Syracuse University
  • Syracuse, United States
Recent publications
Objective: The literature on testosterone (T) in men reports diverse correlates of T, some with minimal empirical support and most with little indication of how they change with advancing age. We test eight putative correlations across age. Method: Correlations were tested on a large sample of British men. Results: Seven of eight correlations replicated. Most change across men's life courses. The diurnal cycle of T is considerably weaker among older than younger men. Single men have higher T than married men of the same age; however, this difference lessens as men get older. Elevated T among smokers is less pronounced as men age. The inverse relationship between obesity and T is sustained across the adult age range. The lessening of T with age is well established, however there is disagreement about the course of decline. We find T having a steep decline around age 30, with possibly a rebound around age 50, after which levels remain roughly constant. Correlations involving health become stronger among older men. After age 30 or 40, the inverse relationships between T and HbA1c, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome all become increasingly significant, though not necessarily strong in magnitude. Conclusion: Most putative correlates of T are replicated. There is a basis here for the generalization that among older men, those healthy have higher T than those who are not, but not a lot higher.
This paper estimates spatial wage curves for formal and informal workers in Turkey using individual level data from the Turkish Household Labor Force Survey provided by TURKSTAT for the period 2008–2014. Unlike previous studies on wage curves for formal and informal workers, we extend the analysis to allow for spatial effects. We also consider household characteristics that would affect the selection into formal employment, informal employment, and non-employment. We find that the spatial wage curve relation holds both for formal and informal workers in Turkey for a variety of specifications. In general, the wages of informal workers are more sensitive to the unemployment rates of the same region and other regions than formal workers. We find that accounting for the selection into formal and informal employment affects the magnitudes but not the significance of the spatial wage curves for the formal and informal workers with the latter always being larger in absolute value than that for formal workers.
Many concepts are defined by their relationships to one another. However, instructors might teach these concepts individually, neglecting their interconnections. For instance, students learning about statistical power might learn how to define alpha and beta, but not how they are related. We report two experiments that examine whether there is a benefit to training subjects on relations among concepts. In Experiment 1, all subjects studied material on statistical hypothesis testing, half were subsequently quizzed on relationships among these concepts, and the other half were quizzed on their individual definitions; quizzing was used to highlight the information that was being trained in each condition (i.e., relations or definitions). Experiment 2 also included a mixed training condition that quizzed both relations and definitions, and a control condition that only included study. Subjects were then tested on both types of questions and on three conceptually related question types. In Experiment 1, subjects trained on relations performed numerically better on relational test questions than subjects trained on definitions (nonsignificant trend), whereas definitional test questions showed the reverse pattern; no performance differences were found between the groups on the other question types. In Experiment 2, relational training benefitted performance on relational test questions and on some question types that were not quizzed, whereas definitional training only benefited performance on test questions on the trained definitions. In contrast, mixed training did not aid learning above and beyond studying. Relational training thus seems to facilitate transfer of learning, whereas definitional training seems to produce training specificity effects.
Sequential lineups are one of the most commonly used procedures in police departments across the USA. Although this procedure has been the target of much experimental research, there has been comparatively little work formally modeling it, especially the sequential nature of the judgments that it elicits. There are also important gaps in our understanding of how informative different types of judgments can be (binary responses vs. confidence ratings), and the severity of the inferential risks incurred when relying on different aggregate data structures. Couched in a signal detection theory (SDT) framework, the present work directly addresses these issues through a reanalysis of previously published data alongside model simulations. Model comparison results show that SDT modeling can provide elegant characterizations of extant data, despite some discrepancies across studies, which we attempt to address. Additional analyses compare the merits of sequential lineups (with and without a stopping rule) relative to showups and delineate the conditions in which distinct modeling approaches can be informative. Finally, we identify critical issues with the removal of the stopping rule from sequential lineups as an approach to capture within-subject differences and sidestep the risk of aggregation biases.
Background Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) profoundly influence child development. Different patterns of ACEs among boys and girls may be associated with different developmental trajectories. Objective This study aimed to identify patterns of ACEs at age three and tested the associations of these patterns with child behavioral health problems from age three to age fifteen. Participants and setting This study used data (N = 4898) from the Fragile Families Child Wellbeing Study. Methods First, this study conducted latent class analysis (LCA) across ten indicators of ACEs at age 3. LCA was conducted separately for boys and girls. Second, class membership was tested for associations with child internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors (ages three, five, nine, and fifteen years). Results LCA identified five classes of ACEs for girls: low ACEs, parental separation, financial difficulty, chaotic home, and child maltreatment. LCA for boys, however, identified a six-class solution, in which there was a physical abuse-only class, while also a sixth high ACEs class that included both physical and emotional abuse. Classes with the most ACEs often had the highest symptomology (internalizing symptoms ranging from 0.24 to 0.56; externalizing ranging from 0.36 to 1.00; ps < .05). However, differences in behavioral health were detected depending on the patterns of ACES. At ages nine and fifteen, the financial difficulty group also had high symptomatology (internalizing symptoms ranging from 0.23 to 0.43; externalizing from 0.23 to 0.46; ps < .05). Conclusions Findings provide implications including the need to examine ACEs heterogeneity and address financial difficulty as a substantial ACE.
We study topologically monotone surjective \(W^{1,n}\)-maps of finite distortion \(f :\Omega \rightarrow \Omega '\), where \(\Omega , \Omega ' \) are domains in \({\mathbb {R}}^n\), \(n \ge 2\). If the outer distortion function \(K_f \in L_{\mathrm {loc}}^{p}(\Omega )\) with \(p \ge n-1\), then any such map f is known to be homeomorphic, and hence the fibers \(f^{-1}\{y\}\) are singletons. We show that as the exponent of integrability p of the distortion function \(K_f\) increases in the range \(1/(n-1) \le p < n-1\), then for increasingly many \(k \in \{0, \dots , n\}\) depending on p, the k:th rational homology group \(H_k(f^{-1} \{y\}; {\mathbb {Q}})\) of any reasonably tame fiber \(f^{-1}\{y\}\) of f is equal to that of a point. In particular, if \(p \ge (n-2)/2\) then this is true for all \(k \in \{0, \dots , n\}\). We also formulate a Sobolev realization of a topological example by Bing of a monotone \(f :{\mathbb {R}}^3 \rightarrow {\mathbb {R}}^3\) with homologically non-trivial fibers. This example has \(K_f \in L^{1/2 - \varepsilon }_{\mathrm {loc}}({\mathbb {R}}^3)\) for all \(\varepsilon > 0\), which shows that our result is sharp in the case \(n = 3\).
Childhood adversities, such as neglect, abuse, and poverty, lead to negative career outcomes. Anecdotal stories of entrepreneurs, however, present a contrasting picture, showing that many successful entrepreneurs had a difficult childhood. Building on the underdog framework of entrepreneurship and the stress inoculation model, we resolve the puzzle by hypothesizing the inverted U-shaped relationship between entrepreneurs’ childhood adversities and career success that is mediated by resilience. Using data from a representative sample of 573 U.S. entrepreneurs from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study, we find support for the hypotheses. We further find resilience is more important for less-successful entrepreneurs. Our results are robust to various checks, including an additional study based on a sample of U.S. entrepreneurs from the Qualtrics online panel. Our study indicates the need to consider nonlinear and context-specific implications of childhood adversities and examine performance-related outcomes, thus enriching existing research on childhood adversities and entrepreneurship.
Although regulatory institutions are said to enable and constrain entrepreneurial action, ventures frequently emerge with products, processes, and business models that skirt or defy these rules. We provide a theory of rule-breaking entrepreneurial action, focusing on why entrepreneurs are only sometimes constrained by law, regulation, and other formal constraints. In this, we attend to the dual roles of social context and subjective interpretation. Drawing on the sociology of law, we position regulatory rules within a system of governance, where public actors and legal intermediaries collectively construct the meaning of rule compliance and enact sanctions to enforce this interpretation. We leverage this to describe how enforcement imperfections and heterogeneous rule interpretations give rise to the possibility of ‘black market’ and ‘gray market’ entrepreneurial actions. In turn, we theorize how actors' knowledge and motivations can lead them to identify and exploit breakable rule conditions via the creation of new ventures. We illustrate our framework with examples from startups Zenefits, Square, and Aereo. Our framework changes the way we think about regulatory institutions and entrepreneurial action by presenting governance as a multilevel, social, and subjective process—such that some actors conform their entrepreneurial activities to established rules while others recognize and exploit breakable rule conditions.
Academic libraries are facing the need to closely examine the effectiveness of current organizational functions in response to rapid changes in technology and the information environment. The purpose of this study is to explore the functions and issues of the academic library organization in South Korea based on the librarians' perceptions. We conducted a literature review about the changes in the role of academic libraries and organizational functions. In-depth interviews with 19 librarians and a content analysis of those interviews were conducted. As a result, we identified organizational characteristics pertaining to 1) internal functions of the library, such as communication, leadership, motivation, and team system, and 2) external functions, such as collaboration with external administrative departments, and utilization of personal networks. We also discovered mutual relationships among the functions. In particular, leader's support is important to continuously motivate librarians and increase the effectiveness of the team system, resulting in a positive effect on the reputation of the academic library. This study contributes to the academic library literature by comprehensively and empirically exploring functions affecting the services of academic libraries.
Background Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are often caused by gram-positive bacteria that colonize the skin. Given the overuse of antibiotics, SSTIs are increasingly caused by resistant bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Guidance on the utility of MRSA nasal screening for MRSA SSTI is limited. Objective To determine whether MRSA nasal screening predicts the risk of MRSA SSTIs. Methods This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study of adult patients with an SSTI diagnosis that had MRSA nasal screening and wound cultures obtained within 48 hours of starting antibiotics. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and positive and negative likelihood ratios were calculated using VassarStats. Pretest and posttest probabilities were estimated with Microsoft Excel. Results A total of 884 patient encounters were reviewed between December 1, 2018, and October 31, 2021, and 300 patient encounters were included. The prevalence of MRSA SSTI was 18.3%. The MRSA nasal colonization had a sensitivity of 63.6%, specificity of 93.9%, positive predictive value of 70.0% (95% CI = 55.2%-81.7%), negative predictive value of 92.0% (95% CI = 87.7%-94.9%), positive likelihood ratio of 10.39 (95% CI = 6.12-17.65), negative likelihood ratio of 0.39 (95% CI = 0.27-0.55), positive posttest probability of 70.0%, and negative posttest probability of 8.0%. Conclusions Given the high positive likelihood ratio, a positive MRSA nasal screen was associated with a large increase in the probability of MRSA SSTI at our institution, and a negative MRSA nasal screen was associated with a small but potentially significant decrease in the probability of MRSA SSTI.
Dopaminergic pathways control highly consequential aspects of physiology and behavior. One of the most therapeutically important and best-studied receptors in these pathways is dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2). Unfortunately, DRD2 is challenging to study with traditional molecular biological techniques, and most drugs designed to target DRD2 are ligands for many other receptors. Here, we developed probes able to both covalently bind to DRD2 using photoaffinity labeling and provide a chemical handle for detection or affinity purification. These probes behaved like good DRD2 agonists in traditional biochemical assays and were able to perform in chemical-biological assays of cell and receptor labeling. Rat whole brain labeling and affinity enrichment using the probes permitted proteomic analysis of the probes' interacting proteins. Bioinformatic study of the hits revealed that the probes bound noncanonically targeted proteins in Parkinson's disease network as well as the retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1, GABA receptor, and dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1) signaling networks. Follow-up analysis may yield insights into how this pathway relates specifically to Parkinson's disease symptoms or provide new targets for treatments. This work reinforces the notion that the combination of chemical biology and omics-based approaches provides a broad picture of a molecule's "interactome" and may also give insight into the pleiotropy of effects observed for a drug or perhaps indicate new applications.
We prove structure results for homogeneous spaces that support a non-constant solution to two general classes of equations involving the Hessian of a function and an invariant 2-tensor. We also consider trace-free versions of these systems. Our results generalize earlier rigidity results for gradient Ricci solitons and warped product Einstein metrics. In particular, our results apply to homogeneous gradient solitons of any invariant curvature flow and give a new structure result for homogeneous conformally Einstein metrics.
In 2022, the Women’s Sports Foundation published a report addressing the current status of Title IX compliance in U.S school-based sports, examining the limitations of Title IX as a single axis law that addresses gender but not other areas of intersectionality including race, gender identity, sexual orientation, and ability. What is presented here is the executive summary and policy recommendations from the report.
We present chironomid species assemblage data from 402 lakes across northern North America, Greenland, Iceland, and Svalbard to inform interpretations of Holocene subfossil chironomid assemblages used in paleolimnological reconstruction. This calibration-set was developed by re-identifying and taxonomically harmonizing chironomids in previously described surface sediment samples, with identifications made at finer taxonomic resolution than in original publications. The large geographic coverage of this dataset is intended to provide climatic analogues for a wide range of Holocene climates in the northwest North Atlantic region and North American Arctic, including Greenland. For many of these regions, modern calibration data are sparse despite keen interest in paleoclimate reconstructions from high latitudes. A suite of chironomid-based temperature models based upon this training set are evaluated here and the best statistical model is used to reconstruct late glacial (Allerød and Younger Dryas) and Holocene paleotemperatures at five non-glacial lakes representing a wide range of climate zones across Greenland. The new continent-scale training set offers more analogues for the majority of Greenland subfossil assemblages than existing smaller training sets, with many in Iceland and northern Canada. We find strong agreement between chironomid-based reconstructions derived from the new model and independent glacier-based evidence for multi-millennial Holocene temperature trends. Some of the new Holocene reconstructions are very similar to published data, but at a subset of sites and time periods we find improved paleotemperature reconstructions attributable both to the new model's finer taxonomic resolution and to its expanded geographic/climatic coverage, which resulted in improved characterization of species optima. In the late glacial, the new model's finer taxonomic resolution yields a unique ability to resolve temperatures of the Allerød from colder temperatures of the Younger Dryas, although the magnitude of that temperature difference may be underestimated. This study demonstrates the value of geographically and climatically broad paleoecological training sets. The large, taxonomically harmonized dataset presented here should be useful for a wide range of future investigations, including but not limited to paleotemperature reconstructions across the Arctic.
Dieser Aufsatz umreißt die zentralen Grundsätze des Thatcherismus und geht der Frage nach, ob und wie sie in Andrew Lloyd Webbers Œuvre der 1980er Jahre inszeniert wurden. Die Autorin konzentriert sich auf drei Musicals, die oft mit Thatcheristischer Ästhetik in Verbindung gebracht wurden: „Cats“ (1981), „Starlight Express“ (1984) und „Das Phantom der Oper“ (1986). Der Beitrag zeigt, wie die Musiksprache und Dramaturgie dieser Musicals an größeren kulturellen, vom Thatcherismus geprägten Diskursen partizipierten, die „traditionelle Werte“ lobten und von einer „glorreichen“ britischen Vergangenheit schwärmten, die ihre Stimme gegen Elitedenken erhoben und die die Wahrnehmung der Rolle des Staats und die Beziehung zwischen dem Individuum und dem Staat verschoben.
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Carlos Caicedo
  • School of Information Studies
Ben Akih kumgeh
  • Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Kari Segraves
  • Department of Biology
Jason Dedrick
  • School of Information Studies
Douglas Biklen
  • School of Education
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Address
Syracuse, United States
Head of institution
Kent Syverud
Website
www.syr.edu