self-care. All participants observed the impact of trauma in their classrooms, but only a few witnessed trauma-informed strategies that centered relationships and the humanistic side of teaching. Preservice teachers placed in trauma-informed classrooms felt the most prepared to implement trauma-informed strategies, while most preservice teachers questioned their ability to create a positive and responsive space for students who had experienced trauma. Data were used to create a conceptual model of findings to help guide future work with preservice teachers and clinical experiences.
This paper presents a new argument against philosophical theories based on arguments in favor of ontological reductions. The argument is an experiment in thought that has transcendental force, because it demonstrates the impossibility of forming a concept of anything with a reductionist nature. So although we consider as examples only theories that try to reduce everything in accordance with the currently popular materialisms or dualism, the argument applies as well to every sort of reduction theory whatever.
Background: Transgender individuals experience considerable prejudice and bias, creating barriers to health care. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a virtual patient simulation scenario of caring for a transgender adult on nursing students' attitudes and beliefs about transgender people. Methods: A validated 29-item instrument developed to assess an individual's view of transgender identity was administered in a pre-/posttest nonequivalent-groups design to junior- and senior-level nursing students. Results: Statistically significant differences were found between the control and treatment groups for the subscale human value. Conclusions: Findings support experiential learning in nursing as an effective tool in teaching cultural competence and sensitivity when caring for transgender patients. Attitudes and beliefs of senior nursing students and junior nursing students toward transgender individuals differed, with senior students being more receptive.
Objectives The number of incarcerated women in the United States has risen exponentially. Many are of childbearing age with 3-4% being pregnant at intake. Despite the need for comprehensive pregnancy-related health care in prisons and jails, there is no oversight that requires adherence to the established standards. The objective of this study was to assess prison and jail pregnancy policies and practices with an emphasis on restraint use and compliance with anti-shackling legislation.Methods We conducted a survey of 22 state prisons and six jails, including the five largest jails, from 2016–2017 regarding pregnancy policies and practices including restraint use, prenatal care, delivery and birth, and other pregnancy accommodations. We compared reported restraint policies to state legislation at the time of the survey.ResultsData indicate that pregnancy policies and services in prisons and jails vary and compliance inconsistencies with anti-shackling legislation exist. A third of the prisons and half of the jails did not have accredited health care services. All study facilities provided prenatal vitamins and most provided supplemental snacks. Most facilities stationed an officer inside the hospital room during labor and delivery, but nearly one-third of facilities did not require a female-identifying officer.Conclusions for practiceLimited oversight and standardization of carceral health care and accommodations for pregnant people lead to variability in prisons and jails. Prisons and jails should adopt and implement standards of care guidelines to ensure the safety and well-being of pregnant people who have unique healthcare needs. Incarcerated pregnant people should be viewed as expectant parents in need of comprehensive health care, rather than as criminals who forfeited their right to a safe, respectful, and humane childbirth.
Active listening is a well-known skill applied in human communication to build intimacy and elicit self-disclosure to support a wide variety of cooperative tasks. When applied to conversational UIs, active listening from machines can also elicit greater self-disclosure by signaling to the users that they are being heard, which can have positive outcomes. However, it takes considerable engineering effort and training to embed active listening skills in machines at scale, given the need to personalize active-listening cues to individual users and their specific utterances. A more generic solution is needed given the increasing use of conversational agents, especially by the growing number of socially isolated individuals. With this in mind, we developed an Amazon Alexa skill that provides privacy-preserving and pseudo-random backchanneling to indicate active listening. User study (N = 40) data show that backchanneling improves perceived degree of active listening by smart speakers. It also results in more emotional disclosure, with participants using more positive words. Perception of smart speakers as active listeners is positively associated with perceived emotional support. Interview data corroborate the feasibility of using smart speakers to provide emotional support. These findings have important implications for smart speaker interaction design in several domains of cooperative work and social computing.
In this paper, we propose an inexact-Uzawa solver for embedded linear model predictive control (MPC). The inexact-Uzawa algorithm falls into the general framework of first-order primal-dual methods but employs both proximal-point and matrix splitting schemes to derive a numerically robust algorithm with O(1/k) convergence rate in the primal-dual gap to some saddle-point solution where k is the iteration count. Numerical MPC example shows the efficiency and the ease of implementation of the algorithm as compared to other related methods in the literature.
Mindfulness is a practice that is advantageous for decreasing anxiety and stress (McVeigh, 2021). It is very beneficial to use with students. Nursing students experience much stress and anxiety due to the academic workload and expectations to perform in the classroom and clinical setting (Manocchi, 2017 Manocchi, P. E. (2017). Fostering academic success in nursing students through mindfulness: A literature review. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 12(4), 298–303. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.teln.2017.05.002[Crossref] , [Google Scholar]). It is important for students to be able to manage stress and anxiety so that they can be successful in the nursing program. When first year nursing students indicated they were experiencing stress and anxiety and it was negatively impacting their academic performance, brief mindfulness sessions were introduced at the beginning of each class. Student feedback has been very positive for using a mindfulness application. This demonstrates that mindfulness applications have a positive impact on the reduction of stress and anxiety which is beneficial in the classroom, clinical setting, and everyday practice.
Trees and shrubs in suburban forests can be subject to chronic herbivory from abundant white‐tailed deer, influencing survival, growth, secondary metabolites, and ecological success in the community. We investigated how deer affect the size, cover, and metabolomes of four species in the understory of a suburban forest in central New Jersey, USA: the woody shrubs Euonymus alatus and Lindera benzoin, the tree Nyssa sylvatica, and the semi‐woody shrub Rosa multiflora. For each species, we compared plants in 38 16 m2 plots with or without deer exclosure, measuring proportion cover and mean height after 6.5 years of fencing. We scored each species in all plots for deer browsing over 8 years and assessed selection by deer among the species. We did untargeted metabolomics by sampling leaves from three plants of each species in an equal number of fenced and unfenced plots, conducting chloroform–methanol extractions followed by LC–MS/MS, and conducting statistical analysis on MetaboAnalyst. The proportion of a species browsed ranged from 0.24 to 0.35. Nyssa sylvatica appeared most selected by and susceptible to deer; in unfenced plots, both its cover and mean height were significantly lower. Only cover or height was lower for E. alatus and L. benzoin in unfenced plots, while R. multiflora height was greater. The metabolomic analysis identified 2333 metabolites, which clustered by species but not fencing treatment. However, targeted analysis of the top metabolites grouped by fencing for all samples and for each species alone and was especially clear in N. sylvatica, which also grouped by fencing using all metabolites. The most significant metabolites that were upregulated in fenced plants include some involved in defense‐related metabolic pathways, e.g., monoterpenoid biosynthesis. In overbrowsed suburban forests, variation of deer impact on species' ecological success, potentially mediated by metabolome‐wide chemical responses to deer, may contribute to changes in community structure. Overabundant deer in suburban forests cause stress to understory plants exposed to chronic browsing, which impacts ecological performance and may shift their global metabolome since metabolites involved in stress and defense responses could be affected. In one suburban forest, the size, cover, and metabolomic profiles of four woody and semi‐woody plants were affected by long‐term deer exclosure. Metabolites that differentially accumulated in fenced and unfenced plants plants include some involved in defense‐related metabolic pathways.
Background: The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency and clinical correlates of users of an Internet drug forum who changed their alcohol use during the March-May 2020 COVID-19 lockdown in France. Methods: An anonymous Internet-based cross-sectional survey during the COVID-19 lockdown was used via messages on a French Internet drug forum. Participants reported any increase in their alcohol consumption during the lockdown. Alcohol craving and depressive/anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Obsessive and Compulsive Drinking scale (OCDS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS). Results: Of 1310 respondents, 974 (79% of 1270) participants reported alcohol use before lockdown. During the lockdown, 405 participants (41.6%; IC95 (38.5-44.7)) reported an increase. Odds of an increase in alcohol consumption was higher for those with HADS scores higher than 7 (aOR: 2.19; p = 0.00002), OCDS scores greater than 7 (aOR: 3.50; p < 0.001), and daily psychostimulant use (aOR: 1.85; p = 0.002). Conclusions: Users of an Internet drug forum who reported high levels of depressive symptoms, high levels of alcohol craving, and the use of psychostimulants were more likely to increase alcohol consumption during a COVID-19 lockdown.
The essay is a reflection on my experience of isolation on campus as my body was marked as a carrier of disease. Locating the essay in the literature about fears of Asian Americans as an alien presence and a yellow peril threat and on the work on microaggressions in academia, I understand my colleagues’ avoidance as rooted in racialized fears of COVID-19. This demonstrates the problems of colorblind racism and the limits of allyship. Through connecting the BLM protests and COVID-19, the shared risk to Black and Asian American bodies becomes highly salient, and it points to an opportunity for Black-Asian solidarity that can present a substantive challenge to White supremacy.
Archaeologists have explored a wide range of topics regarding archaeological stone tools and their connection to past human lifeways through experimentation. Controlled experimentation systematically quantifies the empirical relationships among different flaking variables under a controlled and reproducible setting. This approach offers a platform to generate and test hypotheses about the technological decisions of past knappers from the perspective of basic flaking mechanics. Over the past decade, Harold Dibble and colleagues conducted a set of controlled flaking experiments to better understand flake variability using mechanical flaking apparatuses and standardized cores. Results of their studies underscore the dominant impact of exterior platform angle and platform depth on flake size and shape and have led to the synthesis of a flake formation model, namely the EPA-PD model. However, the results also illustrate the complexity of the flake formation process through the influence of other parameters such as core surface morphology and force application. Here we review the work of Dibble and colleagues on controlled flaking experiments by summarizing their findings to date. Our goal is to synthesize what was learned about flake variability from these controlled experiments to better understand the flake formation process. With this paper, we are including all of the data produced by these prior experiments and an explanation of the data in the Supplementary Information.
Electrospun polycaprolactone nanofibers were enzymatically degraded to evaluate the effect of post-draw processing and tension on the rate of degradation. Electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers were drawn to increasing lengths, then submerged in pseudomonas lipase (PS Lipase) solution for a 7-day period. The degradation process and extent of deterioration was evaluated by changes in mass, tensile strength, percent crystallinity, molecular weight, and macromolecular chain alignment on day 0, 3, and 7. The rate of degradation was dependent on the percent crystallinity of the fiber and the degree of alignment in crystalline and amorphous portions of the fiber. Post-drawn PCL fibers maintained mass and tensile strength over 7 days in PS Lipase, while undrawn fibers, degraded within 1 day. Pretension in fibers before enzymatic incubation was critical to maintain the macromolecular structure and tensile strength over the degradation period. Loss of mass and mechanical strength without molecular weight reduction indicated that degradation preceded via surface erosion of the material over time rather than enzyme penetration and bulk degradation. Measurement of crystallinity and chain alignment illustrated the effect of automated track drawing on the progression of crystal growth and chain alignment as well as the changes in macromolecular structure which occurred during the multi-day degradation period. Data Availability Statement Selected data is availible at Mendeley Data: https://data.mendeley.com/datasets/wsctdsdxpc/1
The advent of various in-game purchasing systems has led to several ethical concerns in contemporary gaming ecosystems, including the monetary dark patterns in game design and the potential harms on gamer welling by introducing cheating, gambling, and addictive mechanisms. These concerns have resulted in the rise of tensions regarding the impacts of in-game purchases on players who pay versus those who do not pay, such as their perceptions of "fairness" in highly competitive gaming contexts when spending is involved. Using 2,685 Reddit posts from five subreddits of popular online sports and card games that focus on player-to-player competition, we investigate how players of these games perceive fairness of their in-game purchases. This research expands our existing knowledge on ethical concerns and fairness in gaming by highlighting consumers' (players') diverse ethical judgments regarding the increasingly popular monetization mechanisms in modern gaming. It also highlights ethical dilemmas surrounding competition, spending, and enjoyment in online gaming and informs the design of future digital consumption systems for fairer, healthier, and more ethical gaming dynamics.
The aim of this study was to compare the warm-up effects of treadmill walking (TW) with a dynamic (DY) bodyweight warm-up on maximal aerobic exercise performance in children. Sixteen children (10.9 ± 1.5 vrs) were tested for peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) on 2 nonconsecutive days following different 6 min warm-up protocols. TW consisted of walking on a motor-driven treadmill at 2.2 mph and 0% grade whereas the DY warm-up consisted of 9 body weight movements including dynamic stretches, lunges, and jumps. Maximal heart rate was significantly higher following DY than TW (193.9 ± 6.2 vs. 191.6 ± 6.1 bpm, respectively; p = 0.008). VO2 peak (54.8 ± 9.6 vs. 51.8 ± 8.7 mL/kg/min; p = 0.09), maximal minute ventilation (68.9 ± 14.8 vs. 64.9 ± 9.4 L/min; p = 0.27), maximal respiratory exchange ratio (1.12 ± 0.1 vs. 1.11 ± 0.1; p = 0.85) and total exercise time (614.0 ± 77.1 vs. 605 ± 95.0 s; p = 0.55) did not differ significantly between DY and TM warm-ups, respectively. These findings indicate that the design of the warm-up protocol can influence the heart rate response to maximal aerobic exercise and has a tendency to influence VO2 peak. A DY warm-up could be a viable alternative to a TW warm-up prior to maximal exercise testing in children.
Over the past several decades, the value of drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs), a byproduct of the coagulation process during water purification, has been recognized in various environmental applications, including sustainable remediation of phosphorus (P)-enriched soils. Aluminum-based WTRs (Al-WTRs) are suitable adsorbent materials for P, which can be obtained and processed inexpensively. However, given their heterogeneous nature, it is essential to identify an easily analyzable chemical property that can predict the capability of Al-WTRs to bind P before soil amendment. To address this issue, thirteen Al-WTRs were collected from various geographical locations around the United States. The non-hazardous nature of the Al-WTRs was ascertained first. Then, their P adsorption capacities were determined, and the chemical properties likely to influence their adsorption capacities were examined. Statistical models were built to identify a single property to best predict the P adsorption capacity of the Al-WTRs. Results show that all investigated Al-WTRs are safe for environmental applications, and oxalate-extractable aluminum is a significant indicator of the P adsorption capacity of Al-WTRs (p-value = 0.0002, R2 = 0.7). This study is the first to report a simple chemical test that can be easily applied to predict the efficacy of Al-WTRs in binding P before their broadscale land application.
We study few-shot semantic segmentation that aims to segment a target object from a query image when provided with a few annotated support images of the target class. Several recent methods resort to a feature masking (FM) technique to discard irrelevant feature activations which eventually facilitates the reliable prediction of segmentation mask. A fundamental limitation of FM is the inability to preserve the fine-grained spatial details that affect the accuracy of segmentation mask, especially for small target objects. In this paper, we develop a simple, effective, and efficient approach to enhance feature masking (FM). We dub the enhanced FM as hybrid masking (HM). Specifically, we compensate for the loss of fine-grained spatial details in FM technique by investigating and leveraging a complementary basic input masking method. Experiments have been conducted on three publicly available benchmarks with strong few-shot segmentation (FSS) baselines. We empirically show improved performance against the current state-of-the-art methods by visible margins across different benchmarks. Our code and trained models are available at: https://github.com/moonsh/HM-Hybrid-MaskingKeywordsFew-shot segmentationSemantic segmentationFew-shot learning
The gaint cabailities of cloud computing in providing online services via Internet attract the attention of the distributed sector due to its huge abilities that include storage, processing, software, databases, and servers that are shared simultaneously over the Internet by remote users geographically dispersed. Increasing the enormous amount of generating data through big data platforms and the use of IoT devices connected via the network have exploited the computational power of the cloud. However, the high utilization of the cloud leads to a longer execution time for a specific task. This paper proposing the hybrid strategy of scheduling the workflow in cloud computing called Genetic Algorithm with Differential Evolution (GA-DE). This research aims to investigate how heterogeneous cloud computing affects workflow scheduling. This study is aimed at reducing makespan and verifying if the metaheuristic technology is more suitable for the distributed environment by comparing it to existing heuristics, such as HEFT-Downward Rank,HEFT-Upward Rank,HEFT-Level Rank, and meta-heuristic algorithm GA. The proposed algorithm is validated through extensive experiments compared to three scientific workflows (Epigenomics,Cybershake,and Montage). Based on the simulation result GA-DE algorithm proves its superiority against the other comparing algorithms in term of makespan. Furthermore, the conducted experiment proves that montage scientific workflow is more proper for executing workflow scheduling in heterogeneous cloud computing.
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2,961 members
Carole Kenner
  • School of Nursing and Health Sciences
Carolina Borges
  • Department of Public Health
Jarret T Crawford
  • Department of Psychology
Jie Kang
  • Department of Health and Exercise Science
Lynn Waterhouse
  • Graduate Global Studies
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