Objective: The association between explicit and implicit psychological measures might be affected by the similarity of the assessment method and by the overlap of the components of the constructs being assessed. This study examined the association between condom use barriers and explicit and implicit measurements of condom use and the moderating role of sexual intercourse in these associations. Design: This was a cross sectional correlational study. An analysis of baseline data from a randomized controlled trial including 149 university students was included. Main measures: These included a questionnaire assessing condom use barriers, an implicit condom use test (a structured semi-projective test), and an explicit condom use question. Hierarchical regressions and correlations were examined in the full sample and by groups of participants with and without sexual intercourse. Results: In those without sexual intercourse, all barriers sub-scales were significantly and negatively correlated with implicit condom use and unrelated to explicit condom use. In contrast, among those engaged in sexual intercourse, barriers were significantly and negatively correlated with the explicit condom use measure, and only barriers concerning partner and motivation correlated with implicit condom use tendencies. Conclusion: Having a sexual partner plays a major role in the relations between barriers and implicit and explicit condom use measures. The pattern of the results is discussed in relation to cognitive and social factors.
The article focuses on the story of the Na’amien swamp south of Acre, one of Palestine’s most extensive swamps, an area where many plans to control it were begun and failed throughout the Mandatory period but were only finally addressed following the establishment of the State of Israel. Colonial and Zionist environmental stances often point to similar views regarding land development and the advantages Mandatory rule provided the Zionist movement at the expense of the Arab-Palestinian population. This article will argue that the environmental British policy was not formulated merely due to similarities and common interests of the authorities and the Zionists. There was also a complex set of considerations typified by internal contradictions, varying interpretations of progress as justification for colonialism, and changing responses to local economic and political developments and to changing British interests in the European arena.
We elucidate grapevine evolution and domestication histories with 3525 cultivated and wild accessions worldwide. In the Pleistocene, harsh climate drove the separation of wild grape ecotypes caused by continuous habitat fragmentation. Then, domestication occurred concurrently about 11,000 years ago in Western Asia and the Caucasus to yield table and wine grapevines. The Western Asia domesticates dispersed into Europe with early farmers, introgressed with ancient wild western ecotypes, and subsequently diversified along human migration trails into muscat and unique western wine grape ancestries by the late Neolithic. Analyses of domestication traits also reveal new insights into selection for berry palatability, hermaphroditism, muscat flavor, and berry skin color. These data demonstrate the role of the grapevines in the early inception of agriculture across Eurasia.
Research on learning and memory formation at the level of neural networks, as well as at the molecular level, is challenging due to the immense complexity of the brain. The zebrafish as a genetically tractable model organism can overcome many of the current challenges of studying molecular mechanisms of learning and memory formation. Zebrafish have a translucent, smaller and more accessible brain than that of mammals, allowing imaging of the entire brain during behavioral manipulations. Recent years have seen an extensive increase in published brain research describing the use of zebrafish for the study of learning and memory. Nevertheless, due to the complexity of the brain comprising many neural cell types that are difficult to isolate, it has been difficult to elucidate neural networks and molecular mechanisms involved in memory formation in an unbiased manner, even in zebrafish larvae. Therefore, data regarding the identity, location, and intensity of nascent proteins during memory formation is still sparse and our understanding of the molecular networks remains limited, indicating a need for new techniques. Here, we review recent progress in establishing learning paradigms for zebrafish and the development of methods to elucidate neural and molecular networks of learning. We describe various types of learning and highlight directions for future studies, focusing on molecular mechanisms of long-term memory formation and promising state-of-the-art techniques such as cell-type-specific metabolic labeling.
The purpose of this report is to describe the anesthetic and analgesic management and the surgical procedures of gonadectomy in six (four females and two males) healthy adult Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus). Bats were anesthetized with a combination of alfaxalone, midazolam, and morphine administered subcutaneously. Incisional line infiltration using bupivacaine was administered in all bats, and additional bilateral intratesticular injection was administered in the males. Ovariectomy was performed via a dorsal approach, by bilateral midline skin incisions at the paralumbar fossa level. Orchiectomy was performed via a ventral approach, by bilateral midline incisions of scrotal skin above the testes. Following surgery, all bats were administered flumazenil for midazolam reversal, and meloxicam for postoperative analgesia, subcutaneously. All bats recovered from anesthesia uneventfully. Bats were monitored for complications up to 10 days following surgery, when skin sutures were removed. No morbidities or mortalities occurred during this period in any of the bats. In conclusion, ventral approach orchiectomy and dorsal approach ovariectomy using the injectable combination alfaxalone-midazolam-morphine in conjunction with local anesthesia and meloxicam are feasible procedures in Egyptian fruit bats and can be performed with relative ease. However, further studies using these techniques in a larger group of bats should be performed to establish their safety.
Despite calls for interprofessional teamwork to ensure quality care in healthcare settings, interprofessional teams do not always perform effectively. There is evidence that professional stereotypes inhibit effective interprofessional teamwork, but they haven’t been explored as a phenomenon that impacts team’s performance and quality of care. To focus on professional stereotypes emerging in interprofessional teams and examine the contingency effects of interprofessional team’s faultlines, professional stereotypes, and leader’s championship behaviors on team’s quality of care. A cross-sectional nested sample of 59 interprofessional teams and 284 professionals, working in geriatric long-term-care facilities in Israel. Additionally, five to seven of the residents of each facility were randomly sampled to obtain the outcome variable. Data collection employed a multisource (interprofessional team members), multimethod (validated questionnaires and data from residents’ health records) strategy. The results indicated that faultlines are not directly harmful to team’s quality of care; instead, they are likely to impact quality of care only when team stereotypes emerge. Furthermore, whereas teams typified by high professional stereotypes require person-oriented championship leadership, for teams typified by low team stereotypes, championship leadership harms the quality of care they provide. These findings have implications for handling interprofessional teams. Practically, leaders must be well-educated to better analyze team members’ needs and maintain the appropriate leadership style.
Objectives: In this research, we examined the academic and psychological coping of post-secondary students during the early stages of COVID-19. The main goal was to investigate correlations involving self- compassion, spirituality, psychological capital, and subjective well-being, and evaluate the mediating role of self-compassion and spirituality in the relationship between psychological capital and subjective well-being.Methods: We had 257 participants (ages 19-59) complete 5 questionnaires: demographic and academic information, Psychological Capital Questionnaire, Subjective Well-Being Index, Spiritual Intelligence Self- Assessment Inventory, and Self-Compassion Index. Results: We found a strong positive correlation between psychological capital, self-compassion, and subjective well-being. However, spirituality failed to show statistically significant correlations with self-compassion and subjective well-being, with only weak correlations with psychological capital. Self-compassion positively mediated the relationship between psychological capital and subjective well-being, but not spirituality. Conclusion: These findings indicate the role of positive psychological resources of post-secondary students in coping with a difficult situation like COVID-19.
This cross-sectional study explores the relationship between maternal feelings, maternal parenting styles, and mothers’ worry about COVID-19’s detrimental consequences on preschool children’s health and well-being. The study is among the first to concentrate on this reference specific group, whose characteristics might be particularly vulnerable to COVID-19’s adversities. One hundred and four mothers of at least one preschool-age child completed an online questionnaire battery, which included the Parental Feelings Inventory, the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ), and the parental worry about COVID-19 scale. Negative maternal feelings (i.e., anger, anxiety/sadness) were associated with authoritarian and indulgent parenting practices, especially verbal hostility, while maternal happiness was associated with more authoritative practices, especially warmth and support. The hierarchical multiple regression model explained about 42% of variance of the overall maternal worry about COVID-19 from maternal negative feelings and parenting styles, with maternal authoritative parenting and maternal anxiety/sadness as the significant predictors that uniquely explain maternal worry about COVID-19. These results are discussed in terms of positive and negative maternal worry, which partially reflect the differences between overprotective and authoritative parenting in early childhood.
The Oxford Handbook of Family Policy Over the Life Course examines how countries devised measures for child protection outlined in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC). The UNCRC highlights the importance of protecting children from a range of human rights violations. In response, countries respond differently to human rights violations, which range between legislative responses, public administrative systems, and social service networks. Additionally, the Handbook offers a global typology of child protection systems to understand the diversity of service responses. The global typology then emphasizes protection against an array of childhood risks and represents the focal point for government intervention in the lives of families.
The Covid-19 pandemic (Coronavirus) has created complex challenges for recipients of social services worldwide and for the social workers entrusted with assisting them. This article presents a study of the decision-making process of Israeli social workers when coping with ethical and legal dilemmas arising during the pandemic. Method: A qualitative self-administered survey was completed by 478 social workers who worked during the Covid-19 pandemic. Thematic analysis was used to identify major themes. Findings: We identified three major themes. The first theme was concern over the potential violation of the service users' privacy and confidentiality due to the unique circumstances of the pandemic. The second theme was the danger to the social workers' health when serving clients during the pandemic. The third theme focused on difficulties in providing professional services during the pandemic. Applications: We present several recommendations to help social workers cope with ethical and legal decisions in national emergencies.
The paper examined how dissociation is experienced and manifested in the drawings and narratives of female survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder. Fifteen Israeli women filled out a self-report questionnaire consisting of demographics, traumatic events, and dissociation severity. Then, they were asked to draw a dissociation experience and provide a narrative. The results indicated that experiencing CSA was highly correlated with indicators such as the level of fragmentation, the figurative style, as well as with the narrative. Two main themes emerged: a constant movement between internal and external worlds, and distorted perceptions of time and space.
In Integrated Pest Management programs, insecticides are applied to agricultural crops when pest densities exceed a predetermined economic threshold. Under conditions of high natural enemy density, however, the economic threshold can be increased, allowing for fewer insecticide applications. These adjustments, called ‘dynamic thresholds’, allow farmers to exploit existing biological control interactions without economic loss. Further, the ability of natural enemies to disperse from, and subsequently immigrate into, insecticide-sprayed areas can affect their biological control potential. We develop a theoretical approach to incorporate both pest and natural enemy movement across field borders into dynamic thresholds and explore how these affect insecticide applications and farmer incomes. Our model follows a pest and its specialist natural enemy over one growing season. An insecticide that targets the pest also induces mortality of the natural enemy, both via direct toxicity and reduced resource pest densities. Pest and natural enemy populations recover after spraying through within-field reproduction and by immigration from neighboring unsprayed areas. The number of insecticide applications and per-season farmer revenues are calculated for economic thresholds that are either fixed (ignoring natural enemy densities) or dynamic (incorporating them). The model predicts that using dynamic thresholds always leads to reduced insecticide application. The benefit of dynamic thresholds in reducing insecticide use is highest when natural enemies rapidly recolonize sprayed areas, and when insecticide efficacy is low. We discuss real-life situations in which monitoring of natural enemies would substantially reduce insecticide use and other scenarios where the presence of beneficial organisms may lead to threshold modifications.
Objectives: This paper explores a field training project of tele-drama therapy with community-dwelling older adults during COVID19. It merges three perspectives: the older participants' perspective, the students engaged in the field training, who conducted this remote therapy, and social workers. Methods: Interviews were conducted with 19 older adults. Focus groups were conducted with 10 drama therapy students and 4 social workers. The data were thematically analyzed. Results: Three themes emerged: the role of drama therapy methods in the therapeutic process, attitudes toward psychotherapy for older adults, and the phone as a therapeutic setting. These themes coalesced into a triangular model associating dramatherapy, tele-psychotherapy and psychotherapy with the older population. A number of obstacles were identified. Conclusions: The field training project made a dual contribution to the older participants and the students. In addition, it promoted more positive attitudes among the students toward psychotherapy with the older population. Clinical implications: Tele-drama therapy methods appear to promote the therapeutic process with older adults. However, the phone session should be planned in advance in terms of time and place to ensure the participants' privacy. Field training of mental health students with older adults can promote more positive attitudes toward working with the older population.
The subjective childbirth experience is crucial from a public health standpoint. There is a correlation between a negative childbirth experience and a poor mental state after birth, with effects that go far beyond the postpartum (PP) period. This paper offers a new approach as to how birthing experiences, and birth in general, can be navigated. The theory of set and setting proves that psychedelic experiences are shaped, first and foremost, by the mindset of an individual entering a psychedelic experience (set) and by the surroundings in which the experience happens (setting). In research on altered states of consciousness during psychedelic experiences, this theory explains how the same substance can lead to a positive and life-changing experience or to a traumatic and frightening experience. Because recent studies suggest that birthing women enter an altered state of consciousness during physiological birth (“birthing consciousness”), I suggest analyzing the typical modern birthing experience in terms of set and setting theory. I argue that the set and setting key parameters can help design, navigate, and explain many psychological and physiological elements of the human birth process. Thus, an operative conclusion that emerges from the theoretical analysis presented in this paper is that framing and characterizing the birth environment and birth preparations in terms of set and setting is a central tool that could be used to promote physiological births as well as subjective positive birthing experiences, which is currently a primary, yet unreached goal, in modern obstetrics and public health.
Introduction: Recent systematic reviews about the impostor phenomenon unveil a severe shortage of research data on adolescents. The present study aimed at reducing this gap in the literature by investigating the association between maternal and paternal authoritarian parenting and impostor feelings among adolescents, while testing the mediating role played by parental psychological control and the moderating role of the child's gender in this context. Methods: Three hundred and eight adolescents took part in an online survey, in which they reported anonymously on their impostor feelings and their parents' parenting styles via several valid psychological questionnaires. The sample consisted of 143 boys and 165 girls, whose age ranged from 12 to 17 (M = 14.67, SD = 1.64). Results: Of the sample's participants, over 35% reported frequent to intense impostor feelings, with girls scoring significantly higher than boys on this scale. In general, the maternal and paternal parenting variables explained 15.2% and 13.3% (respectively) of the variance in the adolescents' impostor scores. Parental psychological control fully mediated (for fathers) and partially mediated (for mothers) the association between parental authoritarian parenting and the adolescents' impostor feelings. The child's gender moderated solely the maternal direct effect of authoritarian parenting on impostor feelings (this association was significant for boys alone), but not the mediating effect via psychological control. Conclusions: The current study introduces a specific explanation for the possible mechanism describing the early emergence of impostor feelings in adolescents based on parenting styles and behaviors.
Following the increasing demand to improve educational systems, ‘top-down’ reforms were developed targeting teachers’ work conditions alongside new professional development policy. The current study aimed to examine the perceptions of teachers who are employed under two reforms in parallel, regarding their job satisfaction and professional development. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 teachers who work simultaneously under the two reforms. Based on analysis technique that focuses on content, four themes related to teachers’ job satisfaction were identified: workload and multiple tasks; inherent satisfaction; the struggle between personal and professional identities; and ‘broken’ routine. In addition, three themes regarding professional development were found: forced and limited; unnatural and disconnected to the field; and workload as ruling out a profound process. Taking all the themes into consideration, three portraits of teachers were found: the praising, the flowing, and the embittered. Implications and meaning of the findings will be further discussed.
This exploratory study aims to reveal how impostor feelings and general self-efficacy co-explain students' test-anxiety and academic achievements, while testing the possible preceding effect of maternal psychological control using the students' recollections of their mothers. The study's sample comprised 142 students at several academic institutions in Israel, whose age ranges from 20 to 52 (M age = 27.53, SD = 5.61). The results of a path model testing the direct and indirect associations between these variables yielded three main findings: First, students' impostor feelings and self-efficacy were inversely intercorrelated, while, when taken together, only the former was uniquely associated with test-anxiety (i.e., in a positive direction). This finding is among the first that empirically confirms the association between the two phenomena in students. The association between self-efficacy and test-anxiety was fully mediated by the students' impostor feelings. Second, maternal psychological control was negatively and positively associated with the students' self-efficacy and impostor feelings (respectively). The latter, in turn, significantly mediated the maternal effect on the students' test-anxiety. Finally, test-anxiety and self-efficacy were inversely related to the students' academic achievements (i.e., in opposite directions). Test-anxiety fully mediated the negative association between the students' impostor feelings and their academic achievements. The importance and novelty of the findings are discussed in light of the background literature, while specifying the directions for further research.
Introduction: The experience of terrorist incidents involving a secondary explosive device that targeted rescue forces led to changes in the safety protocols of these forces in most countries of the world. These protocols are the foundation of the current "Stage-and-Wait" paradigm that prohibits the entry of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) from entering the scene and treating casualties until it is deemed safe. These guidelines were established absent of an evidence-base detailing the risk to responders and the potential consequences to the injured on-scene. The lack of clarity is compounded by the fact that different situations, as well as operational considerations, such as the length of time until bomb squad arrival at the scene versus time of massive bleeding injuries, for example, impact outcomes must be taken into account. Objective: This study sought to shed light on this matter while employing an evidence-based approach exploring the investigations of the frequency of secondary explosion threats in terrorist attacks over the last 20 years and discussing some of the ethical challenges and ramifications ensuing. While this study does not propose an outright change to current guidelines, in light of the evidence gathered, an open review and discussion based on the findings may be beneficial. Methods: The Global Terrorism Database (GTD) was used as the data source of bombing incidents world-wide. Results: The results revealed that approximately 70 per-1,000 bombing incidents involved secondary explosions across regions and countries within the study period. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the need to rethink the current "Stage-and-Wait" paradigm by recommending brainstorming conferences comprised of multi-sectoral experts aimed at deliberating the matter. World-wide experts in emergency medicine, bioethics, and disaster management should cautiously consider all aspects of bomb-related incidents. These brainstorming deliberations should consider the calculated risk of secondary explosions that account for approximately 70 per-1,000 bombing incidents. This study highlights the need to re-examine the current versus new paradigm to achieve a better balance between the need to ensure EMS safety while also providing the necessary and immediate care to improve casualty survival. This ethical dilemma of postponing urgent care needs to be confronted.
Introduction Professional burnout is characterized by loss of enthusiasm for work, cynicism, and a low sense of personal efficacy. Burnout may adversely affect medical professionalism. Burnout is common in clinicians and varying rates have been reported in medical students. No data exist regarding the prevalence of burnout among Israeli medical students. The aims of this study were to assess the rate of burnout in Israeli medical students and to identify students who were particularly susceptible to burnout. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire design was employed, gathering data from medical students in all years of study across three medical schools. Burnout was measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory Student Survey (MBI-SS), translated into Hebrew. Results Of the 2160 students in the participating medical schools, 966 (44.7%) completed MBI-SS and demographic questionnaires. The overall burnout rate was 50.6%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis yielded that female gender, age under 25, advanced year of study, studying at a specific medical school and not being a parent are all significantly correlated with higher levels of burnout. Conclusions A high rate of burnout was found. The identification of young women who are not parents during advanced years of studies as being at-risk is important, in order to guide the development of burnout prevention interventions.
This study demonstrated the bioconversion of lignocellulosic by-product corn stover (CS) to the value-added fermentative product L-lactic acid using the furfural tolerant Enterococcus mundtii WX1 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus SCJ9. The efficacy of dilute acid pretreatment by sulfuric and formic acids varying from 1% to 4% (v/v) concentration was compared. CS pretreated with 1% (v/v) sulfuric acid was selected for L-LA fermentation regarding the highest efficacy of fermentable sugar release when combined with the enzymatic hydrolysis process. Optimal conditions achieved a highest sugar release of 24.5 g/L glucose and 11.2 g/L of xylose from 100 g/L pretreated CS with 1% (v/v) sulfuric acid at 121 °C for 30 min, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis with Cellic CTec2 30 FPU/g pretreated CS at 50 °C for 48 h. The maximum L-LA titer, yield, and average productivity reached 31.4 g/L, 0.90 g/g, and 1.73 g/L/h, respectively. Moreover, addition of a hemicellulose-degrading enzyme complex combined with Cellic CTec2 led to an increase in xylose release, which resulted in a higher L-LA titer of 36.7 g/L at 48 h fermentation. Moreover, the purification of LA from culture broth by a process of electrodialysis with 331 g/L of LA and purity of 99.7% (w/w), was successful, with an optically pure L-LA of 99.9%. This study not only presents a feasible process for L-LA production from lignocellulose hydrolysate derived from abundant corn stover; this study also showed an alternative approach for solving the problem of haze air pollution caused by inappropriate management of corn production residuals.
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Rosh Pinna, Israel