In this paper, we ask how the corona pandemic affected a cohort of former art school students. We have compared our findings with other studies of the consequences of the pandemic for Nordic artists. Most of our informants appeared less negatively affected by the pandemic than predicted by previous studies. None of those who responded said that they had left or considered leaving their professions, and none had experienced a disastrous loss of income because of the pandemic. Nevertheless, the pandemic affected the work and income situation of freelance actors and musicians who normally perform for live audiences. All the informants also responded that their workdays had changed substantially, and that the pandemic had negatively affected their well-being. Our qualitative study might contribute in detecting some nuances that were less easily detectable through quantitative surveys, e.g. that the pandemic did not substantially affect freelance actors in film and media.
The REKO networks are a model for direct sales and contact between producers and consumers through social-media that emerged rapidly in Norway. We examine motivations and potential contributions to organic production and consumption of food related to three different groups involved; initiators, producers and consumers. A mixed methods approach was applied combining survey, interviews and workshop. The study reveals that REKO filled a gap for producers to obtain new markets and consumers to obtain local and fresh food, based on trustful communication. REKO stimulates production and consumption of organic food and changes in power structures, but there is a danger of falling into the “local trap.”
To what extent did the Covid-19 pandemic affect the tools, priorities and organisation of cultural policies? And did the pandemic enhance the digital aspect of these policies? This paper compares pandemic cultural policy measures in seven European countries to answer these questions. The countries all installed a plurality of mitigating measures, combining grants and subsidies, compensation of lost income, income support and financial flexibility, creating a tendency towards cultural policy turning into economic policy, fiscal policy, and labour market policy. Cultural policies have not been fundamentally challenged by the pandemic, in the sense that it has affected the essential political tools, divisions of labour, or core goals. The responses have confirmed an existing policy structure or enhanced existing developments. The importance of a state-centred or a federalist cultural policy system has not been challenged in a substantial way. Secondly there is little evidence to show a general acceleration of national digital cultural policies.
This paper describes digital cultural policy as a slow and ambivalent or reluctant revolution in a policy field. In investigates how cultural policy has gradually been affected by digitalization in the field of cultural production. I argue that digital cultural policy has developed in a sedimentary fashion, but that it also has been continuously marked by a certain ambivalence towards the digital revolution. Digital cultural policy is ultimately described as a field of hyperconvergence, where ideas, political tools, technology, and policy areas are entangled to an increasing degree. This challenges the research on and the analysis of digital cultural policy. The paper is primarily based on a close reading of Norwegian cultural policy documents. I have employed all the white papers on cultural policy from the Ministry of Culture between 1973 and 2019 – both the ones that explicitly deal with cultural policy and the ones that deal with a specific field of the arts (performing arts, visual arts, music etc.), as well as annual reports from Arts Council Norway between 1975 and 2018.
The article explores and unfolds the conflicting narratives of the work and competences of creatives in the era of creative industries. Based on a French pragmatic approach, the analysis sheds light on a mismatch between how bureaucrats in the Norwegian business support system valuate creative work, and how creatives valuate their own work. I find that the bureaucrats mobilise a narrow and stereotyped grammar when talking of creative work, while the creatives themselves seem to express far more complex and pragmatic understandings. I argue that the Norwegian creative industries policy seems to have limited capacity to embrace the hybridity and complexity of creative work, which also reduces its relevance and accuracy. The analysis is based on qualitative interviews with creatives and bureaucrats on a local level and contributes to the knowledge on the individual bureaucrats as non-creative outsiders, but still, actors highly significant to creative industries.
This study assesses the association between socioeconomic determinants and self-reported health using data from a regional Norwegian health survey. We included 9,068 participants ≥ 25 years. Survey data were linked to registry data on education and income. Self-reported oral and general health were separately assessed and categorized into ‘good’/‘poor’. Exposures were educational level, personal income, and economic security. Prevalence ratios (PR) were computed to assess the associations between socioeconomic determinants and self-reported health using Poisson regression models. Participants with low education or income had poorer oral and general health than those with more education or higher income. Comparing the highest and lowest education levels, adjusted PRs for poor oral and general health were 1.27 (95%CI, 1.11–1.46) and 1.43 (95%CI, 1.29–1.59), respectively. Correspondingly, PRs for lowest income quintiles compared to highest quintile were 1.34 (95%CI, 1.17–1.55) and 2.10 (95%CI, 1.82–2.43). Low economic security was also significantly associated with poor oral and general health. There were socioeconomic gradients and positive linear trends between levels of education and income in relation to both outcomes (P-linear trends < 0.001). We found statistical evidence of effect modification by gender on the association between education and oral and general health, and by age group between income and oral health.
The COVID-19 pandemic severely affected the cultural sector, with repeated lockdowns and restrictions. As the government imposed restrictions on cultural institutions, gatherings, and thus artistic expression, artists’ working conditions has changed. However, few studies have monitored artists' income change during the pandemic. This paper presents the result of an income survey among Norwegian artists, comparing total income and income from artistic work in the years 2019 and 2020. The main finding is that there was a relatively small decrease in total income among artists during the pandemic. Income from artistic work for all artists declined by 11 %, while the total income declined by 1 %. However, there were large differences in income loss between different categories of artists. Performing artists experienced a greater loss of income than visual artists, while women and individuals living outside the big cities had a smaller loss of income. Artists with high incomes also experienced a greater income loss than artists with low incomes. Generally, we find that the patterns of income variations that usually characterise artistic work was not replicated during the pandemic. Rather opposite, artists that normally have high incomes have experienced more considerable income loss than those with low incomes. The pandemic has been an extraordinary exception also when it comes to artistic income.
Between artists and the audience, the concert promoter holds an important position within the music industry. This article, based on an empirical study of promoters in Norway, aims to analyse how concert promoters think, what their motivation and attitudes are like, their goals and their perceptions of a good concert and a good promoter. Drawing from both qualitative and quantitative data, we identify two dimensions in concert promotion: a paternalistic and a demand-driven approach. We also identify five typologies of concert promoters: the idealist, the curator, the rationalist, the entrepreneur and the instrumentalist.
In recent years, we have seen large investments in spectacular buildings hosting cultural institutions, with the dual aim of facilitating culture and generating economic growth. This article raises the question of whether the investments have shifted the priorities of cultural policy, and sets out to investigate the effect of the establishment of 52 culture houses in Norwegian municipalities using panel data and a difference-in-difference approach. The results confirm an increased prioritization of the sector in the years following the opening of the culture houses, indicated by a large increase in the municipal expenses for culture. The results further support that there has been a shift in priority, as there seems to be a stronger support for professional arts and a lower support for activities directed toward amateur organizations and children/youth. There are also strong indications of growth in “new” arenas of art and culture, indicated by a significant increase in the number of cinema displays and theater performances, in addition to a significant growth of jobs related to art and entertainment.
This study addresses a possible mismatch between political rhetoric on creative industries and tourism relations and the experiences and expectations that artists and workers in the creative industries have of their artistic work and their sector. In semi-structured interviews, we asked if and then how creatives and developers in Norway relate to the concept of tourism and whether they see tourists or the tourism industry as a target market for cultural products. Our findings suggest that developers are likely, but creatives unlikely to see a relation between creative’s work and tourism or tourists, and the tourism industry as a target market for cultural products. Tourism is in other words a blind spot in the business practices of creative entrepreneurs.
In 2007, the Norwegian Ministry of Environment initiated an unprecedented project of environmental conservation through land use planning, introducing buffer zones as measures to integrate local development with conservation of wild reindeer. Through studies of national policy developments and a case study of a planning processes and spatial zoning, using institutional theory, the paper investigates how competing policies and understandings of appropriate activities in the edge areas are reflected in zoning regulations and planning practice, and whether the buffer zone contributes to resolving conflicts in the edge areas. Competing national policies for the edge areas, a legal development favoring ecological buffering and a history of top-down management and local socio-economic marginalization results in removal of large parts of an existing ecological buffer zone and the creation of a new development zone. The integrated conservation and development approach has no advocates and while bearing much promise amounts to little. Keywords: buffer zones; conservation; environmental planning; wild reindeer; conservation – development conflict
Research into Heritage Impact Assessment (HIA) has criticised the process of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) as a tool for protecting cultural heritage, claiming that assessments of impacts on cultural heritage become marginalised and fail to inform key decisions during EIA processes. Many suggestions have been made for optimising the process and providing a platform to improve the understanding of cultural heritage. This article aims to enrich this discussion by challenging established ideas about what constitutes an ‘actor’ in a planning context, arguing that there is a need to expand this term to encompass the bureaucratic production of knowledge and thus to analyse the impact of the production and shape of knowledge on the alleged marginalisation of cultural heritage. This article examines the relevant knowledge production process and the limitations of current practices and in doing so highlights how the knowledge production aspect of an EIA process seems to stabilise cultural heritage as a fact, making it equivalent and comparable to other environmental subjects. A central finding is that this similarity in some cases causes cultural heritage to become invisible in an EIA process, causing it to slip through the net in final decision-making. The empirical starting point for this article is the Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA/Statens Vegvesen) and its in-house EIA manual, the Handbook on Impact Analyses (Handbook V712), while the theoretical resources are derived mainly from Science and Technology Studies (STS) and Actor-Network Theory (ANT).
This paper¹ describes and analyses how the live performing arts sector in Norway adapted to the abrupt change that affected most European countries in mid-March 2020. Based on a mid-pandemic empirical analysis, it argues that the sudden lockdown due to Covid-19 created a real-time laboratory for digital adaptation within the culture sector. In light of this digital adaptation, I ask whether this rapid digital turn represented a disruption in the cultural sector, and whether the sudden digitalization challenged the structures of cultural production. The paper argues that the digital adaptations to Covid-19 in central parts of the cultural sector have represented a temporary disruption. Rather than fast-forwarding a digital development, the pandemic digital turn has even more than illuminated the innovative and transformative potential of the digital, accentuated the value of the analogue. Still, it will be a continuing task for research in the years to come to assess the potential lasting implications of Covid-related digitalizations in the cultural sector.
Background The increased prevalence of chronic diseases and an ageing population challenge healthcare delivery, particularly hospital-based care. To address this issue, health policy aims to decentralize healthcare by transferring responsibility and introducing new services in primary healthcare. In-depth knowledge of associated implementation processes is crucial for health care managers, policymakers, and the health care personnel involved. In this article, we apply an ethnographic approach in a study of nurses’ contributions to the implementation of a new inpatient service in an outpatient primary care emergency clinic and explore the competencies involved. The approach allowed us to explore the unexpressed yet significant effort, knowledge and competence of nurses that shaped the new service. Methods The study combines observations (250 h) and several in situ interviews with healthcare personnel and individual in-depth interviews with nurses ( n = 8) at the emergency clinic. In our analysis, we draw on a sociological perspective on healthcare work and organization that considers nursing a practice within the boundaries of clinical patient work, organizational structures, and managerial and professional requirements. Results We describe the following three aspects of nurses’ contributions to the implementation of the new service: (1) anticipating worst-case scenarios and taking responsibility for preventing them, (2) contributing coherence in patient care by ensuring that new and established procedures are interconnected, and (3) engaging in “invisible work”. The nurses draw on their own experiences from their work as emergency nurses and knowledge of the local and regional contexts. They utilize their knowledge, competence, and organizing skills to influence the implementation process and ensure high-quality healthcare delivery in the extended service. Conclusions Our study illustrates that nurses’ contributions are vital to coordinating and adjusting extended services. Organizing work, in addition to clinical work, is a crucial aspect of nursing work. It ‘glues’ the complex and varied components of the individual patient’s services into coherent and holistic care trajectories. It is this organizing competence that nurses utilize when coordinating and adjusting extended services. We believe that nurses’ organizing work is generally invaluable in implementing new services, although it has not been well emphasized in practice and research.
In a globalized world where mobility and movement is at its essence, the movement of viruses paradoxically causes a preoccupation with boundaries, containment, and control over borders, and thus keeping the “dangerous” outside separated from the “safe” inside. Through a qualitative thematic and frame analysis of news articles published on 12 Ukrainian news sites, I found that Ukrainian labour migrants conceptually constitute a challenge to such a clear-cut spatial organization in a time of a pandemic. Labour migrants are part of the national “we,” but their presence in the dangerous outside excludes them from the “imagined immunity.” This ambiguity is evident in the way labour migrants were portrayed during the first months of the outbreak in Ukraine. Initially, Ukrainian labour migrants were depicted as a potential danger, and then blamed for bringing the virus back home. However, the framing of the labour migrants as a danger is only part of the story, and the image of a scapegoat was eventually replaced with images of an economic resource and a victim. Thus, Ukrainian labour migrants have been the object of vilification, heroization, as well as empathy during the various phases of the outbreak. I would argue that these shifting frames are connected to the ambiguous conceptualization of Ukrainian labour migrants in general.
Previous studies of associations of forced expiratory lung volume in one second (FEV 1 ) with peak oxygen uptake (VO 2peak ) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have not taken sex, age and height related variance of dynamic lung volumes into account. Nor have such demographic spread of spirometric measures been considered in studies comparing VO 2peak between COPD phenotypes characterized by degree of emphysema. We aimed to assess the association of FEV 1Z-score with VO 2peak in COPD (n = 186) and investigate whether this association differs between emphysema (E-COPD) and non-emphysema (NE-COPD) phenotypes. Corresponding assessments using standardized percent predicted FEV 1 (ppFEV 1 ) were performed for comparison. Additionally, phenotype related differences in VO 2peak were compared using FEV 1Z-score and ppFEV 1 as alternative expressions of FEV 1 . E-COPD and NE-COPD were defined by transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide below and above lower limits of normal (LLN), respectively. The associations were assessed in linear regression models. One unit reduction in FEV 1Z-score was associated with 1.9 (95% CI 1.4, 2.5) ml/kg/min lower VO 2peak . In stratified analyses, corresponding estimates were 2.2 (95% CI 1.4, 2.9) and 1.2 (95% CI 0.2, 2.2) ml/kg/min lower VO 2peak in E-COPD and NE-COPD, respectively. The association did not differ statistically by COPD phenotype (p-value for interaction = 0.153). Similar estimates were obtained in analyses using standardized ppFEV 1 . Compared to NE-COPD, VO 2peak was 2.2 (95% CI 0.8, 3.6) and 2.1 (95% CI 0.8, 3.5) ml/kg/min lower in E-COPD when adjusted for FEV 1Z-score and ppFEV 1 , respectively. In COPD, FEV 1Z-score is positively associated with VO 2peak . This association was stronger in E-COPD but did not differ statistically by phenotype. Both the association of FEV 1 with VO 2peak and the difference in VO 2peak comparing COPD phenotypes seems independent of sex, age and height related variance in FEV 1 . Mechanisms leading to reduction in FEV 1 may contribute to lower VO 2peak in E-COPD.
Background Fostering plant growth and improving agricultural yields by adding “macro”-sized biochar to soil has been extensively explored. However, the impact and mechanism of action of aqueous extracts of biochar applied as foliar fertilizer on plant growth and physiology is poorly understood, and was the objective of this study. Extracts were produced from biochars derived from pine wood:clay:sand (PCS-BC; 70:15:15) and wheat straw:bird manure (WB-BC; 50:50) and tested at two dilutions each. The plant influence of the biochar extracts and dilutions were compared with chemical fertilizer made up to the same minor trace element compositions as the applied extracts and a control treatment consisting of only deionized water. Results The WB-BC extract was more alkaline than the PCS-BC extract and exhibited higher electrical conductivity values. Similar to the biochars from which they were derived, the WB-BC extract had higher concentrations of dissolved mineral elements and organic matter than the PCS-BC extract. Despite major differences in chemical composition between the PCS-BC and WB-BC extracts, there was virtually no difference in plant performance between them at any chosen dilution. Foliar application of PCS25, WB50, and WB100 led to a significant increase in the plant fresh biomass in comparison to their corresponding chemical fertilizer and to deionized water. Plant growth parameters including number of leaves and chlorophyll contents in plants treated with biochar extract foliar sprays were significantly higher than in all the other treatments. Electron microscopy and spectroscopy studies showed the deposition of macro- and nanoscale organomineral particles and agglomerates on leaf surfaces of the examined PCS25-treated plant. Detailed study suggests that carbon nanomaterials and TiO 2 or Si-rich nanoscale organomineral complexes or aluminosilicate compounds from biochar extract were main contributors to increased plant growth and improved plant performance. Conclusion These results suggest that biochar extracts have the potential to be used as nanofertilizer foliar sprays for enhancing plant growth and yield.
The article sheds light on an often neglected group of professionals in creative industries, namely the facilitators who work on a local level in order to support and stimulate individual artists and creative microbusinesses. We discuss what characterises the practices of local facilitators, and how they act in order to ensure legitimacy within different contexts. Based on qualitative interviews and participant observation in Norwegian creative industries, and a theoretical approach based on Alexander’s theory on cultural performance and French pragmatic sociology, we argue that the facilitators are networking entrepreneurs with multi-contextual competencies operating in the gaps between art, business and bureaucracy.
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