Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited hemoglobin disorder characterized by the occlusion of small blood vessels by sickle-shaped red blood cells. SCD is associated with a number of complications, including ischemic priapism. While SCD accounts for at least one-third of all priapism cases, no definitive treatment strategy has been established to specifically treat patients with SC priapism. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy and safety of contemporary treatment modalities for acute and stuttering ischemic priapism associated with SCD. The primary outcome measures were defined as resolution of acute priapism (detumescence) and complete response of stuttering priapism, while the primary harm outcome was as sexual dysfunction. The protocol for the review has been registered (PROSPERO Nr: CRD42020182001), and a systematic search of Medline, Embase, and Cochrane controlled trials databases was performed. Three trials with 41 observational studies met the criteria for inclusion in this review. None of the trials assessed detumescence, as a primary outcome. All of the trials reported a complete response of stuttering priapism; however, the certainty of the evidence was low. It is clear that assessing the effectiveness of specific interventions for priapism in SCD, well-designed, adequately-powered, multicenter trials are strongly required.
This paper is the continuation of the work developed by Monteiro et al. (J Ocean Eng Mar Energy, 2021). It analyzes the scenario of the energy production by the same natural cave, this time, equipped with Wells turbine. In addition to the energy production by the cave and the turbine behaviour analysis in a real environment of its operation, it is considered subjects such as the selection of the best material and the procedures followed for the turbine construction. The characteristic curve of the turbine is obtained and the results show that both the pneumatic and the turbine shaft power are very affected by the tidal states. The best values of the turbine shaft power P (798–1030.0 W) is achieved for flow coefficients φ ranging from 0.20 to 0.34. However, the best turbine efficiency η (81%) is obtained when φ=1.12. The maximum turbine shafts power, 1.03 kW, occurs when the flow coefficient is 0.46. In this case, the turbine efficiency is 20.3%. This last parameter rises rapidly when 0.461.12. The high pneumatic power condition is always associated with low turbine efficiency. Over the turbine operation, it is noticed, the hysteresis phenomenon which is geometrically described by a loop. During the accelerated airflow, the dimensionless torque exhibits, as a function of the flow rate coefficient, an anti-clockwise hysterical loop, with lower values obtained for the acceleration process. However, the turbine efficiency shows an opposite behaviour. The hydraulic and the turbine shaft powers are clockwise loop curves, presenting higher values during the acceleration, than those ones achieved for the deceleration process.
This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that the inclusion of condensed tannins (CT) from Cistus ladanifer aerial part or extract in a diet composed of dehydrated lucerne and supplemented with 60 g/kg of soybean oil can modulate the rumen microbiome and increase the production of healthy biohydrogenation intermediates (BI). Hence, thirty-six lambs were used to evaluate the effect 3 levels of C. ladanifer CT (0, 1.25 and 2.5% of CT) and two ways of CT supply (C. ladanifer aerial parts and C. ladanifer CT extract) on rumen fatty acids and volatile fatty acids profile and ciliate protozoa and bacteria community composition. The experiment lasted 35 days, and rumen samples were collected immediately after slaughter. Ciliate protozoa were analyzed by microscopic counting, and high-throughput 16 S rRNA gene sequencing was used to analyse rumen bacterial composition. Condensed tannins diets did not affect ruminal fermentation. The inclusion of C. ladanifer aerial part or extract in lamb diets did not increase the t11-18:1 in the rumen content. On the other hand, the t11-18:1 proportion was lower in the rumen of lambs fed both C. ladanifer diets and the highest level of extract diet when compared with the lowest level of extract diet and the diets without CT inclusion. Regarding the rumen microbiome, the total of ciliates was not influenced by the CT level in diets but decreased with the inclusion of C. ladanifer aerial part in the diet. Entodinium genus was strongly and positively related with both total BI and t11-18:1 and it also was the ciliate genus most negatively related with rumen estimate biohydrogenation (BH) completeness. Independently of the diets, the bacterial community of rumen content was dominated by Firmicutes (49.8%) and Bacteroidetes (30.8%) phyla. The Lachnobacterium was the genus most closely related with t11-18:1 and negatively related with 18:0 and BH completeness, which suggests that the Lachnobacterium plays an important role on the BH when diets without CT inclusion and lower dose of C. ladanifer extract was fed to lambs, being responsible for t11-18:1 ruminal production. Cistus ladanifer aerial part and extract influenced the ruminal microbial composition, but at the conditions used, the increase in the ruminal production of healthy BI was not observed, highlighting the inconsistent BH response to dietary CT and underlining the need to develop efforts to increase knowledge about this CT source and its interactions with other feed factors and with the ruminal microbial community.
The effect of partial lean pork-meat replacement by white Phaseolus vulgaris L. flour in hybrid burgers was studied. A multivariate regression model was used to test different bean flour levels (BF: 8-15 g/100 g) and water/bean flour ratios (W/BF: 1.2, 1.6, and 1.8 g/g). Process yield, texture profile analysis, color parameters, thermal transitions, and microstructure of the systems were analyzed. Respond Surface Methodology was used to model the response behaviors and optimization. Burgers with BF showed yields higher than 88%. Hardness and cohesiveness decreased as the BF level increased, with a more noticeable effect when the W/BF ratio became larger. Regarding color, the higher the BF and the W/BF ratio in burgers, the higher the L* obtained. The desirability optimization predicted an optimum formulation consisting of 15 g BF/100 g and 1.36 g/g W/BF with similar attributes to a commercial pork burger. The thermal analysis showed an increase in the enthalpy associated with the myosin denaturation and the interactions between meat proteins and BF led to higher temperatures for the starch gelatinization and protein denaturation. The microstructure of BF burgers presented a more stable coarse gel matrix derived from coagulated meat proteins combined with the flour components. The mathematical procedure adequately predicted the hybrid burger quality attributes.
The most prevalent microorganism in diabetic foot infections (DFI) is Staphylococcus aureus, an important multidrug-resistant pathogen. The antimicrobial peptide nisin is a promising compound for DFI treatment, being effective against S. aureus. However, to avoid the selection of resistant mutants, correct drug therapeutic doses must be established, being also important to understand if nisin subinhibitory concentrations (subMIC) can potentiate resistant genes transfer between clinical isolates or mutations in genes associated with nisin resistance. The mutant selection window (MSW) of nisin was determined for 23 DFI S. aureus isolates; a protocol aiming to prompt vanA horizontal transfer between enterococci to clinical S. aureus was performed; and nisin subMIC effect on resistance evolution was assessed through whole-genome sequencing (WGS) applied to isolates subjected to a MEGA-plate assay. MSW ranged from 5–360 μg/mL for two isolates, from 5–540 μg/mL for three isolates, and from 5–720 μg/mL for one isolate. In the presence of nisin subMIC values, no transconjugants were obtained, indicating that nisin does not seem to promote vanA transfer. Finally, WGS analysis showed that incubation in the presence of nisin subMIC did not promote the occurrence of significant mutations in genes related to nisin resistance, supporting nisin application to DFI treatment.
This study analyzed the effect of food-related stresses on the expression of antibiotic resistance of starter and protective strains and resistance gene transfer frequency. After exposure to high-pressure processing, acidic and osmotic stress, the expression of genes encoding resistance to aminoglycosides (aac(6′)Ie-aph(2″)Ia and aph(3′)-IIIa) and/or tetracyclines (tetM) increased. After cold stress, a decrease in the expression level of all tested genes was observed. The results obtained in the gene expression analysis correlated with the results of the phenotype patterns. After acidic and osmotic stresses, a significant increase in the frequency of each gene transfer was observed. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study focused on changes in antibiotic resistance associated with a stress response among starter and protective strains. The results suggest that the physicochemical factors prevailing during food production and storage may affect the phenotype of antibiotic resistance and the level of expression of antibiotic resistance genes among microorganisms. As a result, they can contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance. This points to the need to verify strains used in the food industry for their antibiotic resistance to prevent them from becoming a reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes.
Enterococcus are opportunistic pathogens that have been gaining importance in the clinical setting, especially in terms of hospital-acquired infections. This problem has mainly been associated with the fact that these bacteria are able to present intrinsic and extrinsic resistance to different classes of antibiotics, with a great deal of importance being attributed to vancomycin-resistant enterococci. However, other aspects, such as the expression of different virulence factors including biofilm-forming ability, and its capacity of trading genetic information, makes this bacterial genus more capable of surviving harsh environmental conditions. All these characteristics, associated with some reports of decreased susceptibility to some biocides, all described in this literary review, allow enterococci to present a longer survival ability in the hospital environment, consequently giving them more opportunities to disseminate in these settings and be responsible for difficult-to-treat infections.
Background: Pyometra is a diestrual chronic disease frequently associated with Escherichia coli. Initial pyometra treatment involves empiric antimicrobial therapy whose suitability should be confirmed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Antimicrobial resistance is a major health issue for veterinary medicine, rendering surveillance studies essential. Our goal was to determine the susceptibility profile of E. coli isolates obtained from healthy and pyometra-presenting dogs and to compare the application of different antimicrobial susceptibility guidelines. Methods: The antimicrobial susceptibility profile (ASP) of 74 E. coli isolates was determined by disk diffusion, using six antimicrobials commonly used in veterinary medicine. Profiles were assessed by CLSI VET01S, CLSI M100 and EUCAST guidelines. β-lactamases-encoding genes blaTEM, blaSHV and blaOXA were detected by multiplex PCR. Biofilm production ability was evaluated by pellicle formation assays in Luria-Bertani medium. Results: Variations in the resistance frequency were observed for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cephalexin and cefotaxime (29.7-54.1%, 10.8-16.2% and 1.4-4.1%, respectively). Results varied slightly between clinical and commensal isolates, as well as their biofilm-forming ability. Genes blaTEM, blaSHV and blaOXA were detected in 25.5%, 11.8% and 9.8% of isolates, respectively. Conclusions: Results show the importance of ASP determination in veterinary isolates and the need for using standardized and validated testing methods and harmonized interpretive criteria.
The Iberian hare ( Lepus granatensis ) is an endemic species of the Iberian Peninsula and the only hare species found in Portugal, although also being present in some areas of Spain. The reduction of wild hare populations due to several ecological and sanitary factors, has been raising growing concerns in the recent years. Despite different helminth species were already described in Iberian hares in Portugal, to this date, no filarial worms have been identified in this species. Furthermore, only a few studies on lagomorphs’ onchocercid worms are available, referring to other hosts species of hares and/or rabbits. In this study, we describe the presence of filarial worms in the blood vessels of two adult Iberian hares collected in 2019 in continental Portugal. Morphology and sequencing data from the 12S rRNA , coxI , 18S rRNA , myoHC , hsp70 and rbp1 genes, showed that the filaroid species were genetically related with Micipsella numidica . However, the extension of the genetic differences found with M. numidica suggests that the filaroids specimens under study belong to a new species, that we provisionally named Micipsella iberica n. sp. . The body location of this putative new parasite species and its physiological implications indicate that it may constitute a potential menace to the already fragile Iberian hare justifying, therefore, further investigation regarding the morphological characterization, prevalence and real clinical impact of this new parasite in hares.
The influence of drying (sun-drying and shade-drying) on the elemental composition of two brown seaweeds (Treptacantha abies-marina, Cystoseira humilis) and two red seaweed species (Asparagopsis armata and Asparagopsis taxiformis) harvested in the Faial Island (Azores Islands, Portugal) was assessed. The contents of sixteen nutritionally and toxicologically relevant elements were determined: sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), sulphur (S), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), bromine (Br), cadmium (Cd), iodine (I), and lead (Pb). While the most abundant macroelement in T. abies-marina and C. humilis was K (64.1–71.0 g kg−1 dw), for both Asparagopsis species, this position was held by Na (85.6–115.3 g kg−1 dw). Iodine content did not surpass 0.1 g kg−1 dw in the brown seaweeds and varied between 4.6 and 5.7 g kg−1 dw in Asparagopsis species. The I Dietary Reference Intake may be ensured by less than 1 g of dried A. armata or A. taxiformis per week. For T. abies-marina and C. humilis, 10.5 g or more of dried seaweed per week may be required. However, excessive I can be a health risk: 1–2 g of dried A. armata or A. taxiformis per week may result in I-related health risks. Moreover, there are As-related health risks for the consumption of C. humilis and, especially, T. abies-marina. The type of drying did not show a clear effect upon the elemental composition.
The Notch signaling pathway is an important determinant of cell diversity and identity in most developing embryonic tissues. The pathway components are expressed dynamically, and their function is critical for embryonic survival.This protocol addresses the immunolocalization of Notch pathway components by confocal microscopy.
The design is, by nature, interdisciplinary and collaborative and being so, the contribution of other disciplines is essential to locating the design’s knowledge. Considering the widely interdisciplinary field of fashion and clothing studies, a mixture of methodologies is required. According to Kaiser and Green (2016), the triangulation method makes sense as a methodological approach in fashion studies. In genderless clothing context and by studying genderless fashion, using the triangulation method makes sense in this interdisciplinary fashion research. This paper aims to describe the research methodology and methodological structure of a study that was applied in a fashion doctoral thesis. The methods used in this research to study genderless fashion design are clothes images analysis, a survey, and a proposal of a capsule collection. This interdisciplinarity study, the main issues approached come from different scientific fields, such as gender issues (from the Sociological field), consumer behaviour regarding genderless clothing (from the Marketing field), and genderless fashion design (from the Fashion Design field). This fashion research approach shows that the applied research methodologies converge in new knowledge by building theory through design.
Background: Puberty is a period of intense changes in human body and, additionally, participation in sports is viewed as prominent form of physical activity among male adolescent athletes. The current study was aimed to examine the intra-individual changes in body composition and bone tissue during years of maximal growth and the effect of 12-month participation in sports contrasting in mechanical impact. Methods: The sample included 40 male adolescent athletes (soccer: n = 20; swimming: n = 20) aged 12.57 ± 0.37 years who were followed for 12 months. Stature and body mass were measured, bone mineral content (BMC), areal bone mineral density (aBMD), lean soft and fat tissues assessed using DXA. Food intake was estimated using a questionnaires and training sessions individually monitored. Repeated measures ANOVA tested the differences between sports and 12-month intra-individual variation (time moments: TM1, TM2). The analyses on aBMD for total body and total body less head were repeated controlling for variation in stature at baseline. Results: Soccer players completed 63 ± 31 sessions (95 ± 47 h). Respective values for swimmers were 248 ± 28 sessions and 390 ± 56 h. In general, the analysis of aBMD as dependent variable evidenced significant effect of sport-associated variation (F = 5.254, p < 0.01; η2 = 0.35) and 12-month increments, particularly at lower limbs (F = 97.238, p < 0.01; η2 = 0.85). Respective mean values for aBMD were SCCTM1 = 0.885 g.cm-2, SWMTM1 = 0.847 g.cm-2, SCCTM2 = 0.939 g.cm-2, SWMTM2 = 0.880. Regarding the lean soft tissue, the magnitude of effects was very large for intra-individual variation (F = 223.043, p < 0.01; η2 = 0.92) and moderate between sports (F = 7.850, p < 0.01; η2 = 0.41): SCCTM1 = 30.6 kg, SWMTM1 = 34.9 kg, SCCTM2 = 35.8 kg, SWMTM2 = 40.5 kg). Finally, d-cohen values reporting percentage of intra-individual changes in aBMD between soccer players ad swimmers were large for the trochanter (d = 1.2; annual increments: SCC = 8.1%, SWM = 3.6%). Conclusion: Puberty appeared as a period of significant intra-individual changes in lean soft tissue and bone mineral density. With increasing accumulated training experience, mean difference between sports contrasting in mechanical impact tended to me more pronounced in particular at the lower limbs.
The incorporation of sustainable protein sources in animal feeding is a growing trend. So far, no study has investigated in vitro digestion of meat, from broilers fed microalgae, in a human model. This research aimed to evaluate the effect of incorporating Chlorella vulgaris in the broilers diet on human protein digestibility, and mineral bioaccessibility. The study used 240 male Ross 308 broilers randomly allocated to groups fed a control diet or a diet where soybean meal was replaced with 10% (CV10%), 15% (CV15%), or 20% (CV15%) of C. vulgaris for 40 days. The microalga supplementation increased the protein and lowered the fat content in the muscle. Results on the percentages of amino acids highlighted that arginine and threonine proportions increased and lysine and cysteine proportions decreased with microalga inclusion. CV15% and CV20% meat had higher amount of K, Ca, Mg, P, and Fe in raw breasts, improving the nutrient composition of the meat. Cooking caused a decrease in Na and K and an increase in other minerals. CV20% had higher bioaccessibility of K, Ca, Mg, P, and Mg, compared to the control. Replacing soybean meal in broiler feed with higher concentrations of C. vugaris could improve the digestibility of meat protein and minerals.
Alternative feed ingredients, such as microalgae, may be more sustainable in comparison to conventional feedstuffs that need large amounts of arable land and are often imported. This study evaluates the effects of Chlorella vulgaris various inclusion levels in the diet of broiler chickens on performance, carcass yield, organ measurements, breast meat quality, fatty acids profile, and antioxidant capacity. A total of 240 five-days old male Ross 308 broilers were randomly allotted to 4 groups (6 replicates of 10 birds each). Each group received either a control diet or a diet where soybean meal was replaced with 10 % (CV10%), 15% (CV15%) or 20% C. vulgaris for 40 days. Performance parameters, carcass and meat traits were evaluated. Compared to the control group, birds supplemented with C. vulgaris (15% and 20%) had lower body weight, weight gain, and feed intake (P < 0.0001), whereas no differences were observed between the control and CV10% groups (P > 0.05). Feed conversion ratio did not differ between control and CV groups. Diets containing C. vulgaris significantly increased ileal digesta viscosity, weight and size of several gastrointestinal compartments, as well as breast muscle yield (P < 0.0001). Incorporation of C. vulgaris resulted in yellower breast muscle (P < 0.0001), with significantly increased chlorophyll a (P< 0.05), chlorophyll b, and total carotenoids contents (P <0.0001). Inclusion of C. vulgaris decreased bacterial count in meat samples in comparison to controls (P < 0.0001). A 20% C. vulgaris inclusion resulted in higher water holding capacity (P< 0.05) and lower cooking loss (P< 0.05). As dietary C. vulgaris increased, concentrations of DHA+EPA (P< 0.05) and n-3 PUFA (P< 0.0001) increased in breast meat, while the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio decreased (P< 0.0001). Sensory analysis showed that breast meat from the CV10% group had the highest acceptance score. Overall, dietary concentrations of C. vulgaris of up to 20% improve breast meat quality, whereas 10% of C. vulgaris inclusion is recommended.
Motricidade humana: o itinerário de um conceito Resumo São muitos os que se licenciaram em Educação Física e relativizam a fixidez do nome que pretende definir a sua profissão. Com efeito, nenhum deles se vê cartesianamente centrado na educação de físicos. A passagem do físico à motricidade que não confundo com movimento tão-só (ao invés de alguns estudiosos), surge como a mudança de lugar do corpo humano, num espaço e tempo determinados, com as características de um processo objetivo. Procuro fundamentar a motricidade humana na intencionalidade e no mundo da vida. Ao anunciar-se um novo paradigma (ação intencional e solidária de transcendência), a Ciência da Motricidade Humana procura servir também os anseios de todos os marginalizados pela sociedade injusta. Verdadeiramente, o Ser Humano é ser-ao-mundo-com-outrem. E tudo isto, em busca da transcendência, da superação, da plenitude, do ser-mais. Palavras-chave: Ciência da Motricidade Humana. Intencionalidade. Transcendência. Human motricity: the itinerary of a concept Abstract There are many who graduated in Physical Education and relativize the fixity of the name that intends to define their profession. Indeed, none of them sees itself as being Cartesian focused on the education of physicists. The passage from the physical to the motricity, which I do not confuse with movement only (instead of some researchers), appears as the change of place of the human body, in a determined space and time, with the characteristics of an objective process. I try to ground human motricity in intentionality and in the world of life. By announcing a new paradigm (the intentional and solidary action of transcendence), the Science of Human Motricity also seeks to serve the aspirations of all those marginalized by an unjust society. Truly, the Human Being is to-be-to-the-world-with-others. And all this, in search of transcendence, overcoming, fullness, from of to-be-most. Keywords: Human Motricity Science. Intentionality. Transcendence. Motricidad humana: el itinerario de un concepto Resumen Son muchos los que se gradúan en Educación Física y relativizan la fijeza del nombre que pretende definir su profesión. De hecho, ninguno de ellos se ve a sí mismo como cartesiano centrado en la formación de físicos. El paso de lo físico a la motricidad, que no confundo sólo con movimiento (a diferencia de algunos estudiosos), aparece como el cambio de lugar del cuerpo humano, en un espacio y tiempo determinados, con las características de un proceso objetivo. Intento fundamentar la motricidad humana en la intencionalidad y en el mundo de la vida. Al anunciar un nuevo paradigma (la acción intencional y solidaria de la trascendencia), la Ciencia de la Motricidad Humana también busca servir las aspiraciones de todos aquellos marginados por una sociedad injusta. Verdaderamente, el Ser Humano es ser-al-mundo-con-otren. Y todo ello, en busca de la trascendencia, la superación, la plenitud, del ser-más. Palabras clave: Ciencia de la Motricidad Humana. Intencionalidad. Trascendencia.
In nature, the deconstruction of plant carbohydrates is carried out by carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). A high-throughput (HTP) strategy was used to isolate and clone 1476 genes obtained from a diverse library of recombinant CAZymes covering a variety of sequence-based families, enzyme classes, and source organisms. All genes were successfully isolated by either PCR (61%) or gene synthesis (GS) (39%) and were subsequently cloned into Escherichia coli expression vectors. Most proteins (79%) were obtained at a good yield during recombinant expression. A significantly lower number (p < 0.01) of proteins from eukaryotic (57.7%) and archaeal (53.3%) origin were soluble compared to bacteria (79.7%). Genes obtained by GS gave a significantly lower number (p = 0.04) of soluble proteins while the green fluorescent protein tag improved protein solubility (p = 0.05). Finally, a relationship between the amino acid composition and protein solubility was observed. Thus, a lower percentage of non-polar and higher percentage of negatively charged amino acids in a protein may be a good predictor for higher protein solubility in E. coli. The HTP approach presented here is a powerful tool for producing recombinant CAZymes that can be used for future studies of plant cell wall degradation. Successful production and expression of soluble recombinant proteins at a high rate opens new possibilities for the high-throughput production of targets from limitless sources.
Coronaviruses have been responsible for major epidemic crises in 2003 with SARS-CoV-1, in 2012 with MERS-CoV and in 2019 with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), causing serious atypical pneumonia in humans. We intend, with this systematic analysis and meta-analysis, to clarify the prevalence of the various strains of coronavirus in different animal species. For this purpose, we carried out an electronic survey using Pubmed's Veterinary Science search tool to conduct a systematic assessment of published studies reporting the prevalence of different strains of coronavirus in different animal species between 2015 and 2020. We conducted different analysis to assess sensitivity, publication bias, and heterogeneity, using random effect. The final meta-analysis included 42 studies for systematic review and 29 in the meta-analysis. For the geographic regions with a prevalence greater than or equal to 0.20 (Forest plot overall; prevalence = 0.20, p < 0.01, Q = 10,476.22 and I2 = 100%), the most commonly detected viruses were: enteric coronavirus (ECoV), pigeon-dominant coronavirus, (PdCoV), Avian coronavirus M41, Avian coronavirus C46, Avian coronavirus A99, Avian coronavirus JMK, MERS-CoV, Bovine coronavirus, Ro-BatCoV GCCDC1, Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Deltacoronavirus, Gamacoronavirus and human coronaviruses (HCoVs). The wide presence of different strains of coronavirus in different animal species on all continents demonstrates the great biodiversity and ubiquity of these viruses. The most recent epidemiological crises caused by coronavirus demonstrates our unpreparedness to anticipate and mitigate emerging risks, as well as the need to implement new epidemiological surveillance programs for viruses. Combined with the need to create advanced training courses in One Health, this is paramount in order to ensure greater effectiveness in fighting the next pandemics.
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