Iceland is known for having strong aeolian erosion events, as evidenced by erosional escarpments on the soil surface; these are known locally as rofabards. The aim of the study was to estimate aeolian erosion rates at two research plots affected by severe erosion, using anatomic features of the roots of Arctic, woody, dwarf shrubs. Ours is the first study to utilize dendrochronological analyses of exposed roots of dwarf willows (Salix herbacea L.) as an indicator of aeolian erosion. When dwarf shrub roots are exposed to the atmosphere by erosion, cell sizes are reduced by >50 %, with maximum changes in individual plants exceeding 150–200 %. We detected the erosion signal by analyzing changes in cell-size and width of growth rings in the roots. Using this relationship, were able to estimate erosion rates (the retreat of escarpments) since the 1970s for the study area. During the 1970s and 1980s, erosion rates were fairly constant, with retreat ranging from 1.0 to 2.5 cm yr−1. Rapid increases in erosion rates were observed after the late 1990s, occasionally as much as 4.4–5.4 cm yr−1. Increased aeolian erosion rates may be linked to continuous heavy grazing by sheep and climate change, as this period coincides with increased numbers of hot and warm, and dusty days. Our results indicate that dendrochronological methods can be highly useful in determining past geomorphic activity, due to modern environmental changes observed in the Arctic. The methods employed here can be applied even in treeless areas.
Background Changes in the diversity of herbivore communities can strongly influence the functioning of northern ecosystems. Different herbivores have different impacts on ecosystems because of differences in their diets, behaviour and energy requirements. The combined effects of different herbivores can in some cases compensate each other but lead to stronger directional changes elsewhere. However, the diversity of herbivore assemblages has until recently been a largely overlooked dimension of plant–herbivore interactions. Given the ongoing environmental changes in tundra ecosystems, with increased influx of boreal species and changes in the distribution and abundance of arctic herbivores, a better understanding of the consequences of changes in the diversity of herbivore assemblages is needed. This protocol presents the methodology that will be used in a systematic review on the effects of herbivore diversity on different processes, functions and properties of tundra ecosystems. Methods This systematic review builds on an earlier systematic map on herbivory studies in the Arctic that identified a relatively large number of studies assessing the effects of multiple herbivores. The systematic review will include primary field studies retrieved from databases, search engines and specialist websites, that compare responses of tundra ecosystems to different levels of herbivore diversity, including both vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores. We will use species richness of herbivores or the richness of functional groups of herbivores as a measure of the diversity of the herbivore assemblages. Studies will be screened in three stages: title, abstract and full text, and inclusion will follow clearly identified eligibility criteria, based on their target population, exposure, comparator and study design. The review will cover terrestrial Arctic ecosystems including the forest-tundra ecotone. Potential outcomes will include multiple processes, functions and properties of tundra ecosystems related to primary productivity, nutrient cycling, accumulation and dynamics of nutrient pools, as well as the impacts of herbivores on other organisms. Studies will be critically appraised for validity, and where studies report similar outcomes, meta-analysis will be performed.
Together, biological soil crust (BSC) and other cryptogamic groundcovers can contribute up to half of the global nitrogen (N) fixation. BSC also stabilizes the soil (reducing erosion and dust emissions), fixes carbon (C), retains moisture and acts as a hotspot of microbial diversity and activity. Much of the knowledge about how climate change is affecting the composition and functioning of BSC comes from hot arid and semiarid regions. The comparatively smaller body of research on BSC from cold and mesic environments has been primarily observational, for example along chronosequences after a glacier retreat. Few studies have experimentally investigated the effects of the environment on BSC from high latitudes. Such experiments allow unraveling of relationships at a resolution that can only be achieved by controlling for confounding factors. We measured short‐term (2–4 days) responses of a liverwort‐based Anthelia juratzkana BSC from the south of Iceland to a range of temperature, moisture and light conditions. Warming increased N fixation rates, especially when moisture was at a saturation level, and only when light was not limiting. A correlation analysis suggests that increases in N fixation rates were linked to cyanobacterial abundance on the BSC surface and to the rates of their metabolic activity. Warming and moisture changes also induced compositional and structural modification of the bacterial community, with consequences at the functional level. In contrast to many observations on BSC from hot drylands, the BSC from our cold and mesic study site is more limited by low temperature and light than by moisture. Our findings show possible ways in which BSC from cold and mesic ecosystems can respond to short‐term manifestations of climate change, such as increasingly frequent heat waves.
Spatial variation in plant chemical defence towards herbivores can help us understand variation in herbivore top–down control of shrubs in the Arctic and possibly also shrub responses to global warming. Less defended, non‐resinous shrubs could be more influenced by herbivores than more defended, resinous shrubs. However, sparse field measurements limit our current understanding of how much of the circum‐Arctic variation in defence compounds is explained by taxa or defence functional groups (resinous/non‐resinous). We measured circum‐Arctic chemical defence and leaf digestibility in resinous (Betula glandulosa, B. nana ssp. exilis) and non‐resinous (B. nana ssp. nana, B. pumila) shrub birches to see how they vary among and within taxa and functional groups. Using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) metabolomic analyses and in vitro leaf digestibility via incubation in cattle rumen fluid, we analysed defence composition and leaf digestibility in 128 samples from 44 tundra locations. We found biogeographical patterns in anti‐herbivore defence where mean leaf triterpene concentrations and twig resin gland density were greater in resinous taxa and mean concentrations of condensing tannins were greater in non‐resinous taxa. This indicates a biome‐wide trade‐off between triterpene‐ or tannin‐dominated defences. However, we also found variations in chemical defence composition and resin gland density both within and among functional groups (resinous/non‐resinous) and taxa, suggesting these categorisations only partly predict chemical herbivore defence. Complex tannins were the only defence compounds negatively related to in vitro digestibility, identifying this previously neglected tannin group as having a potential key role in birch anti‐herbivore defence. We conclude that circum‐Arctic variation in birch anti‐herbivore defence can be partly derived from biogeographical distributions of birch taxa, although our detailed mapping of plant defence provides more information on this variation and can be used for better predictions of herbivore effects on Arctic vegetation.
At times of crisis, home gardening has often been sought out as a potential solution for threats to food security and as a measure to increase socio-psychological effects, such as public sense of self-efficacy, trust in the government and care for one’s wellbeing. The objective of this study was to investigate if home gardening increased during the COVID-19 pandemic in the spring/summer of 2020 and to provide socio-psychological insights into the explanatory factors of such an increase. An explanatory theoretical model of home gardening was proposed and tested to analyse whether home gardening is correlated to food security concerns, and if so, to what extent. A non-representative survey was conducted in five European countries (Slovenia, Norway, Estonia, Switzerland, and Iceland) using snowball sampling via social media networks, reaching 1144 participants. The results showed the pandemic did prove to be an important psychological push towards home gardening prompted by food security concerns. Measured as loose as introducing at least one new gardening activity during COVID-19, this study found an approximately 10% increase in home gardening during the first wave of COVID-19 in the sample population, which was skewed towards educated, female, middle-class Europeans.
Icelandic topsoil sediments, as confirmed by numerous scientific studies, represent the largest and the most important European source of mineral dust. Strong winds, connected with the intensive cyclonic circulation in the North Atlantic, induce intense emissions of mineral dust from local sources all year and carry away these fine aerosol particles for thousands of kilometers. Various impacts of airborne mineral dust particles on local air quality, human health, transportation, climate and marine ecosystems motivated us to design a fully dynamic coupled atmosphere–dust numerical modelling system in order to simulate, predict and quantify the Icelandic mineral dust process including: local measurements and source specification over Iceland. In this study, we used the Dust Regional Atmospheric Model (DREAM) with improved Icelandic high resolution dust source specification and implemented spatially variable particle size distribution, variable snow cover and soil wetness. Three case studies of intense short- and long-range transport were selected to evaluate the model performance. Results demonstrated the model’s capability to forecast major transport features, such as timing, and horizontal and vertical distribution of the processes. This modelling system can be used as an operational forecasting system, but also as a reliable tool for assessing climate and environmental Icelandic dust impacts.
Fungi are highly diverse organisms, which provide multiple ecosystem services. However, compared with charismatic animals and plants, the distribution patterns and conservation needs of fungi have been little explored. Here we used high‐resolution sequencing to assess endemicity patterns, global change vulnerability and conservation priority areas for functional groups of soil fungi based on six global surveys using a high‐resolution, long‐read metabarcoding approach. We found that the endemicity of all fungi and most functional groups peaks in tropical habitats, including Amazonia, Yucatan, West‐Central Africa, Sri Lanka and New Caledonia, with a negligible island effect compared with plants and animals. We also found that fungi are predominantly vulnerable to drought, heat and land cover change, particularly in dry tropical regions with high human population density. Fungal conservation areas of highest priority include herbaceous wetlands, tropical forests and woodlands. We stress that more attention should be focused on the conservation of fungi, especially root symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal fungi in tropical regions as well as unicellular early‐diverging groups and macrofungi in general. Given the low overlap between the endemicity of fungi and macroorganisms, but high conservation needs in both groups, detailed analyses on distribution and conservation requirements are warranted for other microorganisms and soil organisms.
Reforested areas can act as important carbon (C) sinks. In China, extensive reforestation has been carried out in mountainous regions, with resulting C storage affected by forest age, forest type and environmental settings. Evaluations of forest C sequestration therefore require a detailed spatio-temporal analysis of C storage dynamics. Here, we used aboveground biomass (AGB) of trees as a proxy for overall forest C storage to investigate spatiotemporal patterns and changes in AGB of 136,988 individual trees distributed over 1399 permanent plots in the forests of Sichuan province, China. Mean AGB of young plantation forests increased more rapidly at 5.25 ± 1.15 Mg ha⁻¹ year⁻¹ than that of natural forest (2.56 ± 0.38 Mg ha⁻¹ year⁻¹). Forest stand age, tree species diversity and tree density were superior predictors of AGB when compared to environmental and climatic factors. Linear Mixed Effect models accounting for stand age showed significant AGB storage increases with increasing soil depth as well as with decreasing longitude and altitude. Stocks in plantation forests also increased with southerly exposition and decreasing slope steepness, while in natural forests, slope steepness showed positive correlations. Warming temperatures depressed AGB increases across all forests, while decreasing annual precipitation negatively affected AGB increases in natural forest, only. Our study highlights that, to sustain forest AGB gains into the future, management especially of forest plantations needs to promote species-rich, unevenly-aged, climate-adapted forests stands.
The Arctic may be particularly vulnerable to the consequences of both ocean acidification (OA) and global warming, given the faster pace of these processes in comparison with global average speeds. Here, we use the Atlantis ecosystem model to assess how the trophic network of marine fishes and invertebrates in the Icelandic waters is responding to the combined pressures of OA and warming. We develop an approach where we first identify species by their economic (catch value), social (number of participants in fisheries), or ecological (keystone species) importance. We then use literature-determined ranges of sensitivity to OA and warming for different species and functional groups in the Icelandic waters to parametrize model runs for different scenarios of warming and OA. We found divergent species responses to warming and acidification levels; (mainly) planktonic groups and forage fish benefited while (mainly) benthic groups and predatory fish decreased under warming and acidification scenarios. Assuming conservative harvest rates for the largest catch-value species, Atlantic cod, we see that the population is projected to remain stable under even the harshest acidification and warming scenario. Further, for the scenarios where the model projects reductions in biomass of Atlantic cod, other species in the ecosystem increase, likely due to a reduction in competition and predation. These results highlight the interdependencies of multiple global change drivers and their cascading effects on trophic organization, and the continued high abundance of an important species from a socio-economic perspective in the Icelandic fisheries.
Balanced harvest (BH) refers to applying moderate fishing pressure across a broad range of species, trophic levels (TL), stocks, or sizes in an ecosystem in proportion to productivity (gross production per biomass unit) or production (total cumulated biomass over a given period) instead of exerting pressure on particular taxa or sizes. Both modelling and empirical studies have shown that BH can lead to higher fish yield than selective fishing, with minimal changes to ecosystem structure and function. This concept has stimulated considerable debate, and one question that needs to be addressed is how close or far fisheries are from being balanced. Here, we investigated whether fishing on Lake Victoria (East Africa), the world’s second largest inland fishery, is consistent with BH, and whether there is any link between past and present fishing patterns and life history traits of major commercially-exploited species: Nile perch (Lates niloticus) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). We found exploitation rates to be relatively higher in high TL groups than low TL groups; however, the overall fishing pattern has been consistent with BH until recently (from 2000 onwards). Exploitation rates (E) above 50% of annual production (“overexploitation”) were observed for large Nile perch, Nile tilapia, and other less productive demersal groups (for example, catfishes, squeakers, and lungfish). Unexpectedly, there was no evidence of significant reduction in body size of Nile perch associated with this fishing pattern, which may be attributed to limited compliance of minimum size regulations. On the other hand, we found a significant reduction in body size of Nile tilapia, which tended to be associated with high fishing pressure. We conclude that the fishery is currently inefficiently utilized in terms of food energy value, whereby groups with highest production (including small Nile perch) are underexploited (E < 10%). However, moving towards BH in the case of Lake Victoria, and generally in many inland fisheries, will require a paradigm shift both in mindset and the law.
Ecological models predict that the effects of mammalian herbivore exclusion on plant diversity depend on resource availability and plant exposure to ungulate grazing over evolutionary time. Using an experiment replicated in 57 grasslands on six continents, with contrasting evolutionary history of grazing, we tested how resources (mean annual precipitation and soil nutrients) determine herbivore exclusion effects on plant diversity, richness and evenness. Here we show that at sites with a long history of ungulate grazing, herbivore exclusion reduced plant diversity by reducing both richness and evenness and the responses of richness and diversity to herbivore exclusion decreased with mean annual precipitation. At sites with a short history of grazing, the effects of herbivore exclusion were not related to precipitation but differed for native and exotic plant richness. Thus, plant species’ evolutionary history of grazing continues to shape the response of the world’s grasslands to changing mammalian herbivory. A NutNet experiment in 57 grasslands across six continents shows that when herbivores are excluded from grasslands with a long coevolutionary history of grazing plant diversity is reduced, while in grasslands without a long grazing history the evolutionary history of the plant species regulates the response of plant diversity.
Global warming may lead to carbon transfers from soils to the atmosphere, yet this positive feedback to the climate system remains highly uncertain, especially in subsoils (Ilyina and Friedlingstein, 2016; Shi et al., 2018). Using natural geothermal soil warming gradients of up to +6.4 ∘C in subarctic grasslands (Sigurdsson et al., 2016), we show that soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks decline strongly and linearly with warming (−2.8 t ha−1 ∘C−1). Comparison of SOC stock changes following medium-term (5 and 10 years) and long-term (>50 years) warming revealed that all SOC stock reduction occurred within the first 5 years of warming, after which continued warming no longer reduced SOC stocks. This rapid equilibration of SOC observed in Andosol suggests a critical role for ecosystem adaptations to warming and could imply short-lived soil carbon–climate feedbacks. Our data further revealed that the soil C loss occurred in all aggregate size fractions and that SOC stock reduction was only visible in topsoil (0–10 cm). SOC stocks in subsoil (10–30 cm), where plant roots were absent, showed apparent conservation after >50 years of warming. The observed depth-dependent warming responses indicate that explicit vertical resolution is a prerequisite for global models to accurately project future SOC stocks for this soil type and should be investigated for soils with other mineralogies.
Future climate warming in the Arctic will likely increase the vulnerability of soil carbon stocks to microbial decomposition. However, it remains uncertain to what extent decomposition rates will change in a warmer Arctic, because extended soil warming could induce temperature adaptation of bacterial communities. Here we show that experimental warming induces shifts in the temperature‐growth relationships of bacterial communities, which is driven by community turnover and is common across a diverse set of 8 (sub) arctic soils. The optimal growth temperature (Topt) of the soil bacterial communities increased 0.27 ± 0.039 (s.e.) and 0.07 ± 0.028 °C per °C of warming over a 0‐30 °C gradient, depending on the sampling moment. We identify a potential role for substrate depletion and time‐lag effects as drivers of temperature adaption in soil bacterial communities, which possibly explain discrepancies between earlier incubation and field studies. The changes in Topt were accompanied by species‐level shifts in bacterial community composition, which were mostly soil‐specific. Despite the clear physiological responses to warming, there was no evidence for a common set of temperature‐responsive bacterial amplicon sequence variants (ASVs). This implies that community composition data without accompanying physiological measurements may have limited utility for the identification of (potential) temperature adaption of soil bacterial communities in the Arctic. Since bacterial communities in arctic soils are likely to adapt to increasing soil temperature under future climate change, this adaptation to higher temperature should be implemented in soil organic carbon modeling for accurate predictions of the dynamics of arctic soil carbon stocks.
Context The Sanjiangyuan region of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau—also known as the “Three Rivers’ Headwaters”—is the origin of the Yellow, Yangtze, and Mekong Rivers and therefore the key water source for hundreds of millions of downstream residents. Protecting this region’s ecosystems is a key priority for sustainable development in China and Asia. An important social dimension of Sanjiangyuan is the long-established and widespread presence of Tibetan Buddhism, particularly as manifested in the large number of monasteries throughout the region. However, the influence of cultural factors on environmental change remains largely understudied here. Objective We focus on two types of spatial associations—point-point and point-area features—to quantitatively investigate the effects of Buddhist monasteries on land use/cover change (LUCC) in surrounding landscapes. Methods We conduct a spatially-explicit analysis of Sanjiangyuan for two periods, 1990–2000 and 2010–2015, to identify and quantify the influence of the presence and spatial distributions of Buddhist monasteries on LUCC compared to village communities that lack monasteries. Results We found that the presence of monasteries is highly correlated with the preservation of natural ecosystems, specifically of grasslands and forests. Within monastery buffer zones with radii between 1 and 10 km, 7.13–9.30% more grassland area and 7.14–7.47% more forest area remained around monasteries compared to villages. This contrast decreased with increasing distance to the monastery/village. Overall, built-up areas were also much smaller around monasteries than around villages, while unused land was more commonly transformed to forests and grasslands around monasteries. Conclusions These findings strongly support the idea that Buddhist culture, as manifested through its physical institutions and communities, are instrumental in achieving desired landscape conservation outcomes.
In late March 2018, a large part of the Eastern Mediterranean experienced an extraordinary episode of African dust, one of the most intense in recent years, here referred to as the “Minoan Red” event. The episode mainly affected the Greek island of Crete, where the highest aerosol concentrations over the past 15 yeas were recorded, although impacts were also felt well beyond this core area. Our study fills a gap in dust research by assessing the multi-sectoral impacts of sand and dust storms and their socioeconomic implications. Specifically, we provide a multi-sectoral impact assessment of Crete during the occurrence of this exceptional African dust event. During the day of the occurrence of the maximum dust concentration in Crete, i.e. March 22nd, 2018, we identified impacts on meteorological conditions, agriculture, transport, energy, society (including closing of schools and cancellation of social events), and emergency response systems. As a result, the event led to a 3-fold increase in daily emergency responses compare to previous days associated with urban emergencies and wildfires, a 3.5-fold increase in hospital visits and admissions for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) exacerbations and dyspnoea, a reduction of visibility causing aircraft traffic disruptions (eleven cancellations and seven delays), and a reduction of solar energy production. We estimate the cost of direct and indirect effects of the dust episode, considering the most affected socio-economic sectors (e.g. civil protection, aviation, health and solar energy production), to be between 3.4 and 3.8 million EUR for Crete. Since such desert dust transport episodes are natural, meteorology-driven and thus to a large extent unavoidable, we argue that the efficiency of actions to mitigate dust impacts depends on the accuracy of operational dust forecasting and the implementation of relevant early warning systems for social awareness.
By their paternal transmission, Y‐chromosomal haplotypes are sensitive markers of population history and male‐mediated introgression. Previous studies identified biallelic single‐nucleotide variants in the SRY, ZFY, DDX3Y genes, which in domestic goats identified four major Y‐chromosomal haplotypes Y1A, Y1B, Y2A and Y2B with a marked geographic partitioning. Here, we extracted goat Y‐chromosomal variants from whole‐genome sequences of 386 domestic goats (75 breeds) and 7 wild goat species, which were generated by the VarGoats goat genome project. Phylogenetic analyses indicated domestic haplogroups corresponding to Y1B, Y2A and Y2B, respectively, whereas Y1A is split into Y1AA and Y1AB. All five haplogroups were detected in 26 ancient DNA samples from southeast Europe or Asia. Haplotypes from present‐day bezoars are not shared with domestic goats and are attached to deep nodes of the trees and networks. Haplogroup distributions for 186 domestic breeds indicate ancient paternal population bottlenecks and expansions during the migrations into northern Europe, eastern and southern Asia and Africa south of the Sahara. In addition, sharing of haplogroups indicates male‐mediated introgressions, most notably an early gene flow from Asian goats into Madagascar and the crossbreeding that in the 19th century resulted in the popular Boer and Anglo‐Nubian breeds. More recent introgressions are those from European goats into the native Korean goat population and from Boer goat into Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Zimbabwe. This study illustrates the power of the Y‐chromosomal variants for reconstructing the history of domestic species with a wide geographic range.
In democracies around the world, societies have demonstrated that elections can have major consequences for the environment. In Colombia, the 2022 presidential elections will take place at a time when progress towards peace has stalled and socioeconomic, security, and environmental conditions have deteriorated. The recent declines in these conditions largely coincide with the change of government after the 2018 elections, and the associated rise to power of a party that boycotted the peace negotiations from the beginning. These indicators suggest that 2018 marked the end of a decade of improvements in safety, wealth, and equality-societal factors that can interact with the environment in multiple ways. A spike in assassinations of land and environmental defenders in 2019 and 2020 made Colombia one of the most dangerous places in the world for environmentalists. With the 2022 presidential election, Colombians will once again decide who will govern the country and what new social, economic, and environmental policies will be implemented. In preparation for elections like this, we believe that it is important for scientists with relevant backgrounds to highlight relationships between political events and the environment, to enrich the political debate, help prioritize public resources, and inform policy-making. Here, we provide a multidisciplinary analysis of different socioeconomic and environmental trends that can help inform the public and decision-makers. We intend for this analysis to be useful not only in Colombia, but also to other societies under similar situations, managing biodiversity-rich ecosystems in socio-political environments of increasing violence, poverty, and inequality.
Research in global change ecology relies heavily on global climatic grids derived from estimates of air temperature in open areas at around 2 m above the ground. These climatic grids do not reflect conditions below vegetation canopies and near the ground surface, where critical ecosystem functions occur and most terrestrial species reside. Here, we provide global maps of soil temperature and bioclimatic variables at a 1-km² resolution for 0–5 and 5–15 cm soil depth. These maps were created by calculating the difference (i.e., offset) between in-situ soil temperature measurements, based on time series from over 1200 1-km² pixels (summarized from 8500 unique temperature sensors) across all the world’s major terrestrial biomes, and coarse-grained air temperature estimates from ERA5-Land (an atmospheric reanalysis by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). We show that mean annual soil temperature differs markedly from the corresponding gridded air temperature, by up to 10°C (mean = 3.0 ± 2.1°C), with substantial variation across biomes and seasons. Over the year, soils in cold and/or dry biomes are substantially warmer (+3.6 ± 2.3°C) than gridded air temperature, whereas soils in warm and humid environments are on average slightly cooler (-0.7 ± 2.3°C). The observed substantial and biome-specific offsets emphasize that the projected impacts of climate and climate change on near-surface biodiversity and ecosystem functioning are inaccurately assessed when air rather than soil temperature is used, especially in cold environments. The global soil-related bioclimatic variables provided here are an important step forward for any application in ecology and related disciplines. Nevertheless, we highlight the need to fill remaining geographic gaps by collecting more in-situ measurements of microclimate conditions to further enhance the spatiotemporal resolution of global soil temperature products for ecological applications.
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