Technological University Dublin - City Campus
Recent publications
This research provides an adaptive control design in a photovoltaic system (PV) for maximum power point tracking (MPPT). In the PV system, MPPT strategies are used to deliver the maximum available power to the load under solar radiation and atmospheric temperature changes. This article presents a new adaptive control framework to enhance the performance of MPPT, which will minimize the complexity in system control and efficiently manage uncertainties and disruptions in the environment and PV system. Here, the MPPT algorithm is decoupled with model reference adaptive control (MRAC) techniques, and the system gains MPPT with overall system stability. The simulation and design of the new MRAC for MPPT based on a boost converter are addressed here. Moreover, a mathematical model is formulated and an efficient MRAC is designed for MPPT. To validate the robustness of the controller, MATLAB/Simulink is utilized to compare with the state-of-the-art approach, which is incremental conductance (INC) and perturb & observe (P&O) under various operating conditions based on the convergence time, tracking efficiency, PV current & voltage ripple, overall efficiency, and error rates. The proposed controller’s average tracking efficiency is 99.77% and 99.69% under diverse temperature and radiation conditions, respectively. In addition, it takes only 3.6 msec to capture MPP, which is around ten times faster than INC and twelve times faster than the P&O approach. When compared to INC and P&O, the MPP error rates in the MRAC-MPPT scheme are significantly lower. The simulation outcomes indicate that the presented controller exhibits excellent tracking under varying circumstances like solar radiation and temperature.
The voltage source converter (VSC) based HVDC (high voltage direct current system) offers the possibility to integrate other renewable energy sources (RES) into the electrical grid, and allows power flow reversal capability. These appealing features of VSC technology led to the further development of multi-terminal direct current (MTDC) systems. MTDC grids provide the possibility of interconnection between conventional power systems and other large-scale offshore sources like wind and solar systems. The modular multilevel converter (MMC) has become a popular technology in the development of the VSC-MTDC system due to its salient features such as modularity and scalability. Although, the employment of MMC converter in the MTDC system improves the overall system performance. However, there are some technical challenges related to its operation, control, modeling and protection that need to be addressed. This paper mainly provides a comprehensive review and investigation of the control and protection of the MMC-based MTDC system. In addition, the issues and challenges associated with the development of the MMC-MTDC system have been discussed in this paper. It majorly covers the control schemes that provide the AC system support and state-of-the-art relaying algorithm/ dc fault detection and location algorithms. Different types of dc fault detection and location algorithms presented in the literature have been reviewed, such as local measurement-based, communication-based, traveling wave-based and artificial intelligence-based. Characteristics of the protection techniques are compared and analyzed in terms of various scenarios such as implementation in CBs, system configuration, selectivity, and robustness. Finally, future challenges and issues regarding the development of the MTDC system have been discussed in detail.
In today’s rapidly evolving industrial landscape, control room operators must grapple with an ever-growing array of tasks and responsibilities. One major challenge facing these operators is the potential for task overload, which can lead to decision fatigue and increased reliance on cognitive biases. To address this issue, we propose the use of dynamic influence diagrams (DID) as the core of our decision support system. By monitoring the process over time and identifying anomalies, DIDs can recommend the most effective course of action based on a probabilistic assessment of future outcomes. Instead of letting the operator choose or search for the right procedure, we display automatically the optimal procedure according to the model. The procedure is streamlined compared to the traditional approach, focusing on essential steps and adapting to the system’s current state. Our research tests the effectiveness of this approach using a simulated formaldehyde production environment. Preliminary results demonstrate the ability of DIDs to effectively support control room operators in making informed decisions during times of high stress or uncertainty. This work represents an important step forward in the development of intelligent decision support systems for the process industries.
Introduction Machine learning as a clinical decision support system tool has the potential to assist clinicians who must make complex and accurate medical decisions in fast paced environments such as the emergency department. This paper presents a protocol for a scoping review, with the objective of summarising the existing research on machine learning clinical decision support system tools in the emergency department, focusing on models that can be used for paediatric patients, where a knowledge gap exists. Materials and methods The methodology used will follow the scoping study framework of Arksey and O’Malley, along with other guidelines. Machine learning clinical decision support system tools for any outcome and population (paediatric/adult/mixed) for use in the emergency department will be included. Articles such as grey literature, letters, pre-prints, editorials, scoping/literature/narrative reviews, non-English full text papers, protocols, surveys, abstract or full text not available and models based on synthesised data will be excluded. Articles from the last five years will be included. Four databases will be searched: Medline (EBSCO), CINAHL (EBSCO), EMBASE and Cochrane Central. Independent reviewers will perform the screening in two sequential stages (stage 1: clinician expertise and stage 2: computer science expertise), disagreements will be resolved by discussion. Data relevant to the research question will be collected. Quantitative analysis will be performed to generate the results. Discussion The study results will summarise the existing research on machine learning clinical decision support tools in the emergency department, focusing on models that can be used for paediatric patients. This holds the promise to identify opportunities to both incorporate models in clinical practice and to develop future models by utilising reviewers from diverse backgrounds and relevant expertise.
The rapid change in lifestyle and socio-economic improvement has allowed cereals and cereal-based products, including bakery items, to occupy a significant ratio of the daily diet of consumers worldwide. But microbial (yeast, mold, and bacteria) spoilage, oxidation of fats, and degradation of other components like proteins may result in significant economic loss and even pose a threat to public health. Apart from product’s inherent properties, their shelf life, quality, and safety also depends on packaging materials and technologies. Hence, designing technologically effective, economically viable, and consumer-friendly packaging for these essential food commodities is imperative. Appropriate packaging can prevent undesirable food wastage, ensure food safety, and avoid financial losses affecting consumers, manufacturers, retailers, and the entire food supply chain from farm to fork. This chapter studied the functions and properties of the packaging materials commonly used for bakery products. It also highlights the factors affecting products’ shelf-life and intends to present a comprehensive review of the product-specific packaging materials. Furthermore, the advanced packaging system used to extend the shelf life of cereal and cereal-based products and the challenges and future trends in the expansion of advanced packaging in the bakery industry were also discussed. Appropriate packaging materials can effectively delay or prevent microbial contamination, reduce lipid oxidation, and enhance the safety and quality of cereals and cereal-based products.
We study the existence and boundary behaviour of positive radial solutions of elliptic systems in Ω⊂RN\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\Omega \subset \mathbb {R}^N$$\end{document}, where Ω\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\Omega $$\end{document} is either a ball centered at the origin or the whole space RN\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\mathbb {R}^N$$\end{document}. Firstly, we determine optimal conditions for the existence of positive radial solutions when the system is posed in a ball corresponding to their behaviour at the boundary. Next, we take Ω=RN\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\Omega = \mathbb {R}^N$$\end{document} and by the use of dynamical system techniques we are able to describe the behaviour at infinity of such positive radial solutions.
In the era of digitalization, there is a huge focus on capturing data from manufacturing processes and systems. Since the promotion of Industry 4.0, the industrial marketplace has been crowded with solution providers who excel in capturing and aggregating data on the cloud and presenting it on dashboards. From machine states to production targets, this type of data has become more readily available from tools, controllers, switches, and factory bus systems. As the industry pushes deeper into the machine for information and aspires to have smart machines that can feel and react to experiences during the manufacturing process, then more sophisticated technology is necessary. Strain sensor technology is a logical measurement principle to address this challenge for many industrial sectors. For researchers and industrialists to progress toward the smart machine agenda, there must be a firm grasp of the “technology-solution fit,” i.e., what strain technology could provide the most appropriate solution. This paper presents a review of the state of the art in strain sensors that are foreseen as frontrunners to enable next-generation smart components and intelligent tools. The review focuses on industrial strain sensing technologies that are at a mature place on the technology readiness levels (TRLs) and present themselves as highly practical solutions for smart components and digitized machines, considering sensitivity, powered or passive, wired or wireless, and robustness. Through this review, researchers and industrialists will have a suite of solutions to move on with their innovative designs of smart machines based on embedded strain sensor technology.
Purpose: Changes in refractive error during young adulthood is common yet risk factors at this age are largely unexplored. This study explored risk factors for these changes, including gene-environmental interactions. Methods: Spherical equivalent refraction (SER) and axial length (AL) for 624 community-based adults were measured at 20 (baseline) and 28 years old. Participants were genotyped and their polygenic scores (PGS) for refractive error calculated. Self-reported screen time (computer, television, and mobile devices) from 20 to 28 years old were collected prospectively and longitudinal trajectories were generated. Past sun exposure was quantified using conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence (CUVAF) area. Results: Median change in SER and AL were -0.023 diopters (D)/year (interquartile range [IQR] = -0.062 to -0.008) and +0.01 mm/year (IQR = 0.000 to 0.026), respectively. Sex, baseline myopia, parental myopia, screen time, CUVAF, and PGS were significantly associated with myopic shift. Collectively, these factors accounted for approximately 20% of the variance in refractive error change, with screen time, CUVAF, and PGS each explaining approximately 1% of the variance. Four trajectories for total screen time were found: "consistently low" (n = 148), "consistently high" (n = 250), "consistently very high" (n = 76), and "increasing" (n = 150). Myopic shift was faster in those with "consistently high" or "consistently very high" screen time compared to "consistently-low" (P ≤ 0.031). For each z-score increase in PGS, changes in SER and AL increased by -0.005 D/year and 0.002 mm/year (P ≤ 0.045). Of the three types of screen time, only computer time was associated with myopic shift (P ≤ 0.040). There was no two- or three-way interaction effect between PGS, CUVAF, or screen time (P ≥ 0.26). Conclusions: Higher total or computer screen time, less sun exposure, and genetic predisposition are each independently associated with greater myopic shifts during young adulthood. Given that these factors explained only a small amount of the variance, there are likely other factors driving refractive error change during young adulthood.
Global water scarcity is a growing concern with particular connotations in the Middle East region. The case of Kuwait is explored in this paper with insights from the GCC region. Kuwait is a small oil-exporting economy, with a very poor fresh water rating that makes it one of the most water-stressed states in the world. Oil secures the population's water needs and supports business activities. However, water scarcity intensifies the country's inability to pursue an economically sustainable agenda, as there is a high dependence on oil to guarantee the desalination process of seawater to obtain needed fresh water for Kuwait. Current climate change pressures emphasise the need to minimise fossil fuel consumption, which poses significant threats to oil-rich economies in their quest for economic development and environmental sustainability. This research paper explores the geoeconomics and geopolitical dynamics of an oil-rich country in need of addressing water scarcity by connecting economic and political aspects of water security and conflict through oil revenues.
The significance of legal information in society stems from its role in facilitating individuals’ access to and comprehension of legal knowledge. This study introduces a novel methodology for legal querying, leveraging knowledge graphs as representations of the semantic essence within legal documents. Empirical investigations validate the efficacy of knowledge graph-based querying in effectively addressing the diverse requirements of users on a substantial scale. The success of the practical legal query application is a testament to the potential of this approach.
Objective The World Health Organization has urged member states to develop preparedness plans for infant and young child feeding (IYCF) during emergencies. Ireland has no such plan. We aimed to identify the needs of caregivers in Ireland with regards IYCF during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design Online survey conducted in May-June 2020. Setting Ireland, during the first period of severely restricted movement due to COVID-19 (lockdown). Participants Respondents (n=745) were primary caregivers of a child under 2 years; they were primarily well educated, and likely of higher socio-economic status. Results Among those who breastfed, being unable to access breastfeeding support groups and being unable to access in-person, one-to-one breastfeeding assistance were the biggest challenges reported. Nearly three quarters of those who had their babies during lockdown reported these challenges: 72.8% and 68.8%, respectively. For those using formula, the main challenges were structural in nature; approximately two thirds of those who had their baby prior to lockdown feared there would be formula shortages and a third were unable to purchase formula due to shortages. Conclusions Regardless of how their babies were fed, parents in Ireland experienced multiple challenges with infant feeding during the COVID-19 crisis. Breastfeeding should be protected, supported, and promoted, particularly during an infectious disease pandemic. Additionally, assurances around supply of infant formula could reduce parental stress during a pandemic or emergency. An IYCF in emergencies plan would clearly set out how we could best support and protect the nutrition of the most vulnerable members of our population.
This study analyses the experiences of working from home (WfH) during the COVID-19 pandemic and the impact it has on working mothers through the lens of “mental load.” Remote study, often lauded as a way to reduce work/life conflicts, can bring new multifaceted challenges for working mothers and, as this study shows, suddenly shifting to remote work led to the boundaries among work, care, and domestic labour becoming blurred. The data used here are from narrative interviews collected as part of the RESpondIng to outbreakS through co-creaTIve inclusive equality stRatEgies (RESISTIRÉ) Horizon 2020 project, which analyses the impact of COVID-19 policies on gendered inequalities across the EU27 and Türkiye, Serbia, UK, and Iceland. We draw on 12 narratives from working mothers in Austria, Bulgaria, Czechia, Denmark, Ireland, Estonia, Greece, Portugal, Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Slovakia. Employing thematic analysis, the analysis of these narratives, illuminates the challenges and opportunities of WfH and highlights its impact on mental load. While adding to the research on WfH and working mothers, the analysis also illustrates the lessons to be taken forward as well as underscoring the importance of mental load both theoretically and empirically.
Pro-environmental diversification of pasture-based livestock farms in European regions characterized by oceanic/maritime temperate climates is urgently needed to mitigate climate change, protect biodiversity, and ensure sustainable food production. To date, little is known about pro-environmental actions implemented by farmers based in these regions, their knowledge and beliefs about the practices they use as well as challenges encountered. The current study uses narrative interviewing approach employed predominantly within the social sciences to elicit and understand life experiences associated with farmers’ implementation of pro-environmental diversification. 15 Irish, 7 British, and 7 French farmers engaged in pro-environmental diversification were interviewed using a narrative approach. A qualitative, thematic analysis of the interview data found that, in most cases, farmers’ pursuit of pro-environmental diversification was associated with alternative farming systems such as organic agriculture, regenerative agriculture, agroforestry, and permaculture. Primary challengesexperienced by farmers implementing pro-environmental diversification were: a lack of clear regulation; information, and formal training in pro-environmental farming; along with labor requirements. The results of this study help to better understand farmers’ motivations in undertaking pro-environmental diversification and their perception of these actions, which can hinder the development of effective strategies and interventions to promote sustainable agriculture practices.
Précis Patients with glaucoma demonstrated deficiencies in their ability to process multi-sensory information when compared to controls, with those deficiencies being related to glaucoma severity. Impaired multi-sensory integration may affect the quality of life in individuals with glaucoma, and may contribute to the increased prevalence of falls and driving safety concerns. Therapeutic possibilities to influence cognition in glaucoma should be explored. Purpose Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease of the optic nerve that has also been linked to cognitive health decline. This study explored multi-sensory integration (MSI) as a function of glaucoma status and severity. Methods MSI was assessed in 37 participants with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) relative to 18 age-matched healthy controls. The sound-induced flash illusion (SIFI) was used to assess MSI efficiency. Participants were presented with various combinations of simultaneous visual and/or auditory stimuli and required to indicate the number of visual stimuli observed for each of 96 total presentations. Central retinal sensitivity was assessed as an indicator of glaucoma severity (MAIA; CenterVue). Results Participants with glaucoma performed with equivalent capacity to healthy controls on uni-sensory trials (F(1,53)=2.222, P =0.142). Both groups performed equivalently on congruent multi-sensory trials involving equal numbers of auditory and visual stimuli (F(1,53)=1.032, P =0.314). For incongruent presentations, i.e. two beeps and one flash stimulus, individuals with glaucoma demonstrated a greater influence of the incongruent beeps when judging the number of flashes, indicating less efficient MSI relative to age-matched controls (F(1,53)=11.45, P <0.002). Additionally, MSI performance was positively correlated with retinal sensitivity, (F(3,49)=4.042, P <0.025), adjusted R²=0.15). Conclusion Individuals with OAG exhibited MSI deficiencies which relate to disease severity. The type of deficiencies observed were similar to those observed among older individuals with cognitive impairment and balance issues. Impaired MSI may, therefore, be relevant to the increased prevalence of falls observed among individuals with glaucoma, a concept which merits further investigation.
Irish society is situated within a period of epoch-defining social change. We are facing in to a short number of decades, which promise the significant re-shaping of the political and social contours of our nation. Irish sociology's disciplinary mandate is to analyse that change, yet a historical debate has found new expression – heightened by the 30 th anniversary of the Irish Journal of Sociology (IJS) and the 50 th anniversary of the formation of the Sociological Association of Ireland (SAI) – as to whether the discipline is utilising the appropriate means to achieve its ends. The current sociological division of labour is unevenly balanced, with empirical inquiry and sub-disciplinary focus privileged over systemic and synthesised social theorising. In the absence of such theorising, sociology runs the risk of remaining an empirical adjunct to other disciplines, as opposed to its rightful position at the centre of the constellation of social sciences. This paper acts as a contribution to the critique of Irish sociology, considering the extent of the disciplines absent centre, providing an analysis as to how we have reached our particular disciplinary juncture and offering certain proposals regarding appropriate analytical anchors for future theoretical focus.
Background The Republic of Ireland (ROI) currently reports the second highest prevalence of adult obesity in Europe, with >25% of the adult population classified as obese. Concurrently, a concomitant increase has been reported for the risk of cardiovascular diseases and several cancers. While there has been extensive research on the health impacts of excess food intake, of the resulting food waste, also known as metabolic food waste (MFW) and its associated environmental impact has received little attention. Accordingly, the current study sought to estimate quantities of MFW from excess food intake among the Irish adult population and resulting global warming potential. Body weight and diet information were collected in a survey of 920 people across ROI. The excess fat of overweight (OW) and obese (OB) individuals was calculated and converted to excess calories using the Composition of Foods Integrated Dataset (CoFID 2021). The energy content (calories) of the food items was used to estimate the quantities (kg) of food consumed to gain the excess fat. Having derived the kg of food/MFW, the associated Global Warming Potential (GWP) was calculated. Results Calculated MFW were 50.84 kg/cap/yr and 122.2 kg/cap/yr for the OW and OB populations, respectively. Dairy produce accounted for the highest annual MFW in both groups (12.0 kg/cap (OW), 28.6 kg/cap (OB)), followed by cereals/grains (9.0 kg/cap, 21.5 kg/cap) and potatoes (7.1 kg/cap, 17.0 kg/cap). Calculated annual GWP of food items highlight dairy produce as having the highest GWP v (66.8 CO2 eq/kg for OW and 160.5 CO2 eq/kg for OB), followed by red meat (36.2 CO2 eq/kg for OW and 87.1 CO2 eq/kg for OB) and white meat (24.1 CO2 eq/kg for OW and 57.8 CO2 eq/kg for OB). Conclusions The Irish adult diet is characterized by high consumption of cereals/grains and dairy produce, with the annual volume of MFW generated by obese individuals more than twice the annual volume of food (52kg/cap) disposed of by individuals at home Key messages • Managing the consumption of dairy and meat products could accomplish two important goals: the promotion of environmental sustainability and the enhancement of public health. • In addition, managing obesity from the dietary stand point will encourage sustainable consumption and food security.
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12,384 members
Bujar Raufi
  • School of Computing
Amit K. Jaiswal
  • Environmental Health Sciences Institute (EHSI)
Swarna Jaiswal
  • School of Food Science and Environmental Health
Vivienne Byers
  • Environmental Health Sciences Institute (EHSI)
Samet Biricik
  • School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Grangegorman Campus, 7, Dublin, Co Dublin, Ireland
Head of institution
Professor David FitzPatrick
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