Background This article aims to provide information on the diameter distribution of naturally regenerated forests of Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich), a tree species endemic in the mountains of the Eastern Mediterranean basin and assess their prediction ability with the Johnson SB distribution. Previous research attested to the flexibility of Johnson family distributions to mimic empirical diameter data for a large set of tree species, justifying its use for the case study. A set of 134 plots (400 m²) were sampled in the most represented areas of the distribution of the species in Türkiye and diameter at breast height was measured in all the living trees. The cedar forests displayed heterogeneous diameter structures with diameters range from 10 to 116 cm and irregular shapes (e.g. unimodal, bell-shaped, left- and right-skewed, and non-uniform). Over three-quarters of the empirical diameter distributions (104 sample plots) were classified as SB distribution. The remaining were classified as bounded at the lower end, SL (16) or unbounded, SU (14). The authors essayed the 3-parameter and 4-parameter recovery methods after Parresol and Fonseca and other´s fundamental studies. The 3-parameter recovery method outperformed the 4-parameter method in the convergence criterion and error index (EI) expressed in the basal area. Results Results show that the Johnson SB distribution can adequately reproduce the high variability in diameter for most of the distributions observed in these natural forests, providing reliable estimates which can serve as a basis for decision support systems. Conclusion The SB distribution can represent the diameter distributions of natural cedar forests, even if the empirical distributions are not in the region covered by this distribution. Keywords: Taurus cedar; structural diversity; parameter recovery; stand attributes; forest management
This paper presents a novel closed-loop frequency control algorithm that captures the resonant frequency of a Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) system to obtain high-efficiency at maximum power transfer in moving electric vehicles. The control algorithm of the WPT system is designed regarding the WPT has magnetically coupled series-series resonant circuit topology. The study mainly focuses on catching the resonant frequency depending on the changes in air gap, load, and inductance. The proposed algorithm is able to detect the resonant frequencies, allowing the maximum power transfer under inductive, ohmic, or capacitive behaviour of the system. Simple, fast and cheap structure of the algorithm renders obtaining the resonant frequency in a wide frequency range. Moreover, once the resonant frequency of the inverter is obtained, switching loss is minimized by leveraging Zero Current Switching (ZCS). The numerical simulations of the control algorithm are performed in MATLAB/Simulink. Furthermore, a Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis is conducted by utilizing co-simulation of Ansys Maxwell 3D -Simplorer -MATLAB/Simulink. Finally, the developed system is experimentally tested for several air gap values and it is verified that the system is able to operate with high efficiency for the distances less than the critical air gap.
While inflation-indexed bonds focus on mitigating the impact of inflation and preserving the purchasing power of investors, green bonds prioritize investments in environmentally responsible projects. These bond types offer distinct investment opportunities that cater to the diverse preferences and objectives of investors. With this in mind, this study aims to explore the dynamic relationship between inflation-indexed bonds and green bonds using wavelet analysis, quantile regression, and the Diebold-Yilmaz procedures for the period spanning October 2016 to January 2021. By considering green bonds as indicative of green energy outlooks and inflation-indexed bonds as reflective of overall economic conditions, we investigate the hypothesis that inflation-indexed bonds dominate green bonds within a sample of emerging markets. Our findings reveal significant interdependence between green bonds and inflation-indexed bonds across various wavelet time scales. Consistent with recent research, inflation-indexed bonds exhibit a dominant influence on the relationship, while the nature of this dependence alternates between positive and negative. Furthermore, quantile connectedness analysis demonstrates that spillover transmissions are more pronounced during extreme positive and negative market conditions. The outcomes of this study hold relevance for both investors and policymakers alike.
There is a total of six insect species belonging to four families from the order Hemiptera, used in the production of red dye as a natural dyestuff. Carmine is obtained from Dactylopius coccus (Costa, 1829) (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) feeding on prickly pears ( Opuntia spp.). The genus Dactylopius includes a total of 11 species, and none of them except D. coccus were declared as a dye insect. The reported use of Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell, 1896) as a natural dye insect, was more widespread than D. coccus, and advantages versus D. coccus were announced for the first time in this study. To prove the hypothesis that D. opuntiae could be used as a natural dyestuff, silk fabric samples were dyed with D. opuntiae, naturally distributed in Cyprus. The light, wet and dry friction fastness values of the dyed fabric samples were tested. Also the carminic acid values of D. opuntiae were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis and surface imaging analysis (scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer). The results of the fastness values of the dyed fabric samples and the high carminic acid content of D. opuntiae showed that this species has a very high potential to be used as the 7th natural dye insect in the world.
In the study, effects of S. officinalis essential oil on growth performance, health and antioxidant activity in C. carpio were investigated. The fish (13 ± 0.21 g) were fed with diet containing 1 and 3 ml kg− 1 of sage oil for 60 days. At the end of study, growth performance was not affected in fish fed with sage essential oil (p > 0.05). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in hepatopancreas increased with addition of 1ml kg− 1 sage oil to the diet. However, Catalase (CAT) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) values were not significantly altered in common carp. Total protein, albumin, glucose and hepatopancreas enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP)) in blood serum were not affected by sage essential oil supplementation. At the histological examinations, no pathological findings were observed in hepatopancreas and intestine of carp. Goblet cells number and villi length in intestine increased with sage supplementation (p < 0.001). In addition, fertility, granulation and number of follicles increased in common carp fed with sage essential oil. Mortality after challenged with A. hydrophila was not observed in carp fed with 1ml kg− 1 concentration of sage essential oil. As a result, use of sage oil can be recommended in carp farming to improve gut health, provide disease resistance against A. hydrophila infection, and increase of fertility.
This study aims to evaluate differences in the morphological and morphometric features of hard tissue components of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in the cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of children with different skeletal models in the sagittal and vertical plane. Condyle dimensions, horizontal condylar angle, the distance of the condyle center to the midsagittal plane, condyle position, eminence height, eminence inclination, condyle, and fossa shape and symmetry were evaluated in CBCT images in 190 TMJs in 95 pediatric patients. Patients were classified as Class 1–2–3 in the sagittal direction, as hypodivergent, normodivergent, and hyperdivergent in the vertical direction. Children were divided into 10–13 and 14–17 age groups. The left superior joint space in children with a different skeletal model in the sagittal plane was lower and found to be statistically significant in Class 3 children (p < 0.05). A statistically significant difference was found lower in the left articular eminence inclination and height in Class 3 children (p < 0.05). The most common oval fossa form was seen in Classes 2–3 children (p < 0.05). It was determined that the anterior joint space was lower in hyperdivergent children and the condyle was located more anteriorly. The mediolateral length of the condyle and the height of the articular eminence were positively correlated with age. The results revealed that the difference in skeletal models seen in sagittal and vertical planes in children may cause morphological and morphometric changes in the hard tissue components of TMJ.
In this work TiO2 and metal-doped TiO2 films were grown by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction Method (SILAR) with the same doping ratio and deposition parameters. The optical, electrical and structural properties of prepared films were investigated using various analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), UV–VIS spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance (ATR) fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and current-voltage characteristics. No peaks related to Cu, Sn, Zn, or their oxide phases were observed, indicating effective substitution into TiO2 lattice. Differences depending on doping were seen at the UV–VIS spectroscopy, Raman and ATR-FTIR analysis. This may be due to doping of metal ions, which can generate dopant energy levels within the bandgap of TiO2. The current flows between the fabricated interdigitated electrodes and the voltage were applied from − 5 to + 5 V, showing a variation with the doping element. The room temperature of NO2 gas sensor characteristics were studied for all samples. The 1 ppm NO2 gas responses were obtained as 3, 5, 9 and 7% for TiO2, Zn-doped TiO2, Cu-doped TiO2 and Sn-doped TiO2 sensors at room temperature, respectively.
To counter environmental degradation, policymakers across the world are trying to design a policy framework that focuses on expanding economic sophistication and complexity of production alongside fostering the use of renewable energy and mitigating natural resource depletion. This study aims to investigate how different factors affect the ecological footprint in 50 major complex economies. The study undertakes an extended STIRPAT equation with data from 1990 to 2018. The STIRPAT equation allows us to test the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis and explore the impact of renewable energy use, technology, population, and natural resources. The study utilizes several second-generation econometric techniques such as augmented mean group, mean group, and common correlated effect mean group estimation techniques and a second-generation panel causality test. The outcome of the study reveals the existence of the EKC in these complex economies. Economic complexity, clean energy consumption, and population density have a significant negative impact on ecological footprint, whereas natural resources reveal insignificant impacts. The research concludes with policy suggestions for achieving sustainable development in these major complex countries.
Global warming has become one of the biggest challenges of our world. Aviation industry, as a major contributor, is expected to play its own part in fighting the global warming by accounting for its carbon emissions. This study examines the approaches and strategies of airline companies for carbon accounting and reducing their contribution to global warming. Turkish Airlines, Turkey’s largest airline, is studied to reflect how Turkey’s air transport industry addresses the challenges of global warming and accounts for its carbon emissions. The study aims to set an example for other countries and businesses by showcasing the approaches and strategies of Turkish airline companies on carbon accounting.
Conduct disorder (CD) is one of the most common psychiatric comorbidity in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and is related to unfavorable clinical, relational, and behavioral outcomes. CD could be subtyped accordingly to age at onset (childhood-onset or adolescent-onset) or the presence or absence of callous unemotional traits. The etiopathogenesis of CD accompanying ADHD is complex and various factors such as enriched genetic risks, poor emotion regulation, temperamental risk characteristics, elevated levels of psychosocial adversity, and inappropriate parenting styles seem to contribute to the disorder. The presence and severity of CD symptoms should be cautiously assessed before making decisions on the intensity and nature of the intervention. Management of CD in ADHD primarily involves parent-based psychosocial interventions, and these interventions are more effective in early to middle childhood. Psychopharmacological agents such as stimulants and atypical antipsychotics may be also effective in certain cases. Further studies are needed to identify the developmental and causal pathways and better intervention strategies for CD in ADHD.
Electrification of mobility is a trending topic worldwide due to sustainability issues arising from dependency on fossil fuels. In all categories of transport, land, naval, and aerial pioneer projects have been developing as electrical alternatives to fossil fuel–dependent conventional transport models. In this chapter, motivations and driving factors of all-sustainable aircraft developments have been addressed. Alternatives and research directions being worked on have also been mentioned. The current all-electric unmanned urban air mobility aircraft developments have been assessed. The assessment is performed on maximum takeoff weight (MTOW), range, seat capacity, payload, and cruise airspeed. Seven different all-electric unmanned aircraft models have been evaluated, and related data have been provided. Current challenges, trends, and future directions have also been provided from the authors’ perspective.
Drones can gather real-time data cost-effectively to deliver payloads and have initiated the rapid evolution of many industrial, commercial, and recreational applications. The advancement of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology in industrial processes and communication and networking technologies has increased their use in civil, business, and social applications. The applications of drones in the healthcare field is a new but rapidly developing technology. With their valuable functions, drones successfully deliver drugs, blood, vaccines, and similar medical samples that are urgently needed to places where access is difficult. Drones can evolve medical care as well as propel advancement in the health industry. The use of an automated external defibrillator (AED) before emergency medical services (EMS) arrival can increase 30-day survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) significantly. Drones or UAVs can fly with high velocity and potentially transport devices such as AEDs to the site of OHCAs. Depending on the developments in drone technology, it will be possible to transport the patients who met with an accident to the emergency services of hospitals with done after the first intervention. This article provides a comprehensive review of current and future drone applications in health to empower and inspire more aggressive investigation.
Purpose of Review Sodium is vital for human health. High salt intake is a global health problem and is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence suggests that both innate and adaptive immune systems are affected by sodium. In general, excess salt intake drives immune cells toward a pro-inflammatory phenotype. The incidence of autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), is steadily increasing. As excess salt induces a pro-inflammatory state, increased salt intake may have impacts on autoimmune diseases. The relationship between salt intake and autoimmune diseases is most widely studied in patients with SLE or RA. This review aimed to summarize the relationship between salt intake and SLE and RA. Recent Findings Most, but not all, of these studies showed that high salt intake might promote SLE by M1 macrophage shift, increase in Th17/Treg cell ratio, activation of dendritic and follicular helper T cells, and increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In RA, apart from driving immune cells toward a pro-inflammatory state, high salt intake also influences cellular signaling pathways, including receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), Rho GTPases, and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase). Summary There is now sufficient evidence that excess salt intake may be related to the development and progression of SLE and RA, although there are still knowledge gaps. More studies are warranted to further highlight the relationship between excess salt intake, SLE, and RA. Graphical Abstract Salt intake may affect cell types and pro-inflammatory cytokines and signaling pathways associated with the development and progression of systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Bcl-6 B-cell lymphoma, 6 Erk extracellular signal-regulated kinases, IFN-γ interferon-gamma, JNK c-Jun N-terminal kinase, IL-4 interleukin 4, IL-6 interleukin 6, MAPK mitogen-activated protein kinase, STAT signal transducer and activator of transcription, Tnf-α tumor necrosis factor, Treg T regulatory cell
Benzofuran, 1,3,4-oxadiazole, and 1,2,4-triazole are privileged heterocyclic moieties that display the most promising and wide spectrum of biological activities against a wide variety of diseases. In the current study, benzofuran-1,3,4-oxadiazole BF1–BF7 and benzofuran-1,2,4-triazole compounds BF8–BF15 were tested against HCV NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) utilizing structure-based screening via a computer-aided drug design (CADD) approach. A molecular docking approach was applied to evaluate the binding potential of benzofuran-appended 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,2,4-triazole BF1–BF15 molecules. Benzofuran-1,3,4-oxadiazole scaffolds BF1–BF7 showed lesser binding affinities (−12.63 to −14.04 Kcal/mol) than benzofuran-1,2,4-triazole scaffolds BF8–BF15 (−14.11 to −16.09 Kcal/mol) against the HCV NS5B enzyme. Molecular docking studies revealed the excellent binding affinity scores exhibited by benzofuran-1,2,4-triazole structural motifs BF-9 (−16.09 Kcal/mol), BF-12 (−15.75 Kcal/mol), and BF-13 (−15.82 Kcal/mol), respectively, which were comparatively better than benzofuran-based HCV NS5B inhibitors’ standard reference drug Nesbuvir (−15.42 Kcal/mol). A molecular dynamics simulation assay was also conducted to obtain valuable insights about the enzyme–compounds interaction profile and structural stability, which indicated the strong intermolecular energies of the BF-9+NS5B complex and the BF-12+NS5B complex as per the MM-PBSA method, while the BF-12+NS5B complex was the most stable system as per the MM-GBSA calculation. The drug-likeness and ADMET studies of all the benzofuran-1,2,4-triazole derivatives BF8–BF15 revealed that these compounds possessed good medicinal chemistry profiles in agreement with all the evaluated parameters for being drugs. The molecular docking affinity scores, MM-PBSA/MM-GBSA and MD-simulation stability analysis, drug-likeness profiling, and ADMET study assessment indicated that N-4-fluorophenyl-S-linked benzofuran-1,2,4-triazole BF-12 could be a future promising anti-HCV NS5B RdRp inhibitor therapeutic drug candidate that has a structural agreement with the Nesbuvir standard reference drug.
The objective of this study is to stochastically assess the inactivation probabilities of four common foodborne pathogens (Listeria, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter) in chicken meat during ohmic heating (OH) in a salt solution. A mechanistic model was used to accomplish this, coupling heat transfer, laminar fluid flow, and the electric field, and solved numerically using COMSOL Multiphysics® v5.6. The 3D model represented 1000 particles randomly placed on the meat’s surface to determine the 7-log reduction of bacterial load probability. These particles are virtual representatives of bacterial colonies in the model. The influence of uncertain input parameters (specific heat capacity and electrical conductivity) and OH conditions (salt concentration of the heating medium, applied voltage, and heating time) was explained using logistic regression. The same analysis was repeated for the slowest heating point of chicken meat, as well. According to the findings, cold spots are observed at the corners of the meat piece during OH, requiring additional attention to the meat surface temperature to prevent under-processing. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the applied voltage and brine concentration are the main factors affecting the inactivation probabilities of pathogenic bacterial cells on the chicken meat surface. Salmonella and Listeria may require higher electrical conductivity of chicken meat and longer processing times. The developed model enables predicting inactivation probabilities of microorganisms that can be found on the outer surface by measuring the core temperature of the meat. However, especially for bacteria with higher heat resistance, it is better to consider the cold spot temperature found in the corners of the food material during OH.
Molecular hybridization has emerged as the prime and most significant approach for the development of novel anticancer chemotherapeutic agents for combating cancer. In this pursuit, a novel series of indole–1,2,4-triazol-based N-phenyl acetamide structural motifs 8a–f were synthesized and screened against the in vitro hepatocellular cancer Hep-G2 cell line. The MTT assay was applied to determine the anti-proliferative potential of novel indole–triazole compounds 8a–f, which displayed cytotoxicity potential as cell viabilities at 100 µg/mL concentration, by using ellipticine and doxorubicin as standard reference drugs. The remarkable prominent bioactive structural hybrids 8a, 8c, and 8f demonstrated good-to-excellent anti-Hep-G2 cancer chemotherapeutic potential, with a cell viability of (11.72 ± 0.53), (18.92 ± 1.48), and (12.93 ± 0.55), respectively. The excellent cytotoxicity efficacy against the liver cancer cell line Hep-G2 was displayed by the 3,4-dichloro moiety containing indole–triazole scaffold 8b, which had the lowest cell viability (10.99 ± 0.59) compared with the standard drug ellipticine (cell viability = 11.5 ± 0.55) but displayed comparable potency in comparison with the standard drug doxorubicin (cell viability = 10.8 ± 0.41). The structure–activity relationship (SAR) of indole–triazoles 8a–f revealed that the 3,4-dichlorophenyl-based indole–triazole structural hybrid 8b displayed excellent anti-Hep-G2 cancer chemotherapeutic efficacy. The in silico approaches such as molecular docking scores, molecular dynamic simulation stability data, DFT, ADMET studies, and in vitro pharmacological profile clearly indicated that indole–triazole scaffold 8b could be the lead anti-Hep-G2 liver cancer therapeutic agent and a promising anti-Hep-G2 drug candidate for further clinical evaluations.
Aim The aim of this study is to evaluate the functional outcomes and complications after non-fusion knee arthrodesis with a modular segmental intramedullary implant used for infected total knee arthroplasty revisions. Methods A retrospective review of the patients who had been surgically treated with a modular intramedullary arthrodesis implant for recurrent infection after revision TKA between January 2016 and February 2020 were included. The indications for arthrodesis were failed infected TKA with massive bone loss, deficient extensor mechanism and poor soft tissue coverage that precluded joint reconstruction with revision TKA implants. Clinical outcomes were assesed with visual analogue scale for pain (pVAS), Oxford knee score (OKS) and 12-item short form survey (SF-12). Full-length radiographs were used to verify limb length discrepancies (LLD). Results Fourteen patients (4 male and 10 female) patients with a mean age of 69.3 (range, 59 to 81) years at time of surgery were available for final follow-up at a mean of 28.8 months (range, 24–35 months). All clinical outcome scores improved at the final follow-up (pVAS, 8.5 to 2.6, p = .01; OKS, 12.6 to 33.8, p = .02; SF-12 physical, 22.9 to 32.1, p = .01 and SF-12 mental, 27.7 to 40.2, p = .01). The mean LLD was 1.0 cm (range, + 15 – 2.3 cm). Re-infection was detected in three patients (21.4%). Two patients were managed with suppressive antibiotic treatment and a third patient required repeat 2-stage revision procedure. In one patient, a periprosthetic femur fracture was observed and treated with plate osteosynthesis. Conclusion Uncontrolled infection after total knee arthroplasty can be effectively treated with arthrodesis using a modular intramedullary nail and satisfactory functional results can be obtained. Level of evidence Level 4, Retrospective cohort study.
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