The Republic of South Africa has the highest documented fetal alcohol syndrome prevalence globally. In the Limpopo province, little is known about students’ or community members’ knowledge of fetal alcohol syndrome or fetal alcohol spectrum disorder rates and risk behaviors. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare knowledge about fetal alcohol syndrome and other fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and the related behaviors such as drinking among University of Venda students and local community residents in villages to inform educational efforts to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome. Participants ([Formula: see text]) were from the University of Venda and two villages, Maungani and Ha-Mangilasi, and completed an epidemiological survey about their characteristics, behaviors, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder risks. We analyzed differences between the university students and community residents in fetal alcohol syndrome knowledge and the related risk behaviors. University students have heard of fetal alcohol syndrome (Fisher’s exact test p < .001), have seen warning labels about drinking during pregnancy (Fisher’s exact test p = .003), and were aware that a baby is born with birth defects if diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome (Fisher’s exact test p = .03) with more knowledge of fetal alcohol syndrome compared to community residents. Most respondents thought it was unacceptable to drink during pregnancy. Despite this, a substantial number of participants thought it was acceptable to have one drink after pregnancy recognition. There was little knowledge of best practices about alcohol consumption to prepare for pregnancy, or once recognized. We recommend an education campaign to raise awareness of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders across Limpopo, especially in smaller villages, and further research to determine demographic and experiential risk factors to aid in prevention efforts.
Background The silver wattle Acacia dealbata is a fast-growing tree from Australia that has become naturalised in different regions of the world, attaining invasive status in most of them. In Chile, A. dealbata reaches large abundances along banks and floodplains of invaded fluvial systems, suggesting that rivers may act as a vector for seed dispersal. As hydrochory has not been documented previously in this species, the aim of this study is to evaluate the potential for water dispersal of seeds of this invasive tree along rivers. Methods Seed samples from rivers were collected at three sites along two A. dealbata -invaded rivers within the Cachapoal basin, central Chile. Number of seeds collected was contrasted versus hydraulic and local conditions with RDA. Seed buoyancy and sedimentation velocity were determined and compared between sites with an ANCOVA. Finally, the probability of seed germination after long periods of immersion in water was assessed, simulating transport conditions in the flow. Germination results were tested with a GLM. Results Results indicate that increasing abundance of A. dealbata seeds in the flow is related to the level of turbulence of the flow. Seeds display high floatability but their sedimentation velocity is high when they do sink. Finally, silver wattle seeds can germinate after long periods (many weeks) of immersion in water; however, their probability of germination depends to a large extent on whether seeds are scarified or not. Conclusions Based on the evidence collected, we suggest that the seeds of A. dealbata have the necessary traits to be dispersed by rivers, this being the first research testing this hypothesis. The success of hydrochory of A. dealbata would depend on river flow turbulence, and whether there are natural mechanisms for scarifying the seeds either before or during transport. The proposed methodology can be used to assess river hydrochory for any tree species.
The current study examined the extent to which sixth grade students used their pre-existing topic beliefs to guide comprehension of semantic ideas within multiple conflicting texts, and the sources providing them. Adolescents completed an inventory assessing their pre-reading topic beliefs one week prior to the study. During the study, students read 6 controversial texts, completed an assessment of their metacognitive awareness during reading, and wrote an essay from memory based on information provided by the texts. A between-participants manipulation tasked adolescents to read opposing stances in an alternating format, or to read all arguments for one side prior to switching to the opposing arguments. Regarding the results, the extent of adolescents’ pro-vegetarian topic beliefs predicted their taking a pro-vegetarian stance, inclusion of more belief-consistent and fewer belief-inconsistent (pro-meat) ideas, and fewer mentions of sources in the essays. The extent of adolescents’ topic beliefs also positively predicted expressions of metacognitive awareness during reading. When contradictory stances were experienced in an alternating format, adolescents included more source information in their written essays than when they read all arguments for one side prior to switching to the opposing arguments. The findings have important implications for theories of multiple text comprehension and applications for adolescents’ everyday reading experiences on the web.
Vegetation-coverage research shows China’s significant 25% contribution to global greening. Vegetation is the link between water, soil and atmosphere, making it an important indicator of changes in anthropogenic factors. Anthropogenic attribution analysis of vegetation change helps us to identify and estimate the relationship between vegetation change and major ecological projects, and their corresponding relationship may be the antecedents and consequences of vegetation dynamics. This study assessed the increment and change rate of fractional vegetation cover (FVC) in 2000–2020 in China. The influences of land types and major ecological projects were systematically compared to assess the vegetation-human nexus. China has experienced progressive greening in the study period with regional variations in patterns and causes. The FVC changes and spatio-temporal variations were induced by notable human activities such as land-use conversion, China’s afforestation programs (CAP), Ant Forest Project (AFP), and Conversion of Cropland to Forest Program (CCFP). The North region recorded the highest change rate. The area changes in cropland, grassland, and forest were the main FVC drivers. The average FVC change rate of CAP changed very high in 21 years. The AFP exerted significant impacts on FVC changes. The CCFP effectively promoted FVC improvements from the low, medium and high grades to the very high coverage grade. These comparative trends illustrated the intricate relationships between anthropogenic factors and greening. The findings could enhance the prediction and evaluation of vegetation-cover dynamics under anthropogenic changes and the implementation and management of afforestation programs.
Background Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infects ~ 35% of Americans and can lead to serious sequelae if left untreated. Growing evidence indicates that clarithromycin-based therapies (CBT) are becoming increasingly ineffective for treating H. pylori infection. RHB-105 was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2019 for the treatment of H. pylori infection in adults.AimsThe primary aim of this study was to assess prescribing patterns and associated cure rates of physician-directed therapy for subjects with persistent H. pylori infection after participation in one of two Phase 3 clinical trials (ERADICATE Hp and ERADICATE Hp2).Methods We reviewed study reports to identify specific physician-directed regimens selected for subjects whose H. pylori infection was not eradicated. We also conducted a CYP2C19 genotype analysis of subjects who were prescribed CBT. Finally, we analyzed real-world H. pylori retail prescription data and compared these with to the physician-directed therapies in the clinical trials studies.ResultsFollowing ERADICATE Hp, CBT was prescribed for 27/31 (87%) subjects achieving a 59.3% cure rate. Following ERADICATE Hp2, CBT was prescribed for 48/94 (51%) subjects achieving a 60.4% cure rate. Rapid CYP2C19 metabolizers (2/11) had a cure rate of 18.2% with CBT. Real-world prescription data from IQVIA showed more than 80% of prescriptions for H. pylori infection were for CBT.Conclusions Rates of CBT use persist despite sub-optimal eradication rates. Since RHB-105 does not contain clarithromycin, it can be prescribed first-line without concerns about clarithromycin resistance or CYP2C19 status.NCT03198507 & NCT01980095.
This study assessed the factor structure of a novel self-report measure of weight- and shape-based social identity threat vulnerability, Social Identities and Attitudes Scale-Weight and Body Shape (SIAS-WBS). Weight and race diverse young adults (N = 542; Mage=21.69 +2.32; 69% ciswomen) were recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk and a university participant pool. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, measurement invariance, internal consistency, convergent validity, and test-retest reliability were conducted. The SIAS-WBS had acceptable factor structure with 15 subscales that were invariant across race, ethnicity, gender, weight perception, and CDC-defined weight groups. The measure demonstrated high internal consistency, convergent validity, and good test-retest reliability. Subscales were Weight & Shape Identification (Influence and Centrality), Weight & Shape Stigma Consciousness, six identification and six negative affect factors across the domains of: Social, Familial, Romantic, Intellectual, Physical Activity, and Physical Attractiveness. Participants in higher weight groups who perceived themselves as lower weight status, reported lower Weight & Shape Identification-Influence (p = 0.02) and lower Stigma Consciousness (p = 0.01), relative to those perceiving themselves as higher weight status. Participants perceiving themselves as higher weight status endorsed lower Physical Activity Identification (p < 0.001) and more negative affect across all domains (p’s < 0.02). This suggests that weight misperceivers may be less susceptible to weight-based identity threat.
Introduction: Despite broad consensus about multicultural experience's benefits, there is a lack of research on the antecedents to multicultural experiences. Research has indicated that awe shifts attention away from the self towards larger entities, which could include elements of other cultures. Methods: Four studies (N = 2,915) tested whether trait, daily, and induced awe promoted multicultural experience. Results: Studies 1-2 (adolescents, young, middle, and older adults) showed that trait awe predicted greater multicultural identity and experience independent of other positive emotions and openness. Study 3 (students & adults in U.S. & Malaysia) demonstrated that daily awe predicted more daily multicultural experience independent of yesterday's multicultural experience. These results were explained by trait and daily curiosity. Study 4 (adults) found that induction of awe increased state multicultural identity and experience via state curious emotions and then state curious personality. Conclusion: We found that experiencing more awe can be a tool for enhancing the multicultural experience. The discussion focuses on the implications for future research on awe and multicultural experiences.
By guiding cell and chemical migration and coupling with genetic mechanisms, bioelectric networks of potentials influence biological pattern formation and are known to have profound effects on growth processes. An abstract model that is amenable to exact analysis has been proposed in the circuit tile assembly model (cTAM) to understand self-assembled and self-controlled growth as an emergent phenomenon that is capable of complex behaviors, like self-replication. In the cTAM, a voltage source represents a finite supply of energy that drives growth until it is unable to overcome randomizing factors in the environment, represented by a threshold. Here, the cTAM is extended to the axon or alternating cTAM model (acTAM) to include a circuit similar to signal propagation in axons, exhibiting time-varying electric signals and a dependence on frequency of the input voltage. The acTAM produces systems of circuits whose electrical properties are coupled to their length as growth proceeds through self-assembly. The exact response is derived for increasingly complex circuit systems as the assembly proceeds. The model exhibits complicated behaviors that elucidate the interactive role of energy, environment, and noise with electric signals in axon-like circuits during biological growth of complex patterns and function.
1. Invasive plants are a major problem for land managers and have widespread and lasting environmental impacts. The invasive shrub Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) is a pervasive and noxious plant in the Midwest region of the United States. 2. Despite this, many land managers may be uncomfortable with herbicide control of this and other invasive plants due to unknown impacts on ecosystem components including soils. 3. To examine if herbicide control of Amur honeysuckle impacts soil enzyme activity and soil communities, we treated Amur honeysuckle with Garlon ® 4 (triclopyr) suspended in Basal Bark Oil, Basal Bark Oil alone and untreated controls, then assessed soil community, soil enzyme activity and arbuscular mycorrhizal density changes among treatments and across the subsequent growing season. 4. We found that basal bark herbicide treatments of Amur honeysuckle do not negatively impact soil enzyme activity, nor do they impact fungal, prokaryotic or oomycotan diversity or community structure. There was a slight but likely ecologically unimportant effect on community structure associated with basal bark oil applications, but not with herbicide applications. Arbuscular mycorrhizal coloniza-tion was negatively affected by herbicide use but this is likely due to reduction in host health and/or mortality. 5. Taken together, this suggests that herbicide control of Amur honeysuckle does not impact soils and land managers can treat these invasive plants without concern for negative soil outcomes.
Postsecondary institutions’ responses to COVID-19 are a topic of immediate relevance. Emergent research suggests that partisanship was more strongly linked to institutions offering in-person instruction for Fall 2020 than was COVID-19. Using data from the College Crisis Initiative and a multiple group structural equation modeling approach, we tested the relationships between our outcome of interest (in-person instruction in Fall 2020) and state and county sociopolitical features, state and county COVID-19 rates, and state revenue losses. Our full-sample model suggested that County Political Preferences had the strongest association with in-person instruction, followed by Pandemic Severity and State Sociopolitical Features. Because institutional sectors may be uniquely sensitive to these factors, we tested our models separately on 4-year public, 4-year private, and 2-year public and 2-year private institutions. State Sociopolitical Features were significantly related to in-person instruction for 4-year private and 2-year public institutions but were strongest for 4-year public institutions. For 4-year private and 2-year public institutions, County Political Preferences’ effect sizes were 2–3 times stronger than effects from State Sociopolitical Features. Pandemic Severity was significantly, negatively related to in-person instruction for 4-year private and 2-year public institutions–similar in magnitude to State Sociopolitical Features. Our analysis revealed that COVID-19 played a stronger role in determining in-person instruction in Fall 2020 than initial research using less sophisticated methods suggested—and while State Sociopolitical Features may have played a role in the decision, 4-year private and 2-year public institutions were more sensitive to county-level preferences.
Background Forecasts about the future can dictate actions and behaviors performed in the present moment. Given that periods of elevated acute suicide risk often consist of elevated negative affect and hopelessness, individuals during these periods may more bias-prone and make decisions (e.g., suicide attempts) based on inaccurate affective forecasts about their futures (e.g., overestimating future pain/psychiatric symptom severity). The aim of this study was to examine the accuracy of hopelessness in predicting future feelings—an important step for understanding possible decision-making biases that may occur near elevated periods of acute suicide risk. Methods Secondary longitudinal data analyses were performed on two randomized clinical trial samples of active-duty military personnel (Ns = 97 and 172) with past-week suicide ideation and/or a lifetime suicide attempt history. Results Results were consistent with the affective forecasting literature; in both samples, individuals overestimated future pain. Conclusions Results from two studies offer preliminary evidence for the existence of affective forecasting errors near the time of a suicide attempt/during periods of elevated suicide risk.
In rodents, defensive behaviors increase the chances of survival during a predator encounter. Observable rodent defensive behaviors have been shown to be influenced by the presence of predator odors and nearby environmental cues such as cover, odors from conspecifics and food availability. Our experiment tested whether a predator scent cue influenced refuge preference in meadow voles within a laboratory setting. We placed voles in an experimental apparatus with bedding soaked in mink scent versus olive oil as a control across from four tubes that either contained (a) a dark plastic covering, (b) opposite-sex conspecific odor, (c) a food pellet, or (d) an empty, unscented space. A three-way interaction of tube contents, subject sex, and the presence of mink or olive oil on the preference of meadow voles to spend time in each area of the experimental apparatus and their latency to enter each area of the apparatus revealed sex differences in the environmental preference of meadow voles facing the risk of predation. The environmental preference of female, but not male, meadow voles was altered by the presence of mink urine or olive oil. A similar trend was found in the latency of males and females to enter each area of the experimental apparatus. These differences suggest that each sex utilizes different methods to increase their fitness when experiencing a predation risk. The observed sex differences may be explained by the natural history of voles owing to the differences in territorial range and the dynamics of evasion of terrestrial predators.
Because of soft tissue constraints, definitive management of hindfoot trauma occasionally requires a direct posterior approach via a coronal split of the Achilles tendon. This article and the accompanying video demonstrate a direct posterior approach for subtalar distraction arthrodesis and review treatment decisions involved with management of these complex cases.
Introduction Low-frequency noise (LFN) is hazardous to hearing. Long-term exposure to LFN may lead to vibroacoustic disease (VAD), which not only affects a specific organ but the physiological function of entire systems, such as the auditory, phonatory, respiratory, and cardiac systems. Moreover, VAD may lead to many psychological problems and hence affect the quality of life. Objective To investigate the adverse effects of LFN on hearing, acoustic and perceptual correlates of the voice, blood pressure, cardiac rate, and anxiety level. Method A total of 20 subjects exposed to LFN and 20 not exposed to LFN were included, and a detailed case history was recorded. The patients were submitted to pure tone audiometry, otoscopic examination, acoustic and perceptual analyses of the voice, maximum phonation time, and an assessment of the s/z ratio. We also assessed blood pressure, and the results of a voice-related quality of life questionnaire and of the Hamilton anxiety rating scale. Results The results indicate that LFN had an adverse impact on the high-frequency threshold. The present study found a significant difference in shimmer and harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR) values. Few subjects had high blood pressure and showed the sign of anxiety on the Hamilton anxiety rating scale. Conclusion Low-frequency noise has adverse effects on entire systems of the body and causes many psychological issues, which, in turn negatively affect quality of life.
Purpose To test the Clustered Cardiometabolic Risk (CCMR) factor explaining relationships between physical activity and physical quality of life (QOL). Methods Using the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006, 2,445 adults completed the CDC Healthy Days Questionnaire for measuring QOL, wore the accelerometer for assessing physical activity pattern (PAP), and completed triglyceride, glucose, serum insulin, waist circumference, blood pressure, and HDL-cholesterol tests from which the CCMR factor was created. Physical QOL was classified as poor (≥14 days with poor physical health within past 30 days) vs. good (<14 days). We classified PAP by moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity (LIPA), and sedentary behavior (SB). We defined MVPA, LIPA, and SB as ≥2020 counts/minute, 100–2019 counts/minute, and ≤99 counts/minute, respectively. We further classified PAP status as unhealthy (MVPA <150 minutes/week & SB>LIPA) or healthy (MVPA <150 minutes/week & SB<LIPA, or MVPA ≥150 minutes/week regardless of SB>LIPA or SB<LIPA). Logistic regressions analyzed the association of unhealthy PAP with poor physical QOL, adjusting for the CCMR factor, age, sex, education, and smoking behavior. Results Compared with having healthy PAP, individuals having unhealthy PAP had an elevated risk of poor physical QOL (OR = 1.96; 95%CI = 1.42–2.72). However, this association was explained by higher levels of CCMR factor (OR = 1.46; 95%CI = 1.07–1.99), through poorer serum insulin (OR = 1.35; 95%CI = 1.04–1.75) and waist circumference (OR = 1.23; 95%CI = 1.02–1.50). Conclusion The CCMR factor (typically insulin, waist circumference) explained associations between unhealthy physical activity and poor physical QOL.
In present research, the effect of building orientation on microstructure, texture and mechanical properties of a low carbon maraging steel processed by selective laser melting (SLM) technique is studied. The microstructural characterization and grain structure observations of the fabricated samples are conducted using electron microscopies and electron backscatter diffraction. It is observed that by altering the building orientation from vertical to horizontal, the morphology of the grains changes from columnar-dendritic to equiaxed. In addition, a higher volume fraction of austenite is retained in the horizontal sample compared with the vertically printed sample due to a faster cooling rate, higher degree of micro-segregation, and smaller prior austenite grains. Consequently, a higher strength and better ductility are achieved in the horizontally printed sample. The Taylor factorshows that different obtained tensile properties are not related to the crystallographic texture but are affected by grain size, retained austenite, and stress concentration conditions.
Purpose Radiation treatment interruption associated with unplanned hospitalization remains understudied. The intent of this study was to benchmark frequency of hospitalization-associated radiotherapy interruptions (HARTI), characterize disease processes causing hospitalization during radiation, identify factors predictive for HARTI, and localize neighborhood environments associated with HARTI at our academic referral center. Methods Retrospective review of electronic health records provided descriptive statistics of HARTI event rates in our institutional practice. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were developed to identify significant factors predictive for HARTI. Causes of hospitalization were established from primary discharge diagnoses. HARTI rates were mapped according to patient residence addresses. Results Between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2017, 197 (5.3%) HARTI events were captured across 3,729 patients with 727 total missed treatments. The three most common causes of hospitalization were malnutrition/dehydration (n=28, 17.7%), respiratory distress/infection (n=24, 13.7%), and fever/sepsis (n=17, 9.7%). Factors predictive for HARTI included African American race (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.07-2.06; P = 0.018), Medicaid/uninsured status (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.32-3.15; P = 0.0013), Medicare coverage (OR 1.7; 95% CI, 1.21-2.39, P = 0.0022), lung (OR 5.97; 95% CI, 3.22-11.44; P < 0.0001) and head and neck (OR 5.6; 95% CI, 2.96-10.93; P < 0.0001) malignancies, and prescriptions greater than 20 fractions (OR 2.23; 95% CI, 1.51-3.34; P < 0.0001). HARTI events clustered among 1) Medicaid/uninsured patients living in urban, low-income, majority-African American neighborhoods, and 2) patients from middle-income suburban communities, independent of race and insurance status. Only the wealthiest residential areas demonstrated low HARTI rates. Conclusion HARTI disproportionately impacted socioeconomically disadvantaged urban patients facing high treatment burden in our catchment population. Complementary geospatial analysis also captured risk experienced by middle-income suburban patients independent of race or insurance status. Confirmatory studies are warranted to provide scale and context to guide intervention strategies to equitably reduce HARTI events.
The present study explores the usages of the Roman alphabet within the writing system of Japanese. Japanese is typically said to have three types of characters in its writing system: hiragana, katakana, and kanji. However, the Roman alphabet is also commonly used in Japanese for various purposes along with other types of characters in Japanese. The present study argues that with the recent surge in electronic communication, the writing practice of Japanese is transitioning from vertical writing to horizontal writing, and this transition allows more foreign words and expressions written in the Roman alphabet to be used within Japanese without being converted into katakana loanwords. The present study also discusses the influence of the ever-increasing international interaction to the usages of the Roman alphabet within Japanese.
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