The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda
Recent publications
Scheduling of tasks in Real-Time Systems is based on static or dynamic priority like earliest deadline first (EDF) and rate monotonic, respectively. The static scheduler does not give assurance of scheduling all tasks during the underload scenario, whereas dynamic scheduler performs poorly during an overload scenario. This paper has proposed a swarm intelligence-based scheduling algorithm that can overcome both the situations. This paper has used particle swarm optimization (PSO) based swarm technique to design the new scheduling approach. It considers each task as a particle and applied modified PSO technique to identify the most critical task to execute. The efficiency of the newly proposed method has been compared with existing EDF and ACO based scheduling algorithms considering two significant parameters, the success ratio and the effective CPU utilization. All three algorithms have been tested on the simulator with a Soft Real-time periodic task set on 500 timelines. It has been observed that during the underload scenario, the proposed algorithm performs equally to EDF and ACO based algorithms. During overload and highly overload situations, the proposed algorithm performs batter compared to EDF and ACO based algorithms.
In this article, first time we are reporting two steps synthesis of Fe exchanged phosphomolybdic acid supported on zirconia (Fe-PMA/ZrO2) by incipient wet impregnation and ion exchange method. The obtained material was well characterized by EDX mapping, ICP, FT-IR, Raman, ³¹P MAS NMR, ESR, XPS and powder XRD. The catalytic evaluation was explored for cyclohexene hydrogenation at low temperature using water as a solvent. The obtained results demonstrate remarkable efficiency of the synthesized material as a sustainable heterogeneous catalyst with very low amount of active species (Fe: 0.024 mol%), 90% conversion, high substrate/catalyst ratio (4157/1) as well as TON (3742) for 3 catalytic cycles. The present synthetic approach is highly green as it does not involve use of any noble metal, with no waste generation (E-factor = 0) as well as high reaction mass efficiency (92.20%). Graphical Abstract
We report the narrowing of bandgap of the topmost layer of muscovite mica by low energy Ar+ ion beam induced defect formation. Variation of sputtering rate of the constituent elements of mica leads to organized defects creation. The first principle (DFT) calculation shows a bandgap of 4.63 eV for a single layer of muscovite mica, whereas the absence of specified atoms in that layer results in a reduction of bandgap to 1.3 eV. To examine the change of bandgap of a single mica layer, the top most layer of the muscovite mica is selected, and controlled atomic vacancies are created by low energy Ar+ ion sputtering at glancing angle. The bombarding ion energy and incidence angle are chosen by Monte Carlo Simulation (SRIM) to create the desired defects on the top most layer. Removal of the constituent atoms is probed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the change in bandgap is experimentally estimated by UV-Vis reflectance spectroscopy and conducting Atomic Force Microscopy (c-AFM). The experimental measurements of bandgap change are found to be consistent with the first principle calculation. The key features of bandgap alteration of the top layer of muscovite mica by ion induced sputtering are discussed.
Researchers’ challenging task is to develop a material that can bear extreme environmental conditions. In this context, ‘metal dichalcogenide’ based solid‐state devices are highly beneficial for cryogenic optoelectronic applications but rarely reported. Herein, novel meta‐materials PdxSn1−xSe2 (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4) and their photodetector application are introduced. These ternary crystals are grown by direct vapour transport (DVT) technique in which palladium incorporated SnSe2 crystals exhibit polymorphism of hexagonal‐orthorhombic multiphase. PdxSn1−xSe2 (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4) single crystal photodetectors (SCPDs) demonstrate excellent photodetection in which SCPD functionalized by Pd0.4Sn0.6Se2 displays superior photoresponse. Cryogenic temperature directed blue‐shifting and sharpening of Raman peak displays noteworthy thermal‐sensing ability. Captivatingly, 10 µV low‐powered Pd0.4Sn0.6Se2 SCPD demonstrates substantial photodetection with 2.41 × 108 Jones detectivity at the cryogenic temperature of 10 K. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, a photosensor that displays excellent photodetection at a very low bias of 10 µV applied to the detector at the cryogenic temperature of 10 K is reported for the first time by them in present investigation. Higher stability, reproductiveness, and a low‐powered operating ability at a cryogenic temperature of 10 K declares Pd0.4Sn0.6Se2 as a potential candidate to design next‐generation low‐powered optoelectronic applications in cryotronics. A polymorphic, strained, and 10 µV low‐powered single crystal photodetector (SCPD) functionalized by Pd0.4Sn0.6Se2 alloy demonstrates substantial optoelectronics property with detectivity of 2.41 × 108 Jones at a cryogenic temperature of 10 K. Highly stable photodetection and low‐powered operating capabilities at cryogenic temperature make Pd0.4Sn0.6S2 SCPD a suitable material for future low‐powered cryotronics and optoelectronic device application.
In our country population growth increses day by day, increase in the land costs to satisfy large population specially in urban cities have made a door for construction of tall buildings. To economize land area, building height increased & the construction of reinforced cement concrete structure increases, during which shortening of column is reported which is become more significant with increase in height and impact the strength design and serviceability of the building. If column shortening is not addressed properly, it can impact the serviceability of the building as it impact on structural and non structural elements. So study of shortening of column in tall structure is importanat. In this paper the effect of column shortening in tall structure, in post construction stage analysis in which all loads applied in a single step, construction stage analysis and construction stage with time dependent effect analysis in which dead load, live load are released on building gradually as the construction progresses is carried on different strucutural system like frame, frame-shear wall and tube in tube system using ETABS software. In the analysis dead load, live load, lateral load due to wind load, earthquake load should be considered. The result obtained from this study gives idea about effect of column shortening in different method of analysis with different structural system and varying height of the structure.
The construction of tall concrete building became popular. As a result, we can see the problem of shortening of column due to huge loads carry by column .During construction of a tall building, the vertical elements would be subjected to a number of load increments. Each load increment would cause elastic shortening of columns. It will lead to long term creep and shrinkage shortening of such elements. Shortening of column cause effect on horizontal elements such as beams and slabs seriously. The slabs may not be truly horizontal after some time. Beams could be subjected to higher bending moments when connected to outer columns and inner shear walls. These could have certain structural effects and also could affect the nonstructural elements like damage to floor finishes, services etc.so it became important to study column shortening. In this paper we are going to study the influence of column shortening in case of building with and without soft storey once without considering construction stage analysis and once with considering it and also creep and shrinkage effect include in construction stage by using ETABS Software and comparing the effect.
In this contribution, we report the design, synthesis and cytotoxicity studies of a series of N-[3-(benzimidazol-2-yl-amino)phenyl]amine and N-[3-(benzoxazol-2-ylamino)phenyl]amine derivatives. In vitro cytotoxicity assay of 26 selected compounds was carried out at National Cancer Institute (NCI), USA. Out of them, compounds 10e (NSC D-762842/1) and 11s (NSC D-764942/1) have shown remarkable cytotoxicity with GI50 values ranging between “0.589–14.3 µM” and “0.276–12.3 µM,” respectively, in the representative nine subpanels of human tumor cell lines. Further, flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that compound 10e exerted cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and showed dose-dependent enhancement in apoptosis in K-562 leukemia cancer cells.
The selectivity and sensitivity in the detection of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid is an open problem in the field of biosensing. The host-guest interactions of Cucurbit[n]uril (n=7, 8) as host and ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA) as the guest molecules has been studied using density functional theory with dispersion corrections. The energetic and thermodynamic results indicates that UA forms the most stable structure with CB7 and CB8 in gas phase. In aqueous phase, CB7 favours complexation with AA while CB8 favours DA. The non-covalent interactions that binds the supramolecular complexes are analyzed by molecular electrostatic potentials, non-covalent interactions-reduced density gradient and natural bond orbital analysis. Local energy decomposition (LED) analysis based on the non-perturbative natural orbital local domain (DLPNO)-CCSD(T) calculations is carried out for quantifying the intermolecular forces which stabilizes the complexes. The results indicate that the electrostatic interactions, van der Waals forces, intermolecular charge transfer interactions and intermolecular hydrogen bonding are responsible for the stabilization of the complexes. The study may be useful in designing Cucurbituril-based sensing device for these analytes.
Through this study, we have explored the basic questions like why do some facets show more photocatalytic activity towards some organic substrates resulting in photodegradation and some remain inactive at all? Do the organic reaction mechanism pathways (ionic or free radical) decide the catalyst's facets selectivity? To answer these questions, Cu2O nanocrystals (NCs) with different morphologies were synthesized by wet chemical methods. By powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), it was confirmed that the synthesized material was Cu2O NCs with octahedral (o-Cu2O), dodecahedral (d-Cu2O) and cubic (c-Cu2O) morphologies with {111}, {110}, and {100} facets exposed, respectively. To confirm the phase purity and eliminate any probability of the presence of Cu or CuO as impurities in the material, fitting of the experimental XRD data was carried out by employing the Rietveld refinement. The synthesized Cu2O NCs with the above morphologies were employed as the catalysts for benzylic Csp3-H bond oxidation. For this purpose, a model reaction of oxidation of diphenylmethane (DPM) by using t-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as an oxidant at RT was carried out in an acetonitrile medium. Out of all the morphologies evaluated, c-Cu2O NCs show the highest activity. They could complete the model oxidation reaction within 3 days with ∼99% yield and 100% selectivity for benzophenone as a sole product without any catalyst obliteration. Based on chemical kinetics experiments, electrochemical analyses, and DFT calculations, a reaction mechanism (similar to the Mars-van Krevelen reaction cycle for semiconductor metal oxide surfaces) involving (100) surfaces of c-Cu2O NCs was proposed. Furthermore, BET surface area analyses and ζ potential measurements were carried out to confirm the catalytic effect due to {100}, {111}, and {110} facets exposed. To demonstrate the efficiency of the developed oxidation protocol, industrially important oxidation of cumene to cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) was carried out under solvent-less conditions with 95% yield and 70% selectivity for CHP.
The present study was carried out to quantify microplastic prevalence among 20 sandy beaches on the Gujarat coast. Beaches were categorised into three different classes, viz. low-impacted sites, moderately impacted sites, and highly impacted sites based on anthropogenic pressure. Microplastic (MP) (≤ 5 mm) contamination on the beaches varied with an average of 1.4 MPs/kg to 26 MPs/kg sediment. Sutrapada site-1 and Porbandar showed the highest and lowest mean abundance of microplastics, respectively, among 20 selected beaches. Out of the total assessed microplastics, threads were the maximum (89.98%), followed by the films (4.75%), fragments (3.36%) and foam (1.89%). In terms of colour and size, different microplastics were recorded in this study. The chemical composition of microplastics was identified by ATR-FTIR as polypropylene (47.5%), polyethylene (26%), and polystyrene (25%). Tourism and fishing activities are the possible sources of higher microplastic contamination at highly impacted sites.
Electrochemical oxidation (EO) is the most promising treatment for pharmaceutical removal in an aqueous matrix, though there are limited studies investigating the EO of pharmaceuticals in a real matrix such as reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC). High electrical conductivity causes less energy consumption for EO and massive chloride concentration in ROC make it suitable for its use as an electrolyte. The application of ROC as an electrolyte for the EO of diclofenac sodium (DCF) using an indigenously prepared Ti/Ru-Sn-Sb-Ox anode is explored in this study. The removal rate increased with an increase in current density from 5 to 10 mA/cm2 for both DCF and intermediate products (IPs). The 0.005 p-value obtained using a paired t-test indicated that the results obtained using methanol as a quenching agent matched those obtained by immediate analysis (without quenching) at a 99.5% confidence level. Thus, methanol is the most suitable quenching agent in this study. The composition of electrolyte in terms of sulfate to chloride mass ratio was found to affect the removal of DCF and IPs. The maximum removal (approximately 95%) of DCF was obtained in the presence of a sulfate-to-chloride mass ratio ranging from 0.85 to 1.35. The phytotoxicity level increased from 3% to 9% after 120 min of EO, which is not significant compared with similar previous studies.
The self-assemblies of phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes and Pluronic polymers with varying compositions have been studied. The micellar transition formed in the mixed PC and Pluronics (F127, P123, and mixed F127/P123) systems was investigated through dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), rheology, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. Results indicated that the PC appeared to be perfectly large bilayer vesicles. With an increasing concentration of Pluronics, the PC vesicle is also transformed into spherical micelles. The transitions from large lamellar vesicles to spherical micelles have been found with all the mixed systems, in which mixed F127/P123 performed better. The mixed PC/Pluronic micellar systems (PCFP) are being investigated for the problems associated with curcumin delivery, such as poor solubility and stability. The solubilization of curcumin in the PCFP systems has been examined and found to be better. The curcumin-loaded PCFP micellar system was synthesized through the thin-film method and evaluated in-vitro. Nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) analysis indicated location of curcumin has found in the core of the PCFP micelles. The curcumin-loaded PCFP showed a slower and more sustained drug release under physiological conditions. The resistance to the oxidation of curcumin-loaded PCFP micelles is considerably higher than that of pure curcumin. Results also revealed that the curcumin-loaded PCFP effectively inhibits the cell proliferation of human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7) and induces cell death. This study suggests that the curcumin-loaded mixed PC/Pluronic micellar system enhances the bioavailability of curcumin.
The micellization and clouding phenomenon are studied across a wide range of reline (Choline chloride (ChCl)-Urea, 1:2 mole ratio) - water composition using fluorescence spectroscopy. Experiments have also been performed to determine the physical properties (specific conductance (κ) and zero-shear viscosity (η0)) of water in reline and reline in water. κ and η0 vary in opposite ways as water composition of the water in reline decreases. Further, pure reline and the reline-water mixtures have been found Newtonian in nature. Critical micelle concentration (CMC) data of Sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS, an anionic surfactant) suggest three regions of CMC variations with water content in the water in reline and reline in water mixtures. Reline-urea-water motifs (H-bonded) or molecular solutions of components (ChCl and urea) dictate CMC in water in reline/reline in water region. Cloud point (CP) data was acquired using SDS + tetra n-butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) in water in reline or reline in water and compared with pure water. CP plots are constructed with respect to [SDS] or [TBAB]. It has been noted that the increase in CP is directly dependent on [SDS] and reversely on [TBAB]. A clouding mechanism for SDS (+TBAB) in reline -water mixture has been interpreted on the basis of competition between tetra-n-butylammonium (TBA⁺) and cholinium (Ch⁺) counter ion for the micellar surface. CP data have also been acquired in the presence of metal salt (cadmium chloride, CdCl2 or zinc sulphate, ZnSO4). These two salts affect CP oppositely, which is explained on the basis of hydrating capacity of metal ions. SDS +TBAB +reline +water form a system that can be potentially used for biphasic extraction (LLPS) of various metals from waste streams or battery waste.
Multi-functional ligand precursors 2-[2-(1-piperazinyl)ethyliminomethyl] phenol (L¹), 1-[2-(1-piperazinyl)ethyliminomethyl]naphthlene-2-ol (L²) and 6-methoxy-2-[2-(1-piperazinyl)ethyliminomethyl]phenol (L³) were selected to derive a new series of binuclear and mononuclear MII-dithiocarbamate complexes of the type [Cu{κ²S,S-S2C-piperazine-C2H4N=C(H)(R)}2]2 (R = -Ph(OH) 1, -Naph(OH) 2, -Ph(OH)(OCH3) 3 and [M{κ²S,S-S2C-piperazine-C2H4N=C(H)(R)}2] (R = -Ph(OH), M = NiII 4, ZnII 5; R = -Naph(OH), M = NiII 6, ZnII 7; R =- Ph(OH)(OCH3), M = NiII 8, ZnII 9). All the compounds have been characterized by microanalysis and standard spectroscopic methods such as ¹H and ¹³C NMR, IR and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The molecular structures for L¹ and its CuII- / NiII-dithiocarbamate complexes 1 and 4 were elucidated by single crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) and their crystal packing patterns were studied. Interestingly, molecules of L¹ forms 3D multiple open tubular supramolecular assembly by involving H bonding and other NH…O=C, CHbenzene…O and CHpiperazine…O weak intermolecular forces. Notably, ZnII-dithiocarabamate complexes give maximum emission in visible nm region (ca 444-489) upon excitation of ultraviolet radiation with concomitant Stock shift ca < 200 nm. Thermogravimetric study was performed on 1-9 to investigate their thermal stability and degradation patterns. All the compounds have been screened for their potential in vitro antimicrobial activity against by using S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans by Broth dilution method. The density functional theory calculations have been carried out to reinforce the experimental outcomes.
Detecting and sensing NH3 as a pollutant gas is absolute necessity in controlling the excess emission from industries, for indoor air quality supervision, medical and environmental monitoring. 2D materials such as MXene have been explored in the field of gas sensing due to their large surface-to-volume ratio, presence of large number of adsorption sites, mechanical flexibility, rapid charge carrier migration and high conductivity. Present investigation on W2CT2 (T: O, F) includes structural and electronic properties towards NH3 adsorption using density functional theory. Various configurations of termination group, NH3 adsorption over different sites along with different orientations of NH3 molecules considering N-lone pair (LP) and H-1s & O/F-2p orbital interaction have been computed for energetic stability. Values of adsorption energies, charge transfer, charge accumulation over the MXene and formation of interfacial electric field indicate strong physisorption and short recovery time of NH3 gas molecule over W2CT2. Significant change in electrical conductivity after NH3 adsorption, formation of Hydrogen bond between NH3 and MXene and its strength attributes to the variation of electronic, transport and adsorption properties with varying NH3 concentration signifies W2CT2 (T: O, F) as promising 2D material for NH3 gas sensing.
Context: Malaria is a global infectious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. The most common symptoms of malaria are fever, chills, and headaches, but in extreme cases, it may cause seizures, coma, or death. Over the last few decades, various monotherapies and combination therapies have been investigated for combating malaria. However, most of them have failed because of the problems associated with the current treatment therapy such as drug resistance, a high dose of the drug, long‐term treatment, or recurrence. Objective: This chapter sheds light on the current strategies that have been used for combating malaria resurgence with a particular focus on nanotechnology platforms either for specific targeting or improved efficacy by overcoming the treatment barriers. Method: For this purpose, an effort was made to select the most recent studies that describe the application of nanotechnology for targeting the infected red blood cells (RBCs). Further, it also focuses on the use of stimuli‐responsive systems in malaria management and diagnostic agents. Conclusion: The present chapter deals in depth with the current applications of nanotechnology in combating malaria resurgence by targeting the possible hallmarks of malaria.
Nickel pyrophosphate finds applications in energy storage device, super-capacitor, nano scale devices, catalyst for H2 generation and also used as a photo-catalyst for dye degradation. Pure and 2 %, 5 % and 10 % Mg ion doped Ni2P2O7 nano particles are synthesized through a surfactant mediated approach. In the Powder XRD pattern the broadening confirms the nano-structured nature and the monoclinic structure is found for pure α- Ni2P2O7 and Mg doped nano particles. The EDAX analysis confirms the elemental composition. The TEM study confirms the nano-size of the synthesized pure and doped samples, which are having dimensions in the range from 7.19 nm to 25.99 nm. The presence of stretching vibrations of POP and PO3 confirmed by the FT-IR study. The UV-NIR absorption spectroscopy of pure and Mg ion doped Ni2P2O7 samples over the spectral range of 210–1200 nm is carried out and the direct optical energy band gap is found to decrease as the content of Mg increases in the samples. TGA confirms the presence of water molecules in the samples and their highly stable nature. The dielectric study is conducted from 100 Hz to 10 MHz range at different temperatures from 50 °C to 100 °C. The dielectric constant and loss factor decrease with increasing frequency. The a.c. conductivity increases with increasing frequency and follows the Jonscher’s Power law. The models for a.c. conduction mechanisms are proposed based on Jonscher’s parameters.
Functional amphiphilic polymers can be engineered to self-assemble into stimuli responsive nanostructures of varying morphologies. This work reports synthesis of enzyme and pH dual responsive, amphiphilic biogenic co-polymers constituting biocompatible materials dextran, curcumin and glycine. The hydrophobic unit in the amphiphile design plays a role in the shape attained by the nanoarchitecture. Employing curcumin as a hydrophobic unit generates tubustecan carriers whereas hydrophobic octylamine produced spherical vesicles. The nanoarchitectures were loaded with DOX.HCl and their performance as multi-stimuli responsive nanocarriers for causing tumor regression was assessed. The tubular nanocarriers demonstrated enhanced tumor regression as compared to their spherical counterparts in preclinical evaluations. It is noteworthy that the encapsulation of DOX.HCl in the nanoarchitectures reduced its acute cardiotoxicity. Thus this is an attempt to use the golden spice ingredient in a unique manner to tame the neoplastic red-devil doxorubicin by overcoming its poor therapeutic performance and acute toxicity.
Mitochondria are one of the central organelles involved in cellular energy metabolism and play a regulatory role in various human pathologies ranging from inborn errors of metabolism, cancer, inflammation, and infections. Mitochondrial DNA encodes limited number of genes that is not sufficient for its optimal functioning. Hence, mitochondria import ∼1500 of proteins and ncRNAs from the nucleus depending on energy requirement of cell, tissue size, complexity and diversity of functions. Mitochondrial outer membrane can serve as a platform for regulation of local translation of nuclear-encoded mRNAs for mitochondrial proteins (nmRNAmp); however, underlying molecular mechanism for translational regulation of nmRNAmp at mitochondria is unexplored. Emerging evidence now suggest that mitochondria are enriched with specific miRNAs known as mitomiRs, which may be nuclear or mitochondrial DNA encoded. MitomiRs may modulate mitochondrial function and metabolism by fine-tuning protein levels related to mitochondria. The discovery of mitomiRs raised the questions of elucidating molecular pathways for their biogenesis, translocation, action sites and mechanism of action. Here, we have reviewed the existing reports describing the role of mitomiRs in sub mitochondrial compartments and discussed possible molecular mechanisms of mitomiRs in the regulation of nmRNAmp and mito-genome encoded transcripts. Further understanding of mitomiRs will uncover their implication in various pathophysiological conditions associated with mitochondria.
We aim to study the interaction of different nucleobases (adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), cytosine (C) and uracil (U)) with the C24 fullerene (D6d symmetry) and to get the binding sequence of these nucleobases using dispersion (D3) corrected density functional theory (DFT). To evaluate the interaction between the nucleobases with the C24 fullerene, we have calculated adsorption energy, NBO analysis, Mulliken charge analysis, density of state, sensing response and recovery time. We observed that adsorption sequence of nucleobase follows the trend as A > C > G > T > U. Due to interaction between the nucleobases and the C24 fullerene charge redistribution is taking place between them which also induces the dipole moment. Adenine can be enisled from the other DNA nucleobase molecules, while cytosine and guanine can be sensed with the recovery time of 10⁻¹⁴ s in gas phase. The interaction energy is increased for adenine and cytosine with solvent effect confirms their application as carrier.
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P.H. Parikh
  • Department of Zoology
Prashant Murumkar
  • Department of Pharmacy
Sanjay Ingle
  • Department of Microbiology
Rinku Desai
  • Department of Botany
Rohit Manilal Parikh
  • Department of Economics
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