Engineers need to effectively communicate the justification and value of their modal testing and model correlation in terminology familiar to decision makers as it relates to the program’s risk tolerance. This communication must relate to the program’s risk tolerance and the metrics used to judge the performance of both the program and individual decision makers. The challenge is the terminologies familiar to engineers and decision makers are quite different and seemingly unrelated. The engineering profession has developed a specific terminology to solve highly technical issues, which are many times themselves unique to very specific engineering problems. It is all too easy for engineers to believe that everyone in their organization, including the decision makers, has an intrinsic understanding of what they do and the value it brings to the program’s success. This is especially true for young engineers who have recently spent the last 4 plus years in an academic engineering learning environment, which has a highly technical research-oriented atmosphere. Effective communication with decision makers is increasingly important as the technical breadth and practical program and project experience level for up and coming decision makers diminish. It is not unusual for the decision makers to have technical knowledge in a domain different from structural dynamics (e.g., electronics or systems). Competition among satellite manufactures has increased the focus on programmatic cost and ability to deliver on schedule. NASA programs are also seeing more restrictive programmatic cost and schedule constraints, which impact both analysis and testing. It should also be noted that a comprehensive suite of tests is required to verify a satellite’s design capability with some margin. These tests include static strength verification tests, shock, acoustic, and vibration tests (sine and random) of systems, subsystems, and components. Each of these verification tests provides opportunities for model correlation and risk reduction. It is important to recognize dynamic loads/modal test models may not include all of the flight hardware (i.e., harness, coax, waveguides, connectors, etc.) and the previously mentioned tests are still required for qualification/verification of the design. This paper provides tips to young engineers on how to bridge this communications gap, have a better understanding of the environment in which decision makers operate, and assist them to better support successful missions. While this paper primarily focuses on modal testing and model correlation as related to spacecraft missions, the concepts and recommendations presented here are equally applicable to other fields such as aeronautics, automotive, power generation, etc.
Problem Stress in children remains a complex concept to examine due to the inherent subjectivity and lack of specific manifestations, as well as the multiple ways stress can be defined and measured in children. Because stress is multifactorial,is experienced daily by children, and undergirds adolescent health and early mental illness, it is crucial to have a clear understanding of stress and the effects of stress in children from infancy through age twelve years. Eligibility criteria To be included in this review, literature must pertain to and highlight theories, definitions/classifications, and measurements of stress in children from infancy to 12 years of age. Sample The most pertinent articles identified through database searches (PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Google Scholar), gray literature sources (e.g., child health websites), and reference lists of identified articles were included in this narrative overview. Results The results of this review are organized by themes and include: classifications and definitions of stress, stress-related theories, and tools to measure stress in children. Conclusions Research addressing stressors and stress in children is limited, and there is wide variation in how researchers define and classify stress in children. Existing measures of stress in children younger than 12 address physiological, psychological, and observational components, but may be inconsistent and threaten validity of otherwise well-designed and well-executed studies. Implications Improving the understanding and accurate measurement of stress in children enables researchers and clinicians to curtail undesirable health outcomes.
Health information seeking and scanning are two important information acquisition strategies that can influence subsequent health behaviors. This research was contextualized in COVID-19 vaccinations and examined the effects of information seeking and scanning on vaccination intention among unvaccinated Black Americans (N = 1,278). Moreover, this research conceptualized perceived risk and efficacy as the intervening factors for the relationship between information acquisition and behavioral intention. The results indicated that information seeking had a significant effect on vaccination intention, whereas information scanning had no effect. Perceived susceptibility and response efficacy mediated the relationship between information seeking and vaccination intention. The proposed mediators did not mediate the relationship between information scanning and vaccination intention. Theoretical and practical implications are offered.
Local elected sheriffs increasingly have responsibility to implement immigration policies, yet sheriffs are rarely studied in criminal justice. By measuring the attitudes of Texas sheriffs, we seek to understand their important views on immigration in the United States. A census was completed with Texas sheriffs in late 2019 and early 2020. Views were sought on (1) controlling unauthorized immigration, (2) pathways to citizenship, and (3) unauthorized immigration and crime. A strong return rate captured the views of 142 (56%) respondent sheriffs from both rural and urban counties. Findings indicate that a majority of Texas sheriffs see a link between authorized immigrants and crime, see a limited path to citizenship and view the primary enforcement of immigration to be a federal prerogative. Practical implications and future research are discussed.
Background: Following several high-profile police shootings of Black Americans, renewed debate has focused on race as a predictor of police violence. Past research has been inconsistent on this score. Some scholars argue that socioeconomic issues are better predictors of police-related violence than are race and ethnicity. Aims: To test relationships between complaints of excessive use of police violence and racial/ethnic population demographics, allowing for social and mental health variables. Methods: We examined records from all 195 municipal police departments in California to identify complaints of excessive force by police and tested for associations between such complaints and health, socio-economic and demographic data from county records, using multivariate analyses. Results: There was no difference in reporting between communities according to Black or White American residency proportions; communities with more Latino Americans were less likely to complain formally of excessive use of police force. The strongest associate of complaints to police departments that their employees had used excessive force was experiencing mental distress in the community. Conclusions: Our findings are limited by reliance on complaints to police authorities rather than actual incidence of police use of excessive force and by having to map municipal data on to county data, but the finding that factors other than or in addition to any inherent police problems may contribute to excessive use of force by the police offers new lines for remedying the problem. In particular, our findings suggest that more training for police in recognising and managing mental distress and more provision of mental health experts to work alongside police would be worth evaluating as a next step.
Optical biomedical imaging and diagnostics is a rapidly growing field that provides both structural and functional information with uses ranging from fundamental to practical clinical applications. Nevertheless, imaging/visualizing fluorescence objects with high spatial resolution in a highly scattering and emissive biological medium continues to be a significant challenge. A fundamental limiting factor for imaging technologies is the signal-to-background ratio (SBR). For a long time to improve the SBR, we tried to improve the brightness of fluorescence probes. Many novel fluorophores with improved brightness (almost reaching the theoretical limit), redshifted emission, highly improved photostability, and biocompatibility greatly helped advance fluorescence detection and imaging. However, autofluorescence, scattering of excitation light, and Raman scattering remain fundamental limiting problems that drastically limit detection sensitivity. Similarly, significant efforts were focused on reducing the background. High-quality sample purification eliminates the majority of autofluorescence background and in a limited confocal volume allows detection to reach the ultimate sensitivity to a single molecule. However, detection and imaging in physiological conditions does not allow for any sample (cells or tissue) purification, forcing us to face a fundamental limitation. A significant improvement in limiting background can be achieved when fluorophores with a long fluorescence lifetime are used, and time-gated detection is applied. However, all long-lived fluorophores present low brightness, limiting the potential improvement. We recently proposed to utilize multipulse excitation (burst of pulses) to enhance the relative signal of long-lived fluorophores and significantly improve the SBR. Herein, we present results obtained with multipulse excitation and compare them with standard single-pulse excitation. Subtraction of images obtained with a single pulse from those obtained with pulse burst (differential image) highly limits background and instrumental noise resulting in more specific/sensitive detection and allows to achieve greater imaging depth in highly scattering media, including skin and tissue.
Unaddressed religious and spiritual struggles can lead to poor mental health, making identifying the pathways individuals take towards growth of great importance. This hermeneutical phenomenological study explored the lived experiences of individuals who sought counseling to address their religious and spiritual struggles, focusing on how the therapeutic relationship and the counselor's way of being influenced growth pathways, as these factors are most predictive of positive outcome. The researcher highlights key findings and elaborates on clinical implications.
Anderson, AlOK, Voskuil, CC, Byrd, MT, Garver, MJ, Rickard, AJ, Miller, WM, Bergstrom, HC, and Dinyer McNeely, TK. Affective and perceptual responses during an 8-week resistance training to failure intervention at low vs. high loads in untrained women. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2022-This study examined the effects of resistance training (RT) to failure on the perceptual and affective responses, intent-to-continue RT to failure in a self-initiated session, and affect-intent relationship. Twenty-three untrained women (mean ± SD: age 21.2 ± 2.2 years; height 167 ± 5.7 cm; body mass, 62.3 ± 16.2 kg) completed an 8-week, full-body RT to failure intervention at a low (30% 1RM; n = 11) or high (80% 1RM; n = 12) load. The Borg's rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale was used to assess the acute (aRPE) and session (sRPE) RPE immediately after repetition failure and each training session, respectively. Immediately, 15-minute, and 60-minute postsession affective responses were assessed using the feeling scale (FS; -5 to +5), and intent to continue to RT was assessed on a scale of 0-100% intention. During week 4 (W4) and week 8 (W8), aRPE (W4: 18 ± 2, W8: 18 ± 2; p ≤ 0.032) and sRPE (W4: 17 ± 2, W8: 18 ± 1; p ≤ 0.018) were greater than that during week 1 (W1; aRPE: 17 ± 2; sRPE: 16 ± 2). The FS responses increased from immediately to 60-minute postsession during W4 (p ≤ 0.019) and W8 (p ≤ 0.049). The correlation between affect and intent-to-continue RT increased from W1 (r = 0.416) to W8 (r = 0.777). Regardless of load, untrained women reported similar perceptual, affective, and intention responses. These variables should be considered to improve RT program adoption and adherence in women.
The photoelectrochemical production of fuels, exemplified by light‐driven water splitting to hydrogen and oxygen, offers a sustainable option to offset dependence on fossil fuels. A low‐cost, efficient, and stable photoelectrochemical approach to solar fuels remains elusive but using similar materials and photoelectrodes for chemical production or biomass conversion offers an appealing alternative. This work reports a facile method for fabricating pristine (undoped) BiVO4 photoanodes to carry out TEMPO‐mediated benzyl alcohol oxidation to benzaldehyde in organic media (TEMPO = 2,2,6,6‐tetramethylpiperidinyl‐N‐oxyl). The best performing BiVO4 photoanode studied here gave a Faradaic efficiency (FE) of 85 ± 5% for benzaldehyde formation in the presence of TEMPO and pyridine during a 2.5‐hour reaction. Compared with direct electrocatalytic conversion under the same conditions, light capture and conversion by the BiVO4 surface decreased the required applied bias by 46%. To our knowledge, this is the first report of visible light assisted, TEMPO‐mediated benzyl alcohol oxidation using pristine BiVO4 photoanodes in organic media.
In this article, I chronicle the ways in which Black women's hair has been used not only to exert political oppression and dominance, but also to resist alienation in the Americas. Whether covered during field labor, groomed on Saturday evenings, celebrated on Sunday, arranged as prestigious imitation in the “Big House,” braided into secret codes in Colombia, shaved as punishment, or denied all exhibition under the tignon laws in Louisiana, hair has been weaponized to control, hypersexualize, and de‐feminize Black women for centuries. More recently, there has been a resurgence of natural hairstyles, which has been abundantly documented in sociology and anthropology. However, this trend has been countered by restrictive policies that insist on standardizing Whiteness as the norm of hair structures. Drawing on studies of race and hair across multiple periods of Pan‐American history, this article argues that in more ways than one, Black hair is, and has always been, political.
Aim The aim of this scoping review was to map the literature investigating belongingness in undergraduate/pre-licensure nursing students in the clinical learning environment. Background The concept of belongingness, which encompasses feelings of acceptance, connection and value alignment, has been tied to positive outcomes in undergraduate/pre-licensure nursing students including increased learning, participation, confidence and professional socialization. It is critical for educators and clinical staff to foster a sense of belongingness for nursing students to promote positive and effective clinical learning experiences. Design The scoping review strategy established by the Joanna Briggs Institute was followed. The databases searched were CINAHL Complete (EBSCO), Education Source, Medline Complete (EBSCO), APA PsycINFO (EBSCO) and Epistemonikos. Methods Following a search of the five databases, studies were screened by title and abstract by two independent reviewers for inclusion. Data including population, concept, context, methods and key findings relevant to the review question were extracted and synthesized using an instrument developed by the reviewers. Results A total of 47 articles with varying methodologies were critically appraised. Three overarching focus areas emerged: outcomes resulting from feelings of belongingness versus alienation, factors that contribute to a sense of belongingness in the clinical learning environment and interventions to promote a sense of belongingness while students are immersed in the clinical learning environment. Conclusions Belongingness in the clinical learning environment is an important concept that lends itself to positive learning experiences and increased satisfaction of undergraduate/pre-licensure nursing students. Environmental, relational and experiential factors can be maximized and specific interventions employed to promote belongingness. This review identifies a lack of evidence on measured interventional effectiveness at the student, school and clinical unit level. Future research to address these gaps is recommended. Tweetable abstract Scoping review suggests environmental, relational and experiential factors promote positive outcomes in belongingness of nursing students.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.