The COVID-19 virus and its outbreak were among the most considered research areas in different science branches throughout last year. Meanwhile, some extensive studies have been conducted on the factors influential in increasing the infection rate. The present study examines the relationship between two sets of factors. Firstly, the rate of infection with the virus and the ways it spreads are considered. Secondly, one of the most important climatic factors (direct solar radiation and radiation duration) is studied. This study aims to examine the relationship between these factors and the infection rate with COVID-19 in the six selected U.S. states, including Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah, which receive the maximum radiation and whose population density is at a high level. In order to conduct this study, the analysis of big data and referring to the United States Geological Survey (USGS) have been implemented. This quantitative study is based on analyzing satellite data in the GIS and R software applications. Generally, the research comprises three phases. Firstly, it produces data. Secondly, it examines the satellite images. Finally, it explores and analyses data via sampling techniques and regression tests. The results of this study have revealed that direct solar radiation and density are significantly related to the spread of COVID-19. In the case of radiation duration, investigations show that this variable does not influence the spread of the COVID-19 virus.
This study aims to evaluate the extent to which virtual reality (VR) natural and built settings affect emotional states. Web of Science, SCOPUS, and PubMed were searched for relevant articles prior to February 2022. Of 15 articles identified for systematic review, 6 met the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis (studies with only pre- and post-condition measures of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) were included). Both positive affect (g = 0.20, p = 0.001) and negative affect (g = − 0.30, p = 0.001) change scores for the VR natural environment were statistically significant. On the other hand, change scores for VR built environment were not significant in both positive affect (g = − 0.08, p = 0.355) and negative affect (g = − 0.08, p = 0.058). The findings revealed that, in addition to a VR natural environment, a VR built environment is capable of providing restorative experiences against negative mood in some circumstances.
Nowadays according to more attention to natural products, the development of research on this issue seems necessary. Many plants are known around the world to have antibacterial, antimicrobial, and antifungal properties. By using those plant compounds, antibacterial, antimicrobial, and fungal properties can be created in textiles. Textiles are one of the unavoidable requirements that all human beings use abundantly in their lives. In the natural dyeing process, the use of some medicinal plant compounds resulted in antibacterial, antimicrobial, and antifungal properties. In this study, medicinal plants such as thyme, clove, marjoram, lavender, wormwood, and espand were studied for antibacterial and antimicrobial properties on textiles. The antibacterial property of mordanted and dyed wool & cotton yarns were tested against Escherichia coli (Gram-negative), Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive), and Candida albicans microbe for cotton. The range of colour developed on dyed materials was evaluated in terms of (L*, a*, b*) CIE LAB coordinates and the dye absorption concentration on the yarns was studied by using K/S values. Also, fastness tests on dyed samples for light and washing fastness were carried out. The experimental results showed that the examined plants, in addition to creating antimicrobial and antibacterial properties on wool and cotton yarns, can be used as a dye to produce a durable yellow shade. The dyeing fastness of applied dyes was acceptable. Aloe vera, which has a polyphenolic structure, was used to increase dyeing fastness and durability of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The property was created to maintain its durability for several washed cycles.
An ongoing question is what constitutes the characteristics of a project manager. This is the subject of many studies. The characteristics, skills, abilities and knowledge of project managers—essential factors in a project’s success—describe their level of competency. This study aims to assess the relationship between project manager competencies and project complexity in the information technology (IT) sector. In total, 21 semi-structured interviews were conducted with senior practitioners associated with complex IT projects in the private and public sectors. All transcripts were analysed through grounded theory and content analysis, with experts approving the results. Our study identified 41 competencies within project complexity, with these grouped under the following 10 dimensions: project management (PM) knowledge; management skills; interpersonal skills and attributes; professionalism; expertise; emotional skills; contextual skills; influencing skills; team working; and cognitive skills. According to this research, leadership is the core competency of a project manager, while project management knowledge is the most essential of these competency dimensions. This study’s findings can assist both academics and practitioners in simplifying the complexity of projects and helping to achieve a project’s objectives.
Urban intensification and erection of high-rise buildings can affect the visibility of urban landmarks and pedestrians’ viewshed toward important monuments. Current 2D and 3D Isovist techniques use static rather than dynamic and cumulative view sheds to analyze visibility. The purpose of this research is to develop a method called ULVIA ¹ to assess the average visibility degree of urban landmarks in urban design process. Several factors such as observer and environmental characteristics as well as the concept of cumulative viewshed (using Nurbs data and ray casting in Grasshopper) have been considered to develop this method. Ark-e-Alishah Mosque in Tabriz was selected as a case study and three alternative 3D urban models were reproduced based on data and aerial photos of the monument and its urban context in 2003, 2020 and a proposed model. The ULVIA is executed in sequential steps. The findings reveal that the 2003 urban fabric creates visibility with normal intensity and distribution in all paths, the 2020 option does not have this balance, and the difference between riding and pedestrian mode is higher. The final proposed alternative has a higher visibility intensity and better distribution in both pedestrian and rider modes than other alternatives and therefore UlVIA has the potential to be integrated into urban design process to assess various development alternatives to achieve the best results in terms of historical landmarks’ visibility from surrounding environments.
Zinc sulfate and magnesium sulfate were used as additives to provide an effective simultaneous mordanting and dyeing process (meta mordant) for wool yarns with madder dyes extracted by ultrasound. In the dyeing procedure, aluminum sulfate and ferrous sulfate were used as mordants. A response surface methodology (RSM) experimental design was used to optimize the dyeing technique. Results showed that the highest color strength of dyed samples was achieved at 105–110 min at 1:30 ratio of aluminum sulfate to zinc sulfate, 1:10 ratio of aluminum sulfate to magnesium sulfate, and pH of 2.5–3. It was observed that the dyeing of yarns with extracted dye and ferrous sulfate could be carried out without using additives. The color properties of dyed yarns using the novel approach were compared to samples dyed using the conventional method (pre-mordant). The findings revealed that dyed samples using the novel approach had the same or greater color strength as dyed samples using the pre-mordant procedure. L* , a* , and b* of the dyed yarns by extracted dyes and aluminum sulfate in the presence of magnesium sulfate were approximately the same with yarns dyed by the pre-mordant method. Also, the color fastness properties of dyed samples by meta mordant method were acceptable in terms of wash, light, and rub fastnesses. Nearly similar or better color stability was achieved compared to the common method. In this respect, a novel efficient one bath method was introduced for deep dyeing of wool yarns with extracted madder dyes which can decrease the negative environmental impacts such as pollutants, water consumption, and energy in comparison to other conventional methods.
Stress propagation in soil under vehicular traffic can be simulated either analytically based on the laws of continuum mechanics or numerically using finite element (FEM) and discrete element methods (DEM). Soil stress measured by a stress probe may differ from the "true" stress (i.e. the stress without the probe), as probes under- or over-estimate soil stress. No instrument has yet been developed to enable true stress measurement, while simulated stress can only be validated by comparing with measured stress. Hence, it is important to model the interaction of soil with a load cell probe to understand the difference between "with probe" and "without probe" soil stress. This study aimed at modelling the interaction of a load cell stress probe and soil under circular surface loading (i.e. by plate sinkage test) using FEM and DEM to understand the differences of the two methods, and to address whether arable soil is a continuum or a discrete media with regard to stress propagation. Simulated stress was compared with experimental stress (i.e. the stress measured by the probe). Experimental stress measurements were made in a clay loam soil at a gravimetric water content of 11% (corresponding to 0.5 PL, the lower plastic limit) and bulk densities of 1000 and 1150 kg m⁻³ corresponding to loose to slightly compacted soil, respectively. The load cell probe was installed at 0.15 m depth within a soil column, and varying surface loads were applied by a circular plate. The measured stress as a function of applied load was compared with simulated stress using either FEM or DEM. Simulations underestimated the measured stress, with an RMSE of 22.8 kPa for DEM and 40.1 kPa for FEM. The difference in soil stress between simulations with and without a probe were small for DEM, but significant for FEM. For FEM simulations, embedding a stress probe into the soil resulted in an overestimation of the “true” stress by 94% for the soil and boundary conditions tested. For DEM, the average overestimation was only 11%. Differences between FEM and DEM simulations with and without a probe were discussed and attributed to the sponge effect in FEM, and to differences in stress distribution at the soil-loading plate interface caused by the arching effect. Simulations showed that increasing the ratio of probe housing diameter to sensing surface decreased the stress overestimation for both DEM and FEM methods. More research is needed to address how stress propagation and the stress readings by a sensor probe are influenced in continuum and granular media, and how soil stress should be best modelled (as a continuum or granular material) depending on soil properties and characteristics.
Nowadays, the construction industry has turned to the consumption of large amounts of natural resources in line with global population growth, which has led to the shortage of resources, and consequently increases in the construction debris; therefore, the present article has studied the positive and negative points of the architectural development process. The results have indicated that being compared to the former architecture; the development of architecture has reduced energy consumption by 78%. Hence, the scarcity of virgin resources and consequently the increase of environmental effects such as Global Warming Potential (GWP) have been measured based on the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). It has been illustrated that the architecture trend has increased the environmental impact of new materials by 5 times the old ones in GWP. To optimize and increase resource productivity, a review of buildings by the principles of Circular Economy (CE) has shown that 10% of old house materials and 3% of new house materials could be returned to the chain based on the CE concept. Other than reducing the GWP emissions of the construction industry and the development of zero waste systems, this paper, by replacing conventional materials with biocompatible, has been able to increase the Building Circularity (BC) by 27% in the old house and 3% in the new one, which emphasizes a regenerative approach. As a result, with this solution, more integrity would be observed between the construction environment and nature, both in the development of past architecture and in the improvement of future architecture.
The concept of dwelling is complicated and dynamic. Since the existing theories and perspectives on the concept of dwelling are often presented for the conditions and structures of formal settlements, they are inefficient for informal settlements. Due to the mental existence and interactive nature of the concept of dwelling, various residents have different experiences and perceptions of it. Therefore, the expansion of the informal settlements with various features and diverse types makes it necessary to accurately study and recognize them. The present study aims to recognize the residents' perception and experience of dwelling and investigate how it and related concepts are conceptualized in informal settlements in metropolitan areas by studying Morteza Gerd Informal Settlement in Tehran Metropolitan Area as a case study. This study is interpretive research emphasizing the researcher's interaction with the case study and the minimum objective distance with the participants. To this end, Corbin and Strauss's (Basics of qualitative research: techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory, Sage Publications, 2014) grounded theory is applied to interpret the data collected using in-depth semi-structured interviews and field observations to achieve theoretical saturation. The research findings indicate that the concept of dwelling is dynamic, and its defining components, such as calmness, tranquility, and security, take different meanings over time and are transformed. Their meanings change during three phases of dwelling through living in the context of a large family, intergroup conflict and competition, and replacement, displacement, and being absorbed into other areas. In all the phases mentioned, the core theme of the “dwelling” concept is the anti-deprivation of the residents and their efforts to enhance their capital and quality of life.
Nowadays, with the rapid development of cities, the demand for efficient and renewable energy, particularly solar radiation, is growing. Thus, urban planners and designers should employ solar energy analysis as a requirement to propose efficient solutions. This research aims to determine the maximum annual solar radiation with the least volume in various patterns of urban blocks and convert solar radiation modeling and analysis from simulation to emulation for types of urban blocks. As a result, simulation approaches such as Multi-Objective Optimization and Artificial Neural Networking were presented to characterize the influence of different urban scales on solar access and reach the optimal dimensions of the block. In Kermanshah, different patterns of urban blocks were investigated for the study on the urban block scale. The height, direction, number of plots, and scales impact access solar radiation energy and optimize the block’s dimensions. A study of 34 different urban blocks found that the ideal size is roughly 100*100 meters, while the best height is between 10 and 15 meters. Furthermore, the findings of predicting the data training models revealed that three outputs, the rate of solar radiation absorption, volume, and area of the urban block, can be predicted with an R2 score of 98% using the research input variables. Thus, radiation absorption estimations utilizing AI algorithms can ultimately replace traditional approaches and time-consuming large-scale energy estimates. The ANN methodology outperforms other machine learning techniques in predicting the objective function, which contains the amount of solar radiation absorption, volume, and surface area, according to the results of this research. Also, this research demonstrates how a simulation technique based on NSGA-II and ANN algorithms may drastically decrease computation time and costs while predicting optimum states prior to getting a real sample.
The level of automation in the construction industry is currently low, and there is a growing need for new fabrication techniques that can bring more flexibility. This paper aims to introduce an optical tool which can bring the digital fabrication data on the building site in a real-time procedure to facilitate construction of complex brick structures. This tool consists of three custom-made two-axis laser pointer devices, a micro-controller, and a processor that enable the user to identify the exact location of the objects in the real world. Additionally, a controlling sub-system is considered to reduce human errors. The efficacy of the proposed system was studied by four full-scale prototypes. The results showed that the average lateral error was 2.5 mm, the average orientation error was 1°, and the average construction time for each module was 27 s. This tool can provide more flexibility for constructing complex brick structures on the building site.
The authors of the Integrated ScienceIntegrated science:MultidisciplinarityMultidisciplinarityandInterdisciplinarityInterdisciplinarityinHealthHealth were asked how you would see the future of your field 30 years later. This chapter presents the authors’ views on this subject in 2050. The Al-Samah danceDance. In the above poem, Hushang Ebtehaj says, a kind of patience is to the dear; no kind of patience is to the dearest. Below, we say, a sight of doubt is in the dear; no sight of doubt is in the dearest. Here, we mean ourselvesOurselvesdisciplineDiscipline, field, or branch of the scienceScience of the dear and the integrated sciencesIntegrated science of the dearest – which can be generalized to the meaningMeaning of the existenceExistence of the dear and the unified existenceExistence of all existencesExistence of the dearest. Indeed, the above poem indicates how much passion humankind has to think from above, and the below one is the reasoningReasoning behind this passionate performance. [Adapted with permission from the Association ofScienceScienceand ArtArt(ASA),UniversalUniversalScientificScientificEducationEducationand ResearchResearchNetworkNetwork(USERN);ArtworkArtworkmade by Saba Sajaditabar; Nastaʼlīq prepared byhttp://nastaliqonline.ir/] The puzzle of Integrated ScienceIntegrated science: MultidisciplinarityMultidisciplinarity and InterdisciplinarityInterdisciplinarity in HealthHealth
In today’s worldWorld, artificialArtificialintelligenceIntelligence(AI)Artificial intelligence (AI) is considered an inevitable part of our lifeLife. AIArtificial intelligence (AI) in medicineMedicine has significantly evolved into a major player in the diagnosisDiagnosis and treatmentTreatment of diseasesDisease. However, this new phenomenonPhenomena has faced criticismCriticism due to many ethical and moralMoral challenges. To address these challenges, an understanding of ethical principlesPrinciple and various aspects of humanHumanscommunicationCommunication is necessary. HumansHumans are proven to affect each other by different means of communicationCommunication, and this should be deliberated meticulously to study a humanHumans-AIArtificial intelligence (AI)relationshipRelationship. A multi-dimensional comparison between humansHumansand AIArtificial intelligence (AI) has demonstrated the influence of AIArtificial intelligence (AI) on many aspects, including autonomyAutonomy, transparencyTransparency, privacyPrivacy, and the doctor-patientPatientsrelationshipRelationship. Finally, many people are concerned with the probabilityProbability of the replacement of physiciansPhysicianby AIArtificial intelligence (AI). This chapter will review the differences between humansHumansand AIArtificial intelligence (AI) to discuss current challenges and future directions on ethical considerations of AIArtificial intelligence (AI)-based medicineMedicine. Ethical deliberationDeliberationon AIArtificial intelligence (AI)-based medicineMedicine [Adapted with permission from the Association of ScienceScienceand ArtArt(ASA), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN); Made by Saina Adiban Afkham]. The code of this chapter is 01101001 01,110,00001,110,00001,111,00101,110,01001,110,10001,101,11101,001,11101,110,10101,101,110 01,110,100.
Introduction: The very complex and hazardous environment of underground mines may significantly contribute to occupational fatalities and injuries. Deploying wireless sensor network (WSN) technology has the potential to improve safety and health monitoring of miners and operators. However, the application of WSN in the industry is not fully understood and current research themes in this area are fragmented. Thus, there is a need for a comprehensive review that directly explores the contribution of WSNs to occupational safety and health (OSH) in underground mines. Method: This study aims to conduct a systematic literature review on the existing applications of WSNs for improving OSH in the underground mining industry to pinpoint innovative research themes and their main achievements, reveal gaps and shortcomings in the literature, recommend avenues for future scholarly works, and propose potential safety interventions. The major contribution of this review is to provide researchers and practitioners with a holistic understanding of the integration of WSN applications into underground mine safety and health management. Results: The review results have been categorized and discussed under three predominant categories including location monitoring and tracking, physiological and body kinematics monitoring, and environmental monitoring. Finally, seven major directions for future research and practical interventions have been identified based on the existing research gaps including: (1) further applications of WSNs for underground mining OSH management; (2) application of WSNs from research to real-world practice; (3) big data analytics and management; (4) deploying multiple WSNs-based monitoring systems; (5) integration of WSNs with other communication systems; (6) adapting WSNs to the Internet of Things (IoT) infrastructure; and (7) autonomous WSNs.
Increasing population causes Energy consumption and environmental pollution. It is essential to consider renewable forms of energy, especially solar power, to reduce energy consumption. This requires attention to energy issues in the early stages of urban design and practical and creative solutions for more efficient use of this type of energy. This study aims at calculating the annual solar radiation at a city scale through a novel process and methodology. In this regard, artificial intelligence algorithms and satellite data can help maximize the amount of sunlight in neighborhoods and urban blocks in neighborhood units during the development process. In the simulation process, location, and optimization of the urban form, it is necessary to consider the limitations and resources for field study and simulation of urban blocks. Therefore, in this study, Farhangian neighborhood in phase 1 of Kermanshah, Iran, which has a good level of structural diversity and lends itself to field studies, was selected and studied at neighborhood and urban block scales. The case study indicates the significant role of calculating and optimizing the patterns of urban blocks to achieve maximum solar energy. Estimates at different levels show that urban block variables effectively access solar radiation energy and, given various scales of development - from macro-scale spatial planning to micro-scale local design - can improve energy intake by 3 to 5 percent. Accordingly, the results show that to accelerate the calculation of energy at the planning scale, the use of 2.5D locating model and 3D optimization contribute to achieving the maximum or minimum solar radiation, respectively. On the other hand, this method can be used to organize calculations and planning for maximum absorption of solar radiation at different stages of development.
The benefits of nature contact for psychophysiological restoration have sparked a surge of scientific attention in recent years. The diverse psychophysiological mechanisms of stress recovery make assessment with a single marker impractical. The majority of restoration research employs a holistic approach, including subjective psychological and objective physiological measures concurrently. However, this association has not been decisively supported by empirical studies. The purpose of this systematic review is to determine the degree to which subjectively experienced restoration, as measured by self-reported scales, is associated with actual physiological changes. Searches for peer-reviewed primary research articles were conducted in SCOPUS and PubMed, returning 216 papers; the final synthesis includes 21 empirical studies published between 2008 and 2022. Findings show that there is a strong association between subjective and objective measures of restoration. Further analysis verified that using concurrently self-reported and objective measures in measuring restoration, notably the associations of Profile of Mood States (POMS), Perceived Restorativeness Scale (PRS), and Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) with Blood Pressure (BP) and Heart Rate (HR), resulted in the highest degree of consistency. However, there were negligible inconsistent associations, which were mainly reported by Restoration Outcome Scale (ROS) in psychological indicators and Salivary Cortisol (SC) and Electroencephalography (EEG) in physiological indicators. This suggests that the results of research that uses these measures simultaneously should be interpreted with caution.
We are living in a point in the history of science and technology, where space travel for research and settlement is inevitable. As the utmost crucial technology pieces for leaving Earth and travelling into the cosmos is being established one after another, it is just a matter of decades, until it all gets integrated together, solving the engineering problems ahead of the way and being able to step on the planets and moons of the solar system. In this quest, as has been the case for most of the technological advancements so far, there ought to be mind experiments, in which one skips one step, assumes the availability of responses to the skipped-over step, and searches for the solution to the questions of the next level. This way, by getting passed the first, i.e. current step, the solution to the next one is already available. The current manuscript is addressing this very ‘next step’, on the long path to eventually colonize Mars and inhabit it for long-term research-based missions; let it be for terraforming, or other agenda to be defined by the research strategists, then. And as mentioned earlier, the current step; being setting foot on Mars, is well-deservedly taken for granted, as is to come forth undoubtedly. Having that realized, we might find ourselves faced by the engineering complexities of surviving and thriving on Mars, which is the subject matter of the current research, from the aspect point of space technological and architectural design. The design procedure beginning from setting the philosophy of design upon the concerns of sustaining in the hostile environment of Mars, to the stepwise emergence of the final design of a cluster of Martian Habitat Units (MHUs) considering the high-criteria of the case, is the subject matter covered in this manuscript.
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