T.C. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi
Recent publications
Membrane cost, long-term stability, and sustainability are major concerns when selecting membranes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for scaling-up applications. In recent years, efforts have been made to improve reactor architectural designs and to explore ceramic membrane materials, aiming to achieve techno-economical sustainability and efficiency. Furthermore, ceramics have recently emerged as low-cost separators, electrodes, and chassis materials for MFC applications. The introduction of cation exchange minerals into ceramic membranes promotes high proton transfer with improved membrane characteristics. High cationic transfer, proton exchange rate, stability against thermochemical conditions, structural strength to withstand high hydraulic load, and long-term stability with easy biofouling mitigation support the utilization of such membranes for scaling-up use. Successful field trials of Pee-power MFC, stacked urinal MFC, bioelectric toilet, and others showed the feasibility of ceramic membranes for practical applications. Therefore, this review emphasized the membrane characteristics, substantial effect of mineral additives, scaling-up applications, recent developments, and perspectives toward the practical utilization of MFC-based ceramic membranes.
Airline alliances provide more flights, include different destinations, and maximize revenues. In an alliance, collaborating airlines can offer tickets for an identical flight plan, unlike the traditional single airline approach. In particular, due to epidemic/pandemic events, such as COVID-19, the available customer demands become highly uncertain across many real airline alliance problems, and maintaining stable revenue is as important as maximizing the revenue in the alliance. A critical question is how the independent airline companies of an alliance should collaborate to maintain reliable maximum revenue. Therefore, this question was studied using a grey mathematical programming model for small-sized airline alliances under grey demand data. Some cooperative game theoretical solution concepts, such as Shapley, equal revenue, Nucleolus, and minimax core, are presented. A numerical study of a small-sized alliance with three airline companies was used to interpret the results of the cooperative game theory concepts. Three cases were considered based on the grey passenger demand structure of airline collaborations to share extra revenues and maintain stable revenue distribution that would maximize the expected revenue. Based on the obtained results, the synergy of collaboration increased with the increase in the size coalition in all of the cases, except for the cases of lower (L) and upper (U) demand levels.
As an industrial synthetic chemical, bisphenol A (BPA) has the potential to have physiologically and histologically adverse effects on aquatic organisms. BPA causes the reproductive disrupting of all vertebrates due to its degradation on endocrine system. Therefore, the effect of BPA on fish with high economic value is an important issue. This study focused weekly on long-term BPA exposure on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Hematological, biochemical, antioxidant activity and histopathological examinations were performed on O. mykiss exposed to 1000 μg/L BPA concentration. Mortality was observed in the BPA group during the first three weeks. As a result of hematological studies, leukocyte count and hemoglobin in the BPA group were significantly higher in the first three weeks compared to the control group. Plasma cortisol level as a biochemical indicator showed a similar trend to leukocyte and hemoglobin. There was no significant difference between BPA and control groups in terms of superoxide dismutase and catalase. However, glutathione peroxidase activity in the BPA group was significantly lower than in the control group for four weeks. At the end of the study, many alterations were observed histologically in the gill tissues. While more intense hyperplasia and epithelial lifting were observed in the tissues in the BPA group compared to the control group, vacuolization, necrosis and hypertrophy were observed infrequently. In conclusion, this study argues that BPA causes negative effects on O. mykiss in terms of fish welfare and future study should be focused on its environmental adaptation with color preference patterns.
In this study, time series data is divided into two equal parts, as in the basic principle of the Innovative Trend Analysis (ITA) method. However, unlike the ITA, the data are not ordered when comparing the halves to avoid any change in the time series. Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test is used to consider the differences between the two equal halves and to determine if there is any trend in time series. A graphical presentation is provided like ITA approach and is expressed as the Mann-Kendall (MK) test for trend detection at a given confidence interval (significance level). In the application phase, minimum, maximum and average discharge time series measured at Yakabaşı, Söğütlühan, Arıcılar, and Topluca stations along the northern line from west to east of Turkey are used. The trend conditions of the data are determined by the proposed method and compared with ITA and MK tests results. No trend is observed in 8 out of 12 cases for stations at the 95% confidence interval. While decreasing trends are detected in the maximum discharge of Yakabaşı station, the minimum discharge of Arıcılar station, and the average discharge of Yakabaşı station, an increasing trend is detected in the average discharge records of Topluca station. Here, an easy-to-use model for decision-makers is proposed that presents numerical as well as graphical analyses of trend identification studies.
NOD‑like receptor pyrin domain‑containing 3 (NLRP3) has been considered to play a crucial role in triggering the host's immune and inflammatory responses. Genetic variants are critical determinants of interindividual variances in inflammatory responses and clinical outcomes. The role of NLRP3 gene variations in bipolar I (BPI) disorder, which is known to include genetic factors in its aetiology, has not been previously reported, at least to the best of our knowledge. The present study aimed to determine the role and frequency ofta exon 2 and exon 3 variants of NLRP3 in BPI disorder and to evaluate the association between different phenotypic traits. A case‑control study with 123 patients and 107 healthy controls was conducted to investigate the association of variants identified in the exon 2 and exon 3 regions of NLRP3, with the risk of BPI. Regions of interest were sequenced using a PCR‑based Sanger sequencing method. Three BPI‑related variants were identified. The genotype Q705K CA was detected more frequently in BPI patients, as compared to the control group [P<0.001; odds ratio (OR), 0.202; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.080‑0.508]. In addition, two novel splice‑site variants (c.393G>A and c.278_2A>G) that, to the best of our knowledge, have not been previously reported in any database, were detected only in the BPI patient group [P<0.001; OR, 0.846; 95% CI, 0.784‑0.912; P<0.001; OR, 0.886; 95% CI, 0.832‑0.944, respectively]. There was no significant association between the Q795K variant and phenotypic traits (P>0.05). However, there was a significant association between those carrying the heterozygous c.393G>A variant and a positive family history (P=0.043). It was also observed that those with the heterozygous c.278‑2A>G variant presented with a significantly early‑onset (P=0.003). On the whole, the data of the present study suggested that NLRP3 plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of BPI and may be a potential risk factor. However, further functional studies and repeated studies in other populations are required to properly comprehend the roles of the NLRP3 variants in the risk of developing BPI.
This research aimed to evaluate the effects of packaging method (AP; atmospheric packaging, VP; vacuum packaging and MAP; modified atmosphere packaging) and storage temperature (4 °C and 25 °C) on the quality characteristics of emulsion-type sausage chips during 120 days of storage. Initial moisture, pH, water activity (aw) and L* values of sausage slices decreased and their protein, fat, ash, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), a*, b*, chroma (C*ab), hue angle (hab) and browning index (BI) values increased when sausage slices were converted into chips (P < 0.05). aw and TBARS values of chips generally increased, and pH, hardness and fracturability values decreased during storage (P < 0.05). Chips samples with MAP displayed better sensorial and microbiological quality and oxidative stability than those with AP or VP during storage (P < 0.05). Lower TBARS values were determined for chips samples with AP stored at 4 °C compared to 25 °C (P < 0.05). According to these results, MAP was the most effective method for maintaining the overall quality of emulsion-type sausage chips.
The G7 countries consist of some of the world's most developed nations which have economically flourished over the years. However, alongside such robust economic performances, the environmental qualities in these countries have rather aggravated to raise deep concerns among the stakeholders. Hence, this study is designed to empirically examine the environmental effects of nuclear and renewable energy consumption, economic complexity, and economic growth in the G7 countries for the period between 1995 and 2016. To ensure novelty, this study considers carbon footprints along with carbon dioxide emissions to measure environmental quality in the context of the G7 nations. The results reveal that although nuclear energy consumption is effective in mitigating carbon dioxide emissions and carbon footprints in the long run, renewable energy consumption degrades the environment in the G7 countries. Besides, the results also reveal that the G7 countries can transform their production processes in an environmentally friendly manner provided they can undergo a clean transition in energy use. Finally, economic growth is evidenced to be detrimental for the environment since higher economic growth levels are seen to boost both carbon dioxide emission and carbon footprint levels. Therefore, in line with the findings, this study recommends the G7 countries to significantly enhance their nuclear and renewable energy consumption levels, increase their economic complexity indices, and integrate environmental welfare policies within their economic growth strategies.
Background Cordia myxa L. (Boraginaceae) is widely distributed in tropical regions and it’s fruits, leaves and stem bark have been utilized in folk medicine for treating trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. A population-based study showed that T. cruzi infection is associated with cognitive impairments. Therefore, if C. myxa has ameliorating activities on cognitive function, it would be useful for both T. cruzi infection and cognitive impairments. Methods In this study, we evaluated the effects of an ethanol extract of leaves of C. myxa (ELCM) on memory impairments and sensorimotor gating deficits in mice. The phosphorylation level of protein was observed by the Western blot analysis. Results The administration of ELCM significantly attenuated scopolamine-induced cognitive dysfunction in mice, as measured by passive avoidance test and novel object recognition test. Additionally, in the acoustic startle response test, we observed that the administration of ELCM ameliorated MK-801-induced prepulse inhibition deficits. We found that these behavioral outcomes were related with increased levels of phosphorylation phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β) in the cortex and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus by western blot analysis. Conclusions These results suggest that ELCM would be a potential candidate for treating cognitive dysfunction and sensorimotor gating deficits observed in individuals with neurodegenerative diseases.
Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized with chronic inflammation of gastrointestinal track. In the pathogenesis of IBD, inflammation is the main mechanism. Induction of inflammation triggers the oxidative stress that subsequently leading to apoptosis. Considering the all pathological mechanisms, many therapeutic agents have been used for IBD but because of serious side effects there is still a need for new therapeutic drugs. In this study, we aim to evaluate the possible protective effects of Theranekron (TH) on acetic acid (AA)- induced colonic damage and to describe the probable effect mechanisms of TH. Materials and results Fourty female adult Wistar albino rats were divided into 5 groups. Following 24 h fasting, colitis was induced by rectal instillation of AA. In TH group, a single dose of subcutaneous 0.2 ml TH was used. In treatment groups, 0.2 ml TH single dose or 100 mg/kg sulfasalazine (SS) for 7 days were used after colitis induction. Normal salin was used for all applications in control group. Histopathologically hemorrhage, edema and inflammatory reactions were seen in AA group. TH and SS decreased the severity of lesions. Nuclear factor kappa B, Serum amyloid A, C-reactive protein, Growth-related oncogene, and Osteopontin expressions were markedly increased in AA group and TH markedly reduced these expressions. In Western analysis, decreased NF-kB and caspase-3 levels were observed with TH. Oxidative markers did not changed significantly. Conclusions TH has a prominent anti-inflammatory effect on AA-induced colonic inflammation via NF-kB signaling whereas antiapoptic effects seem to be independent from this pathway.
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the gene expression of the P2X purinoceptor 7 (P2X7R)- nod-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) signal pathway in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) between schizophrenia (SCZ) patients and healthy controls (HC) to reveal its relationship with clinical variables. Methods: Thirty-two SCZ patients and 41 healthy controls were included in this study. The Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale and the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST) scales were applied. P2X7R, NLRP3, IL-1β and IL-18 gene expression levels were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction in PBMCs. Results: NLRP3, P2RX7, IL-1β and IL-18 expression levels were significantly higher in PBMCs of SCZ patients than in HC subjects. Negative correlations were found between NLRP3 gene expression levels and GAF and FAST scales scores. There was a negative correlation between IL-18 expression levels and the GAF and FAST scales scores and a positive correlation with the SAPS scale scores. Conclusions: Systemic inflammation is implicated in SCZ pathogenesis, according to our findings, which suggest that the NLRP3 pathway may be involved. The NLRP3 inflammasome may serve as a biomarker for SCZ, and its pharmacological regulation may be a promising treatment approach.Key pointsWe hypothesised that the NLRP3 pathway may contribute to the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia.NLRP3, IL-1β and IL-18 mRNA levels were higher in patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls.Negative correlations were found between NLRP3 gene expression levels and GAF and FAST scales scores.There was a negative correlation between IL-18 expression levels and the GAF and FAST scales scores.The SAPS scale scores and IL-18 expression levels had a positive correlation.Given all these findings, it can be stated that NLRP3 inflammasome may play a role in the pathogenesis and symptoms of schizophrenia.
Since the start of the current century, artificial intelligence has gone through critical advances improving the capabilities of intelligent systems. Especially machine learning has changed remarkably and caused the rise of deep learning. Deep learning shows cutting-edge results in terms of even the most advanced, difficult problems. However, that includes a trade-off in terms of interpretability. Although traditional machine learning techniques employ interpretable working mechanisms, hybrid systems and deep learning models are black-box being beyond our understanding capabilities. So, the need for making such systems understandable, additional methods by explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) has been widely developed in last years. In this sense, this study purposes a Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) model, which runs a new form of Grad-CAM. As providing numerical feedback in addition to the default Grad-CAM, the numerical Grad-CAM (numGrad-CAM) was used within the developed CNN model, in order to have an explainability interface for brain tumor diagnosis. In detail, the numGrad-CAM-CNN model was evaluated via technical and physicians-oriented (human-side) evaluations. The model provided average findings of 97.11% accuracy, 95.58% sensitivity, and 96.81% specificity for the target brain tumor diagnosis setup. Additionally, numGrad-CAM integration provided 90.11% accuracy according to the other CAM variations in the same CNN model. The physicians used the numGrad-CAM-CNN model gave positive responses in terms of using the model for an explainable (and safe) diagnosis decision-making perspective for brain tumors.
The superficial palmar arch is an important anatomical structure that contributes to the arterial supply of the palmar side of the hand in the upper extremity. However, there is limited information on the embryological morphological structure of the superficial palmar arch in the literature. We studied the types of the superficial palmar arch and determined their variations by dissecting 80 upper extremities of 40 formalin-fixed human fetuses (19 males, 21 females) 18-37 weeks of age. The types and variations of the superficial palmar arch were examined, and the median artery was imaged. The superficial palmar arch type was complete in 58 hands (72.5%) and incomplete in 22 hands (27.5%). The complete group consisted of type A (47.5%), type B (16.25%), type C (3.75%), type D (1.25%), and type E (3.75%). On the other hand, the incomplete group consisted of type F (15%), type G (8.75%), type H (2.5%), and type I (1.25%). A median artery that originated from the ulnar artery and passed through the carpal tunnel during its course was detected in two hands (2.5%). Knowledge of the superficial palmar arch variations will contribute to hand microsurgery particularly in vascular graft and free flap application interventions for arterial bleeding in the palmar region.
In this study, aiming to improve the mechanical performance of the Poly (lactic acid) (PLA)-based nanofibrous structures, the electrospinning method was employed to develop twisted yarns with core-shell structure. Within this process, a conventional ring-spun cotton yarn fed to the electrical field, where nanofibers covered it by a certain orientation owning to the twisting procedure. This approach combines the excellent biological and physical-mechanical properties of cotton with outstanding features of the PLA nanofibers for biomedical applications. The effects of the core and shell structures on the ultimate properties of the electrospun core-shell yarns were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated that relatively uniform and bead-free fibers with smooth surfaces were formed. SEM images also confirmed that the nanofibers were arranged around the core with a specific angle to the axis (with the angle range of 8–44 based on the twisting rate) to constitute a twisted core-shell yarn. The diameter of the electrospun yarns decreased (∼ 22%) by increasing the twist rate. The influence of the core on the mechanical behavior of core-shell yarn are also discussed. Improvements in mechanical performance of core-shell yarns were generally perceived at low twist levels of the core yarn (α e = 2.8), and electrospun shell (40 rpm).
In receptance coupling studies, Euler-Bernoulli beam fitting is a powerful method to derive the rotational receptances from a single frequency response function or displacement-to-force receptance measurement. To automatically complete this method, optimization algorithms are used. For optimization process, initial beam parameters including diameter, length and solid damping factor for each mode in the measured displacement-to-force receptance are required to start iterative search. As such, exploring those initial parameters is sort of trial-and-error work and takes quite some time. To speed up and automatize this work, in the current paper, a new practical, general and easy to implement initial parameters estimation procedure, based on the peak-picking method, is proposed. For verification, a nonlinear least squares fitting-based algorithm is applied on measured spindle-holder subassembly displacement-to-force receptances. The results have shown that the estimated initial beam parameters lead to a quick converge in the optimization process and a successful Euler-Bernoulli beam fitting.
A R T I C L E I N F O Keywords: Waste quartz sand Superpave mix design Hamburg wheel tracking test Indirect tensile strength test Moisture susceptibility A B S T R A C T In the scope of the study, the usability of waste quartz sand, generated by glass factories, as a filler material in hot bituminous mixtures was investigated. Filler material was substituted in the mixture with 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of the limestone filler. The optimum bitumen ratios were determined. The strength values and moisture sensitivity of the samples subjected to the indirect tensile test were determined. Strength values showed better results compared to the reference sample. It was observed that the Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR) (%) was found to reach the peak at 50% content and determined that all samples provide the limit value of 80%. Hamburg Wheel Track test was applied to determine the track performance of the mixtures. Experiment results indicated that the best track performance was at 50% of the mixture. In addition, it was determined that the specification provides the maximum rutting value of 12.5 mm in all mixing ratios.
Background Human and animal studies have indicated that maternal prenatal stress (PS) has molecular and behavioral effects during pregnancy and early life. The present study aimed to evaluate the epigenetic changes of the NR3C1 gene involved in the HPA axis in the hypothalamic tissues of rats exposed to PS induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Behavioral and molecular effects of these changes on the next generation were also assessed. Methods and results CUMS protocol was used to generate stress in pregnant Wistar rats. To determine the effects of stress on anhedonia and movement, sucrose preference test, forced swimming test, and open field test were performed. Following these behavioral experiments, bisulfite sequencing PCR for DNA methylation levels of the NR3C1 gene, RT-qPCR for mRNA levels, and Western blot techniques for protein analysis were used in the hypothalamic tissue of sacrificed rats. Depression-like behaviors were evident in the behavioral tests of stress-exposed mothers and pups. In PS-exposed pups, hypothalamic NR3C1 promoter methylation was higher, and NR3C1 mRNA levels and NR3C1 protein levels were lower compared with controls, regardless of sex. Conclusion Our results confirm the relationship between PS and epigenetic changes of HPA axis-related genes and show that NR3C1 gene methylation status in pups is sensitive to PS during pregnancy. Environmental maternal stress may have transgenerational effects that are potentially associated with adverse outcomes in the pups.
The present study aimed to isolate and identify the potential probiotic, pathobiont, and pathogenic microorganisms in the stool samples of 12 healthy individuals and evaluate their in vitro effects on cancer formation. A total of 83 strains were isolated from the stool samples and identified using MALDI-Biotyper. Fourteen of the isolates were identified as Candida spp., three isolates were identified as Cryptococcus neoformans, 55 isolates were identified as lactic acid bacteria, and the remaining isolates belonged to different 11 bacterial genera. Important microbial properties for cancer prevention and some probiotic properties were examined. All strains maintained their viability under acidic conditions and in media containing bile salts. Of the bacterial strains, 62.5% were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, erythromycin, kanamycin, penicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and vancomycin. All yeast strains were resistant to ketoconazole and susceptible to nystatin. The susceptibility of the strains to fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, and itraconazole varied. Fifty-nine percent of the strains produced EPS and 21.7% showed proteolytic activity (PA). Of the strains, 15.7% both produced exopolysaccharides (EPS) and had PA. The antioxidant activity (AOA) varied depending on the strains. The pathobiont and pathogenic microorganisms promoted tumor formation, while potential probiotic microorganisms had a suppressive effect on tumor formation (P > 0.01). One yeast (Candida kefyr MK17) and three lactic acid bacteria strains (Lacticaseibacillus paracasei MK73, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum MK55, Limosilactobacillus mucosae MK45) have superior potential thanks to their anticarcinogenic properties as well as tolerance to gastrointestinal tract conditions. Stool samples of each individual contain various potential probiotic, pathobiont, and pathogenic microorganisms. Graphical Abstract
Purpose The concentration of plasma high glucose (HGu) in diabetes mellitus (DM) induces the retinal pigment epithelial cell (ARPE19) death via the increase of inflammation, cytosolic (cytROS), and mitochondrial (mitROS) free oxygen radical generations. Transient potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) cation channel is stimulated by cytROS and mitROS. Hence, the cytROS and mitROS-mediated excessive Ca²⁺ influxes via the stimulation of TRPM2 channel cause to the induction of DM-mediated retina oxidative cytotoxicity. Because of the antioxidant role of carvacrol (CRV), it may modulate oxidative cytotoxicity via the attenuation of TRPM2 in the ARPE19. We aimed to investigate the modulator action of CRV treatment on the HGu-mediated TRPM2 stimulation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in the ARPE19 cell model. Material and methods The ARPE19 cells were divided into four groups as normal glucose (NGu), NGu + Carv, HGu, and HGu + CRV. Results The levels of cell death (propidium iodide/Hoechst rate) and apoptosis markers (caspases 3, 8, and 9), cytokine generations (IL-1β and TNF-α), ROS productions (cytROS, mitROS, and lipid peroxidation), TRPM2 currents, and intracellular free Ca²⁺ (Fluo/3) were increased in the HGu group after the stimulations of hydrogen peroxide and ADP-ribose, although their levels were diminished via upregulation of glutathione and glutathione peroxidase by the treatments of CRV and TRPM2 blockers. Conclusion Current results confirmed that the HGu-induced overload Ca²⁺ influx and oxidative retinal toxicity in the ARPE19 cells were induced by the stimulation of TRPM2, although they were modulated via the inhibition of TRPM2 by CRV. CRV may be noted as a potential therapeutic antioxidant to the TRPM2 activation-mediated retinal oxidative injury.
The use of nitrification inhibition as a concentrating step for ammonium (NH4⁺), for the purpose of increasing the potential for simultaneous recovery of phosphate (PO4³⁻) and NH4⁺ from effluent streams of an aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system, has never been investigated in the literature. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the effect of the inhibition of nitrification on both the reactor performance and effluent quality in a laboratory scale aerobic SBR system. In order to compare the observed results, a separate reactor, where the inhibition was not applied, was operated as a control reactor (CR) under the identical operational conditions used for the inhibitory reactor (IR). Experimental results for the reactor performance showed that effluents with low total suspended solids (< 50 mg/L) and chemical oxygen demand concentrations (> 90% of removal efficiency based on the influent concentration of 500 mg/L) were achieved for both SBRs by obtaining an activated sludge with a sludge volume index < 60 mL/g after the acclimation period. In the same period, the effluent PO4³⁻, NH4⁺, and nitrate (NO3⁻) concentrations were found to be 17.0 ± 4.0, 1.26 ± 0.84, and 21.5 ± 39 mg/L for the CR and 10.0 ± 4.4, 3.9 ± 2.4, and 9.2 ± 1.5 mg/L for the IR, respectively. During this period, 94% of the removed NH4⁺ (NH4⁺rem.) was converted to NO3⁻ in the CR, indicating almost complete nitrification occurred in the reactor. However, only 47% of the NH4⁺rem. was converted to NO3⁻ in the IR as a result of the inhibition of nitrification, meaning a partial inhibition (53%) occurred due to the inhibition treatment. These results clearly demonstrated that the inhibition of nitrification allowed the effluent NH4⁺ concentrations to increase by suppressing the formation of NO3⁻ ions. Based on the results, it can be concluded that inhibition of nitrification in an aerobic SBR system creates a potential for conserving the effluent NH4⁺ concentration and increasing consecutive recovery of PO4³⁻ together with NH4⁺ from the effluent discharges.
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Muhammet Demirbilek
  • Department of Computer Education and Instructional Technology
Ömer K Örücü
  • Department of Landscape Architecture
Ata Akcil
  • Department of Mining Engineering
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