Wetlands are rich in biodiversity, provide habitats for many wildlife species, and play a vital role in the transmission of bird-borne infectious diseases (e.g., highly pathogenic avian influenza). However, wetlands worldwide have been degraded or even disappeared due to natural and anthropogenic activities over the past two centuries. At present, major data products of wetlands have large uncertainties, low to moderate accuracies, and lack regular updates. Therefore, accurate and updated wetlands maps are needed for the sustainable management and conservation of wetlands. Here, we consider the remote sensing capability and define wetland types in terms of plant growth form (tree, shrub, grass), life cycle (perennial, annual), leaf seasonality (evergreen, deciduous), and canopy type (open, closed). We identify unique and stable features of individual wetland types and develop knowledge-based algorithms to map them in Northeast China at 10 m spatial resolution by using microwave (PALSAR-2, Sentinel-1), optical (Landsat (ETM+/OLI), Sentinel-2), and thermal (MODIS land surface temperature, LST) imagery in 2020. The resultant wetland map has a high overall accuracy of >95%. There were a total 154,254 km 2 of wetlands in Northeast China in 2020, which included 27,219 km 2 of seasonal open-canopy marsh, 69,158 km 2 of yearlong closed-canopy marsh, and 57,878 km 2 of deciduous forest swamp. Our results demonstrate the potential of knowledge-based algorithms and integrated multi-source image data for wetlands mapping and monitoring, which could provide improved data for the planning of wetland conservation and restoration.
The article delves into the intricate realm of systematic risk, a formidable peril that casts its shadow upon the entirety of the market or vast segments thereof. It traverses the annals of history, unearths the weighty import, origins, and reverberations of systematic risk, while shedding light on the intricate models and methodologies employed for its quantification and prudent handling. The article channels its focus towards three cardinal manifestations of systematic risk, namely liquidity risk, credit risk, and market risk. Moreover, it scrutinizes the perilous path these risks tread, culminating in cataclysmic systemic disasters that ruthlessly disrupt the harmonious functioning and unwavering stability of financial systems. To accentuate the gravity of the subject matter, the article cites poignant examples of such calamities, with the 2008 financial crisis standing as a haunting epitome. Furthermore, the article imparts sagacious guidelines and best practices, serving as a beacon for assuaging the ever-looming specter of systematic risk. Ultimately, the article culminates with an emphatic crescendo, underscoring the paramount significance of systematic risk management for discerning investors and astute policymakers alike.
Carbon neutrality has a significant impact on Chinas ecological environment and sustainable economic development. In recent years, China has implemented many regulations on industries with high carbon emissions, especially onto the automotive industry. These regulations are not limited to controlling carbon emissions, relevant economic policies, and encouragement for the production of new energy vehicles. To investigate the potential factors that significantly influence the growth of the automobile sector, this article analyzes data from Chinas leading automotive industry in recent years. The findings show that the sales and carbon emissions of new energy vehicles have a significant positive correlation with the development of the automotive industry, while government subsidies have a negative correlation with the development of the automotive industry. This demonstrates the detrimental effects of carbon neutrality rules on the automobile sector, leading to the key conclusions that, from the standpoint of long-term growth, research on new energy vehicle should be prioritized.
These days, climate change has intensely influenced energy security. Energy is necessary in humans daily live. Low energy security causes huge health and financial risk for people, also economic pressure on the government. This paper analyses a case study of heat wave in Sichuan, China. This paper finds that traditional methods including putting quota on industrial usage of electricity and continuing using fossil fuels have severe limitations. There are many other energy systems dependent on water. Correspondingly, this study explores some possible effective solutions, not only from the perspective of government policy, but also from the perspective of energy supply, which will provide practical ideas for solving energy problems. First, governments can ameliorate the supply structure of new energy. This ensures that there are alternative ways on power generation under extreme weather conditions. Furthermore, governments can use different tools including tax incentives and subsidies to encourage more investors participating in energy projects and motivate scientists developing new technology on sources and storage.
This research investigates the effectiveness of three prominent stock price prediction methodologies: Linear Regression, Polynomial Regression, and AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model. The study leverages one and a half years of historical data from Apple, Tesla, Amazon, and Nike stocks to predict average prices over the ensuing 14 days. The predictive efficacy of each model is tested against actual data, revealing their respective strengths and limitations. Linear Regression offers an overview of stock trends with limited intricacy, while Polynomial Regression delivers a more comprehensive understanding of price variations and cyclical trends. However, Polynomial Regression's reliability for predictions remains uncertain. In contrast, the ARIMA model, designed explicitly for short-term forecasting, demonstrates superior accuracy, correctly predicting seven out of eight scenarios. It should be noted that this is despite its assumptions of linearity and stationarity. The findings underscore the complexity of accurate stock market prediction and highlight the ARIMA model's reliability for short-term forecasts. Therefore, understanding the strengths and weaknesses of each model is crucial for improving stock price prediction techniques and for better grasping the complex dynamics of volatile stock markets.
Trolling is a deviant behavior that provokes emotional responses, diffuses misinformation, or otherwise disrupts on-topic discussions. This study investigates trolling behavior as a complex dynamic process. The data comprised over 13 million Reddit comments, which were classified as troll or non-troll messages using the BURT model, fine-tuned with human coding set. By employing a unique, minimally complex, maximally predictive model from statistical mechanics and information theory, i.e., epsilon-machines and transducers, we find that engaging in trolling behaviors is both self- and other-motivated. Social inputs provide more information for predicting the future behaviors of the dynamic. Social inputs are also shown to encourage and reinforce trolling behaviors among Internet users. The article serves as a showcase for the use of information-theoretic measures from dynamical systems theory to conceptualize social media processes as computational algorithms executed by collectives of human users.
Background We previously demonstrated that a heuristic (i.e., evidence-based, rounded yet practical) cadence threshold of ≥ 100 steps/min was associated with absolutely-defined moderate intensity physical activity (i.e., ≥ 3 metabolic equivalents [METs]) in older adults 61–85 years of age. Although it was difficult to ascertain achievement of absolutely-defined vigorous (6 METs) intensity, ≥ 130 steps/min was identified as a defensible threshold for this population. However, little evidence exists regarding cadence thresholds and relatively-defined moderate intensity indicators, including ≥ 64% heart rate [HR] maximum [HRmax = 220-age], ≥ 40% HR reserve [HRR = HRmax-HRresting], and ≥ 12 Borg Scale Rating of Perceived Exertion [RPE]; or vigorous intensity indicators including ≥ 77%HRmax, ≥ 60%HRR, and ≥ 14 RPE. Purpose To analyze the relationship between cadence and relatively-defined physical activity intensity and identify relatively-defined moderate and vigorous heuristic cadence thresholds for older adults 61–85 years of age. Methods Ninety-seven ostensibly healthy adults (72.7 ± 6.9 years; 49.5% women) completed up to nine 5-min treadmill walking bouts beginning at 0.5 mph (0.8 km/h) and progressing by 0.5 mph speed increments (with 2-min rest between bouts). Directly-observed (and video-recorded) steps were hand-counted, HR was measured using a chest-strapped monitor, and in the final minute of each bout, participants self-reported RPE. Segmented mixed model regression and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analyses identified optimal cadence thresholds associated with relatively-defined moderate (≥ 64%HRmax, ≥ 40%HRR, and ≥ 12 RPE) and vigorous (≥ 77%HRmax, ≥ 60%HRR, and ≥ 14 RPE) intensities. A compromise between the two analytical methods, including Youden’s Index (a sum of sensitivity and specificity), positive and negative predictive values, and overall accuracy, yielded final heuristic cadences. Results Across all relatively-defined moderate intensity indicators, segmented regression models and ROC curve analyses identified optimal cadence thresholds ranging from 105.9 to 112.8 steps/min and 102.0-104.3 steps/min, respectively. Comparable values for vigorous intensity indicators ranged between126.1-132.1 steps/min and 106.7–116.0 steps/min, respectively. Regardless of the relatively-defined intensity indicator, the overall best heuristic cadence threshold aligned with moderate intensity was ≥ 105 steps/min. Vigorous intensity varied between ≥ 115 (greater sensitivity) or ≥ 120 (greater specificity) steps/min. Conclusions Heuristic cadence thresholds align with relatively-defined intensity indicators and can be useful for studying and prescribing older adults’ physiological response to, and/or perceived experience of, ambulatory physical activity. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02650258. Registered 24 December 2015.
The Asian immigrant population is the fourth largest immigrant population in the United States, and its parenting stress issues have been consistently recognized in previous studies. However, little attention has been paid to neighborhood-level factors and their parenting stress. Using the Study of Asian American Families and 2016 American Community Survey 5-year estimates, this study examined the association between neighborhood structural indexes and Asian immigrant parents’ parenting stress, along with the mechanism driving the relationship. We found that cultural orientation and social support fully mediated the effects of economic disadvantages on parenting stress among Asian immigrant parents. Only cultural orientation mediated the direct effects of ethnic heterogeneity on Asian parents’ parenting stress. Improving Asian immigrants’ living environment, including economic status and ethnic diversity, would be critical to relieve the parenting stress of Asian immigrant families. Interventions and preventions to increase social support, and inform cultural orientation and acculturation are emphasized.
We investigate how different value creation processes affect the early-stage performance of new ventures. Specifically, we focus on entrepreneurial value creation using four different patterns of customer engagement: (1) existing customer acquisition (ECA); (2) product/service imitation (PSI); (3) customer-focused innovation (CFI); and (4) technology-driven innovation (TDI). We examine early-stage performance under the premise that each pattern has a different starting point with customer bases, product innovation, and legitimacy. We use institutional theory, optimal distinctiveness, and the demand-side perspective to hypothesize and then empirically validate this typology by examining the performance rank order of customer engagement patterns. We employ a mixed-methods approach across a two-part study and find support for our hypotheses. We find differential financial performance outcomes that depend on the customer engagement pattern implemented by the entrepreneur. We expand on these findings, including the practical implications of the strategies that entrepreneurs may consider when launching their venture. Plain English Summary Start-up companies that engage with customers by acquiring or imitating a proven value proposition are more likely to achieve sales, have faster sales growth, and better profit margins than those that seek to innovate a new value proposition. Our paper identifies four different ways that new ventures engage with customers as they implement their value proposition: (1) they acquire an existing business operation along with its customers, (2) they imitate a value proposition that has already been tested by one or more existing companies, (3) they innovate by engaging with potential customers early to develop products that meet customer-defined needs, and (4) they develop an innovative technology and then set about to educate customers as to what it can do for them. We then look at the performance implications of these customer engagement processes. New ventures that apply a proven value proposition by (1) acquiring an existing business will be the most likely to achieve sales, sales growth, and have higher profit margins in the early stages; followed by (2) imitating a value proposition, (3) innovating by engaging with potential customers, and (4) developing innovative technology, in that order.
Background V0v spinal interneurons are highly conserved, glutamatergic, commissural neurons that function in locomotor circuits. We have previously shown that Evx1 and Evx2 are required to specify the neurotransmitter phenotype of these cells. However, we still know very little about the gene regulatory networks that act downstream of these transcription factors in V0v cells. Methods To identify candidate members of V0v gene regulatory networks, we FAC-sorted wild-type and evx1;evx2 double mutant zebrafish V0v spinal interneurons and expression-profiled them using microarrays and single cell RNA-seq. We also used in situ hybridization to compare expression of a subset of candidate genes in evx1;evx2 double mutants and wild-type siblings. Results Our data reveal two molecularly distinct subtypes of zebrafish V0v spinal interneurons at 48 h and suggest that, by this stage of development, evx1;evx2 double mutant cells transfate into either inhibitory spinal interneurons, or motoneurons. Our results also identify 25 transcriptional regulator genes that require Evx1/2 for their expression in V0v interneurons, plus a further 11 transcriptional regulator genes that are repressed in V0v interneurons by Evx1/2. Two of the latter genes are hmx2 and hmx3a. Intriguingly, we show that Hmx2/3a, repress dI2 interneuron expression of skor1a and nefma, two genes that require Evx1/2 for their expression in V0v interneurons. This suggests that Evx1/2 might regulate skor1a and nefma expression in V0v interneurons by repressing Hmx2/3a expression. Conclusions This study identifies two molecularly distinct subsets of zebrafish V0v spinal interneurons, as well as multiple transcriptional regulators that are strong candidates for acting downstream of Evx1/2 to specify the essential functional characteristics of these cells. Our data further suggest that in the absence of both Evx1 and Evx2, V0v spinal interneurons initially change their neurotransmitter phenotypes from excitatory to inhibitory and then, later, start to express markers of distinct types of inhibitory spinal interneurons, or motoneurons. Taken together, our findings significantly increase our knowledge of V0v and spinal development and move us closer towards the essential goal of identifying the complete gene regulatory networks that specify this crucial cell type.
Background Female Athlete Triad (Triad) and Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (REDs) describe potential health and performance consequences of low energy availability. Objective We surveyed female cross-country athletes to assess differences in educational impact scores (knowledge score * confidence score factor, EIS) of Triad and REDs. Associations between EIS and participant characteristics [e.g., mileage (current and peak), years of running experience, age, bone stress injury history, division level participation, academic area of study, Triad or REDs diagnoses, and Triad or REDs education] were explored. Materials & Methods An evidence-based online survey was developed and administered via Qualtrics™ to female collegiate cross-country athletes (n = 275; age = 20 ± 1 yrs). Results There was a weak correlation between peak career mileage and EIS (r = 0.195; p = 0.010). EIS significantly differed in athletes with a related academic area of study vs. those without (21.91 ± 5.16, 16.11 ± 5.54, respectively). EIS significantly differed in athletes with Triad and REDs diagnoses (21.69 ± 5.85 and 22.58 ± 6.82, respectively) vs. those without (16.80 ± 6.54 and 17.20 ± 6.34, respectively). EIS was higher in those who had received Triad education vs. those who had not (21.03 ± 6.86, 18.12 ± 6.82, respectively). A significant interaction between peak career mileage and Triad diagnosis was found (p = 0.005). Conclusions Significant education-based and diagnoses differences suggests that Triad diagnoses correlate with peak career mileage. These findings support education to improve not only treatment, but prevention, of Triad and REDs.
Philadelphia's Actual Valuation Initiative adopted in 2013 creates a unique opportunity for us to test whether improved reassessments at short intervals to true market value improve property tax equity. Based on a difference‐in‐differences framework using parcel‐level data matched with transactions in Philadelphia and 15 comparable cities, this study finds positive evidence on equity outcomes from more regular reassessments. The quality of property assessment improves substantially after 2014, although the extent of improvement varies across communities. Cross‐city comparisons confirm Philadelphia's improvement in the quality and equity of property assessments after adopting the initiative. These results highlight the importance of regular reassessment in places where property values increase quickly, and they shed light on the disparate impacts of reassessment across property value and across neighborhood income, race, and gentrification status. The paper makes the case that the property tax, if designed well, can be an equitable tax instrument.
Background A growing body of evidence has demonstrated a close association between nasal colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and its invasive presence systemically. Thus, several hospitals have implemented MRSA nares PCR screening for all patients initiating treatment active against MRSA for various infections to help de-escalate an anti-MRSA antibiotic in the event of a negative result. However, little is known about the effects of anti-MRSA systemic agents on MRSA nasal colonization, potentially affecting the use of MRSA PCR as an effective screening tool if not conducted immediately upon hospital admission. Methods Adult Upstate University Hospital patients ≥ 18 years of age with an initial positive MRSA nares PCR result were considered for inclusion, starting from September 2022. Eligible patients were individuals who had a positive MRSA nares PCR performed within 36 hours of their initial dose of a systemic anti-MRSA antibiotic. Positive MRSA nares cultures were also considered if PCRs were initially indeterminate. Anti-MRSA antibiotics included vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, ceftaroline, and clindamycin. Patients who were received these agents for a duration of 48-96 hours were consented for their participation. If consented, a follow-up MRSA nares swab and PCR were collected at a goal timepoint of 72 hours post initiation of anti-MRSA antibiotics (sample collection ranged from 48-96 hours post initiation). MRSA colonization was reassessed with a repeat nares PCR and reflex to culture for indeterminate results if applicable. Results As of April 21st, 2023, 61 follow-up MRSA nares samples were collected from eligible participants. Follow-up samples were collected an average of 66.51 hours after their first dose of anti-MRSA drugs (IQR = 11.47). Of these follow-up samples, 56/61 (91.80%) resulted as a positive MRSA nares PCR or culture result. Conclusion Our interim results demonstrated that MRSA colonization in the nares via PCR generally persists even after 48-96 hours of continuous systemic administration of anti-MRSA antibiotics. These findings suggest that MRSA nares swabs can still be used after anti-MRSA antibiotic administration, increasing its utility as a screening tool. Disclosures Wesley D. Kufel, Pharm.D., BCPS, BCIDP, AAHIVP, Merck & Co.: Grant/Research Support Elizabeth Asiago-Reddy, MD, Glaxo-Smith-Kline: Grant/Research Support|Pfizer: Grant/Research Support
This study is among the first pre–post examinations to explore differences in subjective well-being, adaptive and maladaptive behavior, close relationships, community integration, family members’ satisfaction with residential and community living settings, and family contact before and after the COVID-19 outbreak. Participants demonstrated better life satisfaction and adaptive behavior before COVID-19 than after COVID-19. Participants reported closer relationships with family members and peers before COVID-19 and closer relationships with staff members after COVID-19. The findings reveal mixed, although mostly negative, effects of the pandemic on people with intellectual and developmental disabilities in the community in Israel, in accord with extant comparative research.
Examples of fluid flows driven by undulating boundaries are found in nature across many different length scales. Even though different driving mechanisms have evolved in distinct environments, they perform essentially the same function: directional transport of liquid. Nature-inspired strategies have been adopted in engineered devices to manipulate and direct flow. Here, we demonstrate how an undulating boundary generates large-scale pumping of a thin liquid near the liquid-air interface. Two dimensional traveling waves on the undulator, a canonical strategy to transport fluid at low Reynolds numbers, surprisingly lead to flow rates that depend non-monotonically on the wave speed. Through an asymptotic analysis of the thin-film equations that account for gravity and surface tension, we predict the observed optimal speed that maximizes pumping. Our findings reveal how proximity to free surfaces, which ensure lower energy dissipation, can be leveraged to achieve directional transport of liquids.
Midazolam is a commonly used, well-tolerated, anxiolytic, sedative, anesthesia induction agent, and an adjunct for procedural sedation that is used widely in the emergency department. The ability to administer midazolam via multiple routes, including intranasal, makes it a particularly common choice for use in children. Intranasal administration is safe, easy, and well tolerated and has been shown to be an effective method of obtaining anxiolysis and/or sedation. Adverse drug reactions, including allergic reactions, can occur with any medication. However, anaphylaxis is an uncommon phenomenon from midazolam. Despite being one of the most common medications used in the emergency department and operating room, there are only a handful of unequivocal cases of anaphylaxis secondary to midazolam. The rarity of this presentation may lead to delays in care and potential adverse outcomes as a result. We present one such case of a 10-year-old patient who experienced anaphylaxis after administration of intranasal midazolam to facilitate a computed tomography scan.
Gender differences in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be found in the core symptoms of ADHD, rates of comorbidities, and features associated with the disorder. ADHD is one of the most commonly diagnosed neurodevelopmental disorders, yet conjecture exists over the prevalence and phenotypic profile of symptoms in girls and women. ADHD in adulthood is similar to ADHD in childhood, yet distinctions can be found in the wider reaching domains of impairment seen in adults, compared to children, with ADHD. Inattentive symptoms are typically more impairing than impulsive/hyperactive symptoms among adults with ADHD, and women with ADHD, in particular, may find these inattentive symptoms more impairing in their social relationships and during motherhood. With these noted areas of difficulty in adult ADHD, gender considerations must be made with regard to the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of ADHD in adulthood.
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