The Open University of Sri Lanka
  • Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte, Sri Lanka
Recent publications
This study aims to determine the differences in skull between Asian and golden palm civets by geometric morphometric method. The landmarks were marked on these photographs, and principal component, classical cluster and canonical variance analyses were performed. The method of geometric morphometry of the skull is a powerful tool used to differentiate the species. Fourteen and 20 homologous landmarks were marked using tpsutil and tpsdig2 programs on the frontal and palatinal directional photographs, respectively. As a result of the study, the first principal component (PC1) accounted for 33.586% on the frontal view, 41.602% on the palatinal view of the total shape differences, respectively. Distinctive differences on the frontal and palatinal view were observed in the caudal, rostrolateral and the last molars and the caudal palatine, respectively.
To understand dynamics of the COVID‐19 disease realistically, a new SEIAPHR model has been proposed in this article where the infectious individuals have been categorized as symptomatic, asymptomatic, and super‐spreaders. The model has been investigated for existence of a unique solution. To measure the contagiousness of COVID‐19, reproduction number R0$$ {\mathcal{R}}_0 $$ is also computed using next generation matrix method. It is shown that the model is locally stable at disease‐free equilibrium point when R0<1$$ {\mathcal{R}}_0<1 $$ and unstable for R0>1$$ {\mathcal{R}}_0>1 $$. The model has been analyzed for global stability at both of the disease‐free and endemic equilibrium points. Sensitivity analysis is also included to examine the effect of parameters of the model on reproduction number R0$$ {\mathcal{R}}_0 $$. A couple of optimal control problems have been designed to study the effect of control strategies for disease control and eradication from the society. Numerical results show that the adopted control approaches are much effective in reducing new infections.
Objectives: We aim to find out the prevalence, characteristics, and predictors of workplace violence (WPV) against current Chinese emergency department (ED) nurses. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 20,136 ED nurses was conducted in 31 provinces in China between July and September 2019. Descriptive analyses were used to examine the prevalence and characteristics of WPV. Chi-square analysis and Binary logistic regression analysis were used to identify the predictors of WPV. Results: During the past 12 months, there are 79.39% of ED nurses exposed to any type of WPV, including 78.38% and 39.65% exposed to nonphysical and physical violence, respectively. Binary logistic regression analysis shows that ED nurses who were male, had bachelor’s degrees, had average monthly salary between 5,001 and 12,000, worked in central China, had higher professional titles, were more experienced, arranging shift work, and had higher work stress were more likely to experience WPV. Conclusion: A relatively high prevalence of WPV against Chinese ED nurses has been revealed in this study. The characteristics and predictors of WPV remind us to take positive measures to reduce WPV.
Covid-19 can be considered an unexpected disaster for the entire world. Still, professionals are calculating the consequence and effects in terms of different dimensions. The developing countries have been badly got affected by this pandemic. As the world bank predicts the most damaging effects of this crisis will however only be visible in the longer run. Sri Lanka also had the same effect as Covid-19 and the country has to have proper administration with given recourses. In this scenario, the role played by the Sri Lankan military cannot be underestimated. Aligning with the negative impact of the economy, lack of medical facilities in an obvious public health crisis, it was the military that provided answers to many issues such as building temporary quarantine centers, repairing existing medical centers and hospitals, building beds and other immediately necessary equipment, maintaining supply chains, helping the police to maintain law and order in the country, identifying and preventing the spread of cultures. This article discusses public administration in Sri Lanka and how militarily has assisted in vaccination program by shedding light on Sri Lanka success in vaccination program with some other best practices as well.
This article addresses on history of mathematics (specially one of its specific branch, geometry) in Sri Lanka. Despite the large amount of research on the history of mathematics in India, China and the Middle East, that on Sri Lanka still remains limited. Sri Lanka had close relations with all these regions from ancient times and knowldge on mathematics should not be an alien subject there. This article tries to address the paucity of research on the history of mathematics in Sri Lanka while emphasizing the local character of that ancient knowldge.
The Indian pangolin (Manis crassicaudata) is a solitary, medium–sized mammal native to South Asia. In this study we used camera trap data recorded during a meso–mammal survey conducted from January 2019 to January 2021 to assess the occupancy, habitat associations, population density and activity patterns of Indian pangolins in Maduru Oya National Park (MONP), Sri Lanka. The preferred habitat of the species was dry–mixed forest with an occupancy probability of 0.42 ± 0.19. Occupancy modeling revealed the association of the species with the forested habitats of the park with rich canopy cover, high NDVI scores and abundant termite mounds. Activity of this pangolin was highly nocturnal, reaching a peak after midnight. We observed a considerable spatiotemporal overlap in Indian pangolin activity and human activity, possibly increasing hunting pressure on the species. We estimated occupancy and abundance–based population density (0.73 ± 0.21 indiv./km2) using the random encounter model for the first time in the study area. These findings could be useful for conservation and management decisions concerning the survival and vital habitats of one of the most trafficked mammals in the world, the Indian pangolin. Resumen Los datos obtenidos con cámaras de trampeo revelan la asociación con los hábitats, las pautas de actividad y la densidad de población del pangolín indio (Manis crassicaudata) en parque nacional Maduru Oya, en Sri Lanka. El pangolín indio (Manis crassicaudata) es un mamífero solitario de talla media nativo de Asia meridional. En el presente estudio utilizamos datos obtenidos mediante cámaras de trampeo durante un estudio sobre mesomamíferos realizado entre enero de 2019 y enero de 2021, con la finalidad de evaluar la ocupación, la asociación con los hábitats, la densidad de población y las pautas de actividad del pangolín indio en el parque nacional Maduru Oya, en Sri Lanka. El hábitat preferido de la especie fue el bosque mixto–seco con una probabilidad de ocupación de 0,42 ± 0,19. Los modelos de ocupación revelaron la asociación de la especie con los hábitats forestales del parque dotados de una cubierta de dosel abundante, un elevado índice normalizado diferencial de la vegetación y gran cantidad de termiteros. La actividad del pangolín indio fue predominantemente nocturna y alcanzó su máximo después de la medianoche. Observamos una superposición espaciotemporal considerable de la actividad del pangolín indio con la actividad humana, lo que puede crear una cierta presión cinegética sobre la especie. La ocupación de la especie y su densidad de población basada en la abundancia (0,73 ± 0,21 indiv./km2) se obtuvieron siguiendo el modelo de encuentro aleatorio por primera vez en la zona de estudio. Los resultados de este estudio serán de utilidad para tomar decisiones relativas a la conservación y la gestión de uno de los mamíferos silvestres con los que más se trafica en el mundo (el pangolín indio) y los hábitats vitales para su supervivencia.
Epigenetics regulates gene expression through post-translational modification of protein complexes accompanying DNA. The most significant modification in histone protein is deacetylation, regulated by HDAC enzyme. This study focuses on the HDAC inhibitors' effect on the HDLP enzyme's stability. Ab initio quantum mechanics (QM), Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM), and Molecular dynamics (MD) analyses were executed to investigate the changes that occur in the HDLP enzyme due to inhibitor binding. LBH589, PCI24781, PXD101, LAQ824, SB939, and RAS2410 were selected as inhibitors, and SAHA was used as a reference inhibitor. The crystal structure of the HDLP enzyme was obtained from the Protein Data Bank, and the inhibitor structures were optimized using G09W. AutoDock-Vina was used to perform docking, and the resultant complex was used to perform MD simulation. The QM/MM two-layer binding energy studies revealed that the stabilities of HDLP-LBH589 and HDLP-PCI24781 are higher than the other studied complexes. Also, it was found that the pKa values of the inhibitors are correlated with their binding energy. Further, the trajectory analysis results showed that the complexes of HDLP with LBH589, PCI24781, and SAHA are comparatively more stable. Therefore, it is concluded that LBH589 and PCI24781 are excellent candidates to be studied as HDLP inhibitors.
Shoreline analysis helps to understand the coastal dynamism for decision making in coastal management. As there are still doubts in transect-based analysis, this study attempts to understand the influence of transect intervals in shoreline analysis. Shorelines were delineated on high-resolution satellite images in Google Earth Pro for twelve beaches in Sri Lanka under different spatial and temporal scales. Shoreline change statistics were calculated using Digital Shoreline Analysis System in ArcGIS 10.5.1 software under 50 transect interval scenarios and influence of the transect interval for shoreline change statistics were interpreted using standard statistical methods. Transect Interval Error was calculated with respect to the 1 m scenario as this has the best beach representation. Results revealed that there is no any significant difference (p > 0.05) of shoreline change statistics between 1 m scenarios and 50 m scenario in each beach. Further, it was found that the error was extremely low up to 10 m scenario and then after it was subject to fluctuate in an unpredictable manner (R2 < 0.5). Overall, the study concludes that the influence of the transect interval is negligible and 10 m transect interval is ideal in shoreline analysis for the highest efficacy in small sandy beaches.
Geographies of exclusion (e.g., segregated special education classrooms, school district zoning) are constituted through intersecting oppressive ideologies (e.g., ableism, racism, classism) that co-naturalize notions of “normalcy” and deviance and yield harmful consequences for disabled children of Color. Geographies of exclusion dynamically contribute to and constitute teacher candidates’ feelings about themselves and their social worlds. White teacher candidates’ investment in dominant racial ideologies is well-documented, and recent scholarship has interrogated the role of white emotionality in these processes. However, the extent to which white teacher candidates emotionally ascribe to oppressive constructions of ability have been underexamined. We sought to uncover how white teacher candidates (TCs) used emotional practices to position themselves in relation to ability within geographies of exclusion as they narrated their educational journeys. Such an examination is necessary to upend ongoing constructions of racial-ability hierarchies in and through teacher education. Using disability critical race theory and emotional geographies, our study was guided by the following question: How do white, nondisabled TCs engage in emotional practices in relation to geographies of exclusion? This critical narrative study took place in two teacher education programs in the Pacific Northwest with 42 white, nondisabled teacher candidates. We drew on qualitative mapping as a method for participants to tell stories about themselves and their relationships to places and people over time. All participants generated narratives through written reflections after creating their maps, clarifying aspects of their maps and providing details not captured in their visual representations. Data sources included 42 written narratives and 36 qualitative maps. We analyzed emotional dimensions of TCs’ written narratives and qualitative maps through multiple rounds of both deductive and inductive coding. Our analysis revealed ways white TCs weaponized emotionality to uphold racial-ability hierarchies through emotional geographies of gratitude, ambivalence, and claims to care. By sentimentalizing multiply-marginalized children’s suffering, TCs preserved a façade of being committed to educational justice. We conclude with suggestions for educational researchers, emphasizing that research with white teachers cannot ignore emotional practices that perpetuate harm for multiply-marginalized children. Instead, researchers must surface these engagements head-on, using DisCrit as a driver in teacher education research toward intersectional justice.
Introduction Placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) is associated with a multitude of maternal and fetal complications. Events related to its management have resulted in significant psychological morbidity, with lifelong consequences which warrant continuous support to cope with their lives. The objective of the study is to highlight the importance of multidisciplinary holistic care and explore room for improvement in the provision of care for women with PAS. Methods Our study was conducted on deliveries complicated with PAS from January 2019 to June 2021. 27 women were diagnosed with PAS during this period and received treatment. Impact of life event scale- revised (IES-R) and short form health survey-36(SF-36) questionnaires were administered to assess the impact of PAS on their lives. In depth interviews were conducted with the women. A multidisciplinary team meeting was later conducted to formulate a comprehensive care plan for women with PAS. Results The response rate was 96.2%. Mean age of the sample is 34.1 years (SD 4.3). Interval to current pregnancy varies from 0.6 years to 10 years with mean of 4.6 years. Mean gestational age of diagnosis of PAS was 25.4(SD 6.7) weeks. The care bundle provided for women with PAS was evaluated in all cases. Surgery was conducted electively in 82% of patients. Blood transfusions were noted in 85%. Mean pre-operative stay was 9.5 days (SD 8.3) and mean post-operative stay was 8.8 days (SD 8). Total hospital stay ranged from 6 to 48 days (mean 19.5 days, SD 11.4). IES-R scores were significant in 4/26 patients. There was no correlation with the interval from the surgery with any of the subscales or with the total scores. The lapsed time after the surgery had a significant correlation with physical functioning and pain domains of the SF-36 questionnaire. Description of the experience, loss of femininity with loss of the uterus, concerns and fears about the future and measures to improve the quality of care were the themes identified and described. A multidisciplinary team meeting, consisting of consultant obstetricians performing surgery for PAS, anesthetists, hematologist, transfusion medicine specialist, urologist, physiotherapist, nutritionist and nursing officers from ICU and wards, was held and their contributions helped to map out a definitive care plan. Conclusions PAS is associated with long term physical and psychological morbidity. Continuous support through quarterly clinic visits and telephone conversations may alleviate the psychological trauma. However, some physical disabilities may be lifelong and life changing. Importance of reducing primary caesarean section and promoting trial of labour after caesarean delivery should be promoted among patients and caregivers.
COVID19 outbreak brought about many challenges including the shifting of university assessments to conduct in online mode. This research study tries to explore the impact of newly designed online formative assessments on students’ learning, in a Plant Physiology course. The designing of assessments were carried out focusing on constructive alignment, for which an Open Book Test (OBT) was conducted in three parts: OBT1 –problem based learning assignment, providing feedback using a rubric; OBT2 –multiple choice, multi response, matching and missing word questions with immediate feedback; OBT3 –analysing research results with MCQs and short answer questions with feedback. A mixed approach of convergent parallel design method was followed to collect data through two questionnaires and interviews. Findings indicated students’ engagement in self- determined learning in solving a real-world problem and their enthusiasm in learning with research-based questions in assessments, while self-assessing their performance through feedback. However, geographically varied technological challenges need to be addressed in conducting successful online assessments.
Aims and objectives: To test whether the revised Wilson and Cleary model could identify which factors contribute to health-related quality of life in chronic kidney disease. Background: Chronic kidney disease affects a person's health-related quality of life detrimentally although nursing practice informed by theory is only beginning to emerge. Design: A cross-sectional study reported using the STROBE guidelines. Methods: About 886 participants with chronic kidney disease (varying grades) completed validated measures of symptoms (renal version of the Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale), and general health perceptions and health-related quality of life (European Quality of Life five-dimension three-level). Socio-demographic and renal characteristics were also collected. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and structural equation modelling. Results: Biological function (decreased kidney function and haemoglobin and greater number of comorbidities), directly contributed to increased symptom burden. Symptoms demonstrated strong negative relationships with both general health perceptions and health-related quality of life. General health perceptions had a direct positive relationship with health-related quality of life. As age increased, health-related quality of life decreased. The only environmental characteristic of significance was the distance between home and hospital although it was not directly associated with health-related quality of life. Overall, the model explained approximately half of the deterioration in health-related quality of life. Conclusions: The model demonstrated how various factors influence alteration of health-related quality of life in people with chronic kidney disease. Early identification of these factors could assist nurses to introduce effective management strategies into patient care plans proactively. Relevance to clinical practice: Comprehensive symptom assessment needs to occur not only in kidney failure but in earlier chronic kidney disease grades to enable timely interventions targeted at improving people's wellbeing. Patient or public contribution: Validated interviewer administered questionnaires were completed by participants with chronic kidney disease in this study.
As a measure of reducing the foreign trade deficit and to augment the usable land for commercial plantations, nineteenth century British authorities attempted to restore the irrigation system that prevailed in Sri Lanka since the Early Historic Period. In so doing, neither the system components were subjected to any hydraulic engineering analysis nor the entire systems were studied in a holistic context. The open well structure, called bisokotuva, of the ancient sluices was interpreted as the equivalent of the modern valve pits. With this understanding, ancient sluices were restored by installing the flow control gates inside the bisokotuvas. This article argues that such understanding was not based on the actual physical remains of the ancient works but was due to the colonial precept of controlled flows of irrigated water. It also discusses similar cases in several other Asian countries and how such assertions affected the European understanding on the Asian societies.
Purpose The purpose of this study is to identify the learner characteristics attributable to the likelihood and the duration of programme completion in the Bachelor of Science (BSc) and Bachelor of Technology Honours in Engineering (BTech) degree programmes of the Open University of Sri Lanka (OUSL). Design/methodology/approach Data were gathered from the re-registrants for the degree programmes in the academic year 2020/2021, using a questionnaire developed as a Google form. The sample consisted of 301 and 516 re-registrants from the BTech and BSc programmes respectively. Influential factors were identified using Kruskal Wallis test (for duration of completion), binary logistic regression (for likelihood of completion) and Chi-squared test (associations between presage and process factors). Findings Entry qualification, age and time management skills at entry had significant effects on duration of completion. Attendance at academic activities, organizing time for self-studies and the competency in English at enrolment had significant effects on the likelihood of completion. Prior open and distance learning (ODL) experience had no significant effect on any of the product factors considered. Research limitations/implications Inaccessibility of dropouts and using only the responses from the first administration of the questionnaire are limitations. Active learners are more likely to respond, in the first administration and may bias the results. Practical implications Findings are useful for designing future studies to identify at-risk students and thereby enhance the programme completion and reduce prolonged time for completion. Social implications Effective strategies to control the identified factors will uplift programme completion and reduce drop-out rates. Originality/value Decision making using inferential techniques makes the study distinct among studies undertaken on the same population. The study enriches the limited current research on factors affecting programme completion in ODL mode.
Out of many important components such as steering, power train and suspension components, the reliability of drive shafts is of high priority. When a component fails under dynamic loading conditions, the consequences are catastrophic and may cause severe injuries or sometimes death to the occupants of the vehicle and pedestrians. In this study the sudden failure of a semi floating type Automotive Rear Axle is being investigated. The visual examination revealed that the shaft failed at the neck of wheel mounting flange and the stub axle due to a fatigue failure. However, there was no deterioration of shaft in the vicinity of the crack observable to the naked eye. The shaft is of 35 mm diameter made of medium carbon steel alloy with post heat treatment. Optical microscopy examinations and microhardness testing were carried out in transverse direction closer to the fatigue surface and far away from the fatigue surface. The micrograph analysis and the microhardness profiles revealed that the shaft had been subjected to a restoration procedure using welding in the vicinity of the failed section. Furthermore, cracks in the order of 1 mm could be seen in the heat affected zone of the failed shaft. The analysis revealed a significant reduction in hardness of the core of the shaft due to repair procedure and thus a reduction in fatigue strength. Based on the observations, it has been recommended not to repair such automotive components using welding and to completely replace the component to ensure the passenger and pedestrian safety.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify the factors affecting learners' perception of e-learning during the Coronavirus-2019 (Covid-19) pandemic. Furthermore, it investigates mechanisms that enhance students' engagement in e-learning, especially under the constraints created by the pandemic. Design/methodology/approach Quantitative research approach was used, and data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The sample consisted of 163 undergraduates registered at the Faculty of Management Studies of the Open University of Sri Lanka (OUSL). The structured questionnaire was designed taking into consideration learners attached to different regional centers and study centers of the OUSL. Findings As per the findings, performance expectancy, social influence, effort expectancy and service quality are the factors which have significant effects on students' “intention to use” e-learning as a method of pursuing education. Furthermore, it was observed that 65.6% of the students had access to technology through mobile phones, while 53.4% of the students had engaged in e-learning for the first time. This was mainly due to restrictions that were imposed during the Covid-19 pandemic. Practical implications The study will help in formulating policies and introducing procedures in relation to online teaching-learning models to be used by both teachers and learners, especially in similar pandemic situations in the future. Originality/value This study will assist to determine the effectiveness of the e-learning system used by the OUSL. The findings highlighted the importance of improving information technology (IT) facilities available at all the regional and study centers across Sri Lanka.
Located at the intersections of men, masculinity, violence and narrative in the context of conflict-ridden South Asia, this study critically reads the configurations of men and masculinity in a selection of life narratives that revolve around Sri Lanka’s Eelam war (1983–2009). Based on the premise that hegemonic masculine identities shaped and interpellated by statist narratives in times of war are likely to have long-term detrimental impacts on societies, this paper considers life narratives that bring to life specific individual truths as alternative archives that could be sites of interruption, subversion and alternative imagination. This paper offers a critical feminist reading of the configurations of masculinities in Rohini Mohan’s The Seasons of Trouble (2014) and Ajith Boyagoda and Sunila Galappatti’s A Long Watch (2016), and explores the complex interactions among masculinity and violence that subvert dominant framings of men and masculinity and thereby help resist post-war patriarchal political revivals.
Hosts and their microbiota and parasites have co-evolved in an adaptative relationship since ancient times. The interaction between parasites and intestinal bacteria in terms of the hosts’ health is currently a subject of great research interest. Therapeutic interventions can include manipulations of the structure of the intestinal microbiota, which have immunological interactions important for modulating the host’s immune system and for reducing inflammation. Most helminths are intestinal parasites; the intestinal environment provides complex interactions with other microorganisms in which internal and external factors can influence the composition of the intestinal microbiota. Moreover, helminths and intestinal microorganisms can modulate the host’s immune system either beneficially or harmfully. The immune response can be reduced due to co-infection, and bacteria from the intestinal microbiota can translocate to other organs. In this way, the treatment can be compromised, which, together with drug resistance by the parasites makes healing even more difficult. Thus, this work aimed to understand interactions between the microbiota and parasitic diseases caused by the most important geohelminths and schistosomiasis and the consequences of these associations.
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829 members
N. S. Senanayake
  • Department of Mechanical Engineering
Vasthiyampillai Sivalogathasan
  • Faculty of Management Studies
Saminda Fernando
  • Department of Zoology
B Sunil Santha De Silva
  • Department of Nursing
Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte, Sri Lanka