Syiah Kuala University
  • Banda Aceh, Aceh, Indonesia
Recent publications
Introduction Indonesia ranks the fifth highest in child stunting among Asian countries. Aceh, a westernmost province in Indonesia recorded the highest prevalence of stunting in children under two years old in the nation. Our study investigated the current government efforts on child stunting reduction activities since the introduction of Governor Regulation No. 14/2019. Methods The study investigated the current efforts of Aceh governments and relevant actors on child stunting reduction using in-depth interviews, document reviews and focus group discussions. Results Thirty-five (35) respondents including policy makers were interviewed, four focus group discussions (15 each group) were conducted, and various official documents were reviewed. Various challenges for reducing child stunting in Aceh were identified: inadequate knowledge and skills of Posyandu cadres on child stunting; reluctance to consume iron and folic acid (IFA), and supplementary foods (PMT Bumil) by many pregnant women due to perceived annoying effects and unappetizing taste; work engagement, insufficient breast milk production and inadequate support from husbands failing to achieve exclusive breastfeeding among nursing women; inadequate provision of complementary fortified foods for children 6–23 months; lack of clean water, waste management and WASH practices. Conclusion The intervention on both nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive factors was found to be insufficient in Aceh. Although WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene) practices are the most important contributors to child stunting, only the health agency plays a singular role in reduction efforts by focussing on specific factors. Coordination between relevant agencies to address both factors is required to achieve the effectiveness of child stunting reduction and prevention in Aceh.
Background: The recently emerged novel coronavirus, "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)", caused a highly contagious disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It has severely damaged the world's most developed countries and has turned into a major threat for low- and middle-income countries. Since its emergence in late 2019, medical interventions have been substantial, and most countries relied on public health measures collectively known as nonpharmaceutical interventions. Aims: To centralize the accumulative knowledge on non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) against COVID-19 for each country under one worldwide consortium. Methods: International COVID-19 Research Network collaborators developed a cross-sectional online-survey to assess the implications of NPIs and sanitary supply on incidence and mortality of COVID-19. Survey was conducted between January 1 and February 1, 2021, and participants from 92 countries/territories completed it. The association between NPIs, sanitation supplies and incidence and mortality were examined by multivariate regression, with log-transformed value of population as an offset value. Results: Majority of countries/territories applied several preventive strategies including social distancing (100.0%), quarantine (100.0%), isolation (98.9%), and school closure (97.8%). Individual-level preventive measures such as personal hygiene (100.0%) and wearing facial mask (94.6% at hospital; 93.5% at mass transportation; 91.3% in mass gathering facilities) were also frequently applied. Quarantine at a designated place was negatively associated with incidence and mortality compared to home quarantine. Isolation at a designated place was also associated with reduced mortality compared to home isolation. Recommendations to use sanitizer for personal hygiene reduced incidence compared to recommendation to use soap did. Deprivation of mask was associated with increased incidence. Higher incidence and mortality were found in countries/territories with higher economic level. Mask deprivation was pervasive regardless of economic level. Conclusion: NPIs against COVID-19 such as using sanitizer, quarantine, and isolation can decrease incidence and mortality of COVID-19. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Coffee is one of the most popular drinks in the world. The use of coffee produces a large amount of coffee waste (spent coffee grounds). These spent coffee grounds contain cellulose and hemicellulose which have the potential to be used as a biocomposite material. The objective of this work was to study the thermal properties of spent coffee grounds biocomposite by using epoxy resin as a matrix. The particle size of spent coffee grounds was 20 and 40 mesh. The compositions of spent coffee grounds and epoxy resin for each particle size were 80/20, 85/15, 90/10, and 95/05 (vol.%). The biocomposite samples have been successfully fabricated by using the press method with 9 tons of load. The density and porosity of biocomposite samples have been examined. The thermal conductivity of biocomposite samples has been measured by a single-plate method. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis and have been also used to analyze the thermal properties of samples. The results found that the density of spent coffee grounds biocomposite was 0.605 – 0.789 g/cm3. The porosity of biocomposite samples was found to be in the range of 12 – 14%. TGA showed that the spent coffee grounds biocomposite had a stable weight up to 250 °C. Fast decomposition of the sample occurred after 250 °C. DSC spectra showed that there was an endothermic peak at 85 °C with the enthalpy change of 218 J/g. Another endothermic peak was also observed at 466 °C, related to the thermal depolymerization of the samples. The thermal conductivity of the spent coffee grounds biocomposite was 0.038 – 0.054 W/m K indicating that the spent coffee grounds biocomposite is quite suitable for thermal insulation. Composition spent coffee ground has a significant effect on the thermal and physical properties of biocomposite. This work found that the thermal conductivity of biocomposite correlates with its density and porosity.
An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or drone is an aircraft driven without a pilot and its design process requires calculating the strength of the frame structure to accommodate the load to be carried in different weather conditions. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the strength and durability of UAV Hexacopter frame during flight through a stress and strain analysis conducted using the Finite Element Method. The materials used include carbon fiber, magnesium alloy AZ91D-F, and aluminum casting A356.0-T6 with the loads varied separately at the end of each of their arms and centers. The maximum stress value from the simulation of the load on these parts was found to be 2.80 MPa and 6.38 MPa for the carbon fiber material, 2. 66 MPa and 6.11 MPa for magnesium alloy AZ91D-F, and 2.68 MPa and 6.15 MPa for aluminum casting A356.0-T6 respectively. Moreover, the yield strength for the carbon fiber material was 22300 MPa, Magnesium alloy AZ91D-F was 150 MPa, and Aluminum casting A356.0-T6 was 152 MPa and these values were considered safe. These results showed that the material with the highest strength value is Carbon fiber material but the Magnesium alloy AZ91D-F and Aluminum casting A356.0-T6 can also be used as alternative materials to produce UAV frames.
The National Energy Master Plan sets the target that by 2050 the development of renewable energy for Wind Energy Power Plants reaches 60.647 GW throughout Indonesia, while for Aceh Province, it is predicted that wind energy will be able to generate 894 MW. To map this energy potential, further research is still needed to get the best position for the development of Wind Power Plants. This study aims to map the potential of wind energy in the coastal areas of Southwestern Aceh using the Maximum Likelihood method of the Weibull distribution to analyze wind speed from the data provided by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF). The area of study covers several districts including Aceh Jaya, Aceh Barat, Nagan Raya, Aceh Barat Daya, Aceh Selatan, Aceh Singkil and Simeulue. The average wind on Weibull distribution for Simeulue is 2.48 m/s with a frequency of 26%, Aceh Singkil 1.54 m/s with a frequency of 40%, Aceh Selatan 1.55 m/s with a frequency of 48%, Aceh Barat Daya 1.55 m/s with a frequency of 50%, Nagan Raya 2 m/s with a frequency of 36%, Aceh Barat 1.54 m/s with a frequency of 38% and Aceh Jaya 2.49 m/s with a frequency of 31%. Meanwhile, the wind power capability ranges from 4,590 watts/m2 – 26,040 watts/m2, making the whole site a low-class wind suitability as a wind power generator.
Natural fiber composites are very environmentally friendly because they can be degraded naturally and also the price of natural fibers is cheaper than synthetic fibers. The importance of pre-treatment of the fiber because it can increase the mechanical strength of the fiber itself. One of the pretreatments for fiber is to perform an alkalization process, including soaking the fiber in a solution of Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) and the concentration of NaOH affects the mechanical strength of the fiber. So this study aims to determine the effect of NaOH concentration on the alkalization process on the mechanical strength of rice straw fiber (RSF). The stages of this research were soaking RSF in NaOH solution with concentrations of 2%,3% and 4% for 60 minutes and without treatment, then washing with distilled water, drying at room temperature for 7-8 days, making a single fiber tensile test sample and testing and analysis of fiber morphology structure with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The results showed that the effect of 4% NaOH treatment on rice straw showed a maximum tensile stress of 82.23 MPa, a strain value of 28.2% and an elastic modulus of 291 MPa. SEM results showed that at 4% concentration of alkali treatment, fiber surface roughness, tears and small holes on the RSF surface showed that impurities were removed including lignin, resulting in increased fiber absorption. This can facilitate the absorption of the matrix against the fiber in composite manufacturing applications.
The utilization of natural fiber from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) into composite materials can increase the economic value of EFB waste. OPEFB fibers can be turned into useful materials by combining them with other polymers, such as polyester resins, to produce better composite boards. This study aimed to determine differences in weight percent of OPEFB fiber and fly ash on polyester composites on mechanical properties. OPEFB fiber was first treated with alkali to reduce the lignin content before mixed with polyester resin and pressed by a press machine for 24 hours. The open mold method was used in this study. In this study, four hybridization compositions of OPEFB fiber /fly ash filler were studied, which are 10/1 ,10/5, 20/1, and 20/5 (wt%) with polyester resin as a binder. Several mechanical properties such as tensile strength, tensile modulus, flexural strength, and flexural modulus were studied in this research. Tensile and flexural strength properties were tested using a Universal Testing Machine (MTS). The results showed that the hybridized OPEFB/fly ash fiber composition affected the performance of the composite. OPEFB/fly ash fiber hybridization improved the composite performance compared to pure polyester composites. The highest tensile strength and tensile modulus were in the OPEFB/fly ash fiber hybridization (10/1). The flexural strength of OPEFB/fly ash fiber hybridization (20/1) and the flexural modulus at (20/5).
Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr) is widely used in the agricultural and food industries. Most times, when pineapple is consumed, the pineapple peel waste is not been utilized properly and efficiently. Pectin and activated charcoal are valuable and useful products that can be obtained from processing pineapple peel. Pectin and activated charcoal have potential to solve the problem of heavy metal contamination and dye contamination in water. The aims of this study were to utilize pectin and activated charcoal from pineapple peels as an adsorbent for heavy metals (lead and cadmium) and dyes (congo red and malachite green) in water. Pectin and activated charcoal were extracted from pineapple peel waste, analyzed by infrared spectrophotometry, evaluated for adsorption activity against heavy metals by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and against dyes by ultraviolet visible spectrophotometry. Pectin and activated charcoal have been successfully extracted from pineapple peel waste and have similar characteristics to commercially marketed pectin and activated charcoal. The removal percentage of pectin for heavy metals and dyes ranged from 64.8% to 72.4% and the removal percentage of activated charcoal for heavy metals and dyes ranged from 57.2% to 61.4%. Pectin and activated charcoal from pineapple peel waste have been successfully extracted and applied as adsorbents against heavy metals and dyes.
Chitosan modification using amino acid glycine offers a promising multi-applicable material with high functionalities. Herein, chitosan was firstly dissolved in acetic acid before combined with glycine to form a linkage. At the end of the preparation, glycine-modified chitosan in a form of bead was obtained. Fourier transform infrared analysis confirmed the significant presence of N-and O-containing functional groups which play a major role for the material's functionality. X-ray diffractogram revealed the success of the modification based on crystalline peak appearances at 2θ of 30°, 34°, 35°, 37°, 39°, 41°, and 46°. Thermal gravimetry analysis along with differential scanning calorimetry supported the fact that the modification was successful. At the end of the report, we also presented updated application of amino acid-modified chitosan based on a strategic literature search. It implied that glycine-modified chitosan beads prepared in this study could be used in pharmaceutics, bio-medicine, forensics and wastewater treatment.
The existence of Banda Aceh City on an active fault causes the possibility of an earthquake to occur is quite high. When an earthquake occurs, the pore water pressure will increase and the shear strength of the soil will decrease, resulting in saturation of water in the sand layer which can cause the phenomenon of liquefaction. The dominant sand layer is found in every report on the results of soil investigations, both in the cone penetration test (CPT) investigation and in the Boring work identified from the N-value standard penetration test (N-SPT) or the results of sieve analysis and hydrometer analysis in the geotechnical laboratory. This study aims to provide information on the location of the hard soil layer with the potential for liquefaction in the form of sand shading relief which was analyzed in the form of a 3D contour map surface and evaluated using the Castro method (1975). The data analysis is inputted in 3D-SURFER software, to describe the distribution of soil layers in three dimensions which are displayed in 3D-MAP, gridding form, contour distribution and layer distribution shading display. The method of identification of the distribution of layers that is displayed from the SURFER output is in the form of surface contours and the height of the sea water level (SWL) and soil types; soft soil, moderately soil, compact soil and hard soil as well as the thickness and depth of distribution below the surface of Banda Aceh City. Determination of the occurrence of liquefaction using the Castro method (1975), liquefaction occurs at a depth of 4.0 m to 10 m.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a skin disease whose treatment is quite difficult because it is chronic, residive and has a fairly complex etiology. One of the modalities in AD that is gaining popularity is alternative and complementary medicine. This literature review aims to update evidence based alternative and complementary medicine in AD. There are several alternative and complementary therapies that are quite commonly used in AD, namely herbal medicine, plant oils, vitamin D, probiotics, earthworms and acupuncture or acupressure. The use of alternative and complementary medicine in AD is quite effective, but further research is still needed to support this matter.
The analysis of the application of clean production in one of the oil palm industries in Nagan Raya district has been carried out. The company produces palm oil and palm kernel oil. The application of clean production has the aim of increasing productivity by providing a better level of efficiency in the use of raw materials, energy, water, and encouraging better environmental performance. The method used is a descriptive method with interviews, observations that become primary data, primary data is analysed to obtain a causal relationship. Data analysis is carried out on the data obtained in the field and overcome by implementing clean production actions based on these problems. The results show that the problems that occur at each production process station can be overcome by implementing clean production techniques (good house-keeping techniques, in the form of good operating procedures and implementation of standard operating procedures that need to be carried out optimally, re-recovery) and improving the employees' knowledge of clean production.
Tsunami modeling is one of the attempted mitigation programs that aim to minimize the impact of losses that may occur due to tsunami disaster. The tsunami modeling is essential to be implemented in areas with tsunami risk zones such as those that rest directly to the subduction route. The main factor that causes tsunami is the earthquake. It can occur in various locations with different mechanisms. The difference in location and the focal mechanism may generate tsunami with different amplitudes of waves and speeds which subsequently inflict different height of waves that come ashore. This study was built upon the numerical simulations of tsunami modeling with multiple scenarios that may occur in the tsunami risk zones by using the TUNAMI-N2. Approximately 30 well-planned scenarios were designed with 21 selected observation point areas were chosen. All of these areas are located on the coast. The results of this study indicate that the range of the vertical wave amplitudes from each different point reaches a significant difference in values. This study also provides the maximum wave amplitudes data from the worst possible scenario for each area on the Aceh coast.
During COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers are under physical and psychological pressure as the front-line workers to deal with the disease. They are also at high risk to be exposed to COVID-19 which may have impact on their mental health status. The study aims to examine the mental health status of healthcare workers including physicians, nurses and midwives in Aceh, Indonesia. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted between June 15 – August 30, 2021. The online questionnaire was distributed using social network with snowball technique and the author’ personal contacts. A total 0f 530 physicians, nurses and midwives participated in the study. The survey measured mental health status using Self Reporting Questionnaire 29 (SRQ-29). Among healthcare workers, the highest proportion of mental health outcome was post traumatic syndrome disorder (PTSD) (28.4%), followed by anxiety and depression (24.3%). There was no difference of mental health outcomes based on gender. Older and female healthcare workers were more likely to suffer from anxiety and depressive symptoms. Nurses were at higher risk of having psychotic disorder and PTSD. It can be concluded that this study highlights the urgency to provide psychological support to healthcare workers.
Seulawah Agam volcano is one of the locations where manifestations of hot springs are found on the surface, which indicates a geothermal source. ldentifying a geothermal system requires exploration stages from multidisciplinary perspectives such as geology, geophysics, and geochemistry in regions where manifestation was located on the surface. Geophysical exploration using geophysical methods, especially the magnetotelluric (MT) method, has been widely carried out by geoscientists to provide information on subsurface data. The MT method with various frequency ranges of electromagnetic waves allows deeper penetration that can reach depths of up to tens of kilometers. However, this method has various limitations, from acquisition to data processing which requires a lot of effort and budget. One simple thing that can be done to keep up with information related to the geothermal system is by initial analysis of MT data using the ModEM WebPortal. So we get a gradient tipper vector that can help analyze subsurface information related to conductor anomalies that show the physical properties of the geothermal system. The apparent resistivity distribution is also used to support information about the influence of the geothermal system on the existing fault structure. ln general, conductive anomalies are found at different depths of each frequency. However, the center of the anomaly is not consistent at one position at each depth. Change in the center of the anomaly due to the Great Sumatran Fault structure that accommodates hot springs rising to the surface. Manifestations of hot water are found at several points around Mount Seulawah Agam, such as le Sueum, le Busuk, le Jue, Heutz, and Cempaga.
Chitosan was modified with glutamic acid and TiO2 in.order to improve chitosan performance for methylene blue removal. Chitosan-Glutamic Acid/TiO2 films (CGATF) were prepared with variations in the composition of chitosan glutamic acid and TiO2. CGATF was characterized by Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Tensile test. FTIR spectra confirm that the carboxyl group in glutamic acid had reacted with the amine group in chitosan. SEM images indicate that there is no significant change in the surface of the film. The addition of glutamic acid has decreased the mechanical properties of chitosan. Based on adsorption study the addition of glutamic acid and TiO2 can increase chitosan performance on methylene blue removal from water.
The development of polyurethane membranes is very rapid, starting from the development of basic materials, applications, and membrane modifications. The natural material used for the development of polyurethane membranes is red seaweed from the Gracilaria verrucosa Greville species because this type of seaweed is still not optimal in its utilization, especially in the Aceh area. This study using three ingredients derived from red seaweed, namely, red seaweed biomass (RSB), red seaweed residue (RSR), and red seaweed filtrate (RSF). The polyurethane membrane was synthesized using the phase inversion method with glycerin and castor oil as a blasting agent. The polyurethane membranes have good physical properties with functional groups and the thermal characteristic are almost identical for the three materials. The polyurethane membrane from red seaweed biomass (PUM-RSB) has more urethane bonds than polyurethane membrane from red seaweed residue (PUM-RSR) and polyurethane membrane from red seaweed filtrate (PUM-RSF), which can be seen from the low % transmittance on functional group FTIR analysis. The performance of the membrane was evaluated by an ammonia filtration process with a dead-end flow system. Flux and rejection factors for PUM-RSB were obtained 0.939 mL/cm² and 28.650%., respectively. This study indicates that all parts of red seaweed can be used as a base material to develop polyurethane membranes to produce optimal polyurethane membranes that can be applied to all conditions.
Geology Krueng Raya, Aceh Besar is formed from thick sediment and hard rock consisting of young alluvium and volcanic rock. The study area is characterized by the Seulimeum fault which is recently very active in generating earthquakes. This study aims to analyze microtremor data to determine the value of the seismic vulnerability index in the Krueng Raya area, Aceh Besar. Data acquisition was carried out at 20 measurement points located across the Mesjid Raya District. The data were analyzed using the Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) method. Based on the dominant frequency value and the amplification value, the seismic vulnerability index value in the Krueng Raya area ranges from 0.20 to 12.92 which is categorized as low to moderate. Areas that have low seismic vulnerability index values are in the villages of Lamreh. Areas with a moderate seismic vulnerability index value are Meunasah Kulam Village, and Paya Kameng Village.
Hydrophobic membranes have limitations, which are the low permeation rate and susceptible to fouling, therefore membrane modifications are generally required. In this paper, hydrophobic polymer membrane modification has been studied by mixing dragon's blood resin (DBR) as bio additive. Two types of polymers were used, they were polyethersulfon (M-3 PES) and polyvinylidene Two types of polymers were used, they were polyethersulfon (M-3 PES) and polyvinylidene fluoride (M-3 PVDF) with a concentration of 14.5% polymer and 3% DBR. The results showed that M-3 PES had greater porosity, water uptake, pore size, and clean water flux than M3-PVDF. However, the antifouling performance of M-3 PVDF membrane tends to be better than M-3 PES, as well as its rejection. Both membranes tend to be stable even after repeated use.
Diatomaceous earth is one of cementitious material. In this study diatomaceous earth was used as cement replacement in high strength concrete mixture at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% replacement levels. The concrete specimens were then exposed to three different temperatures, namely 400oC, 500oC and 600oC for 5 hours. The change in surface appearance, the loss in mass and the degradation in compressive strength of concrete specimens after being exposed to those temperatures were examined. All the specimens exposed to the temperature of 400oC did not have any visible crack at their surfaces. However there was the appearance of many cracks at the specimen surfaces after being exposed to the temperatures of 500oC and 600oC. The mass loss and compressive strength degradation increased with increasing the exposed temperature. Furthermore, the high strength concrete with diatomaceous earth experienced smaller compressive strength degradation compared to that without diatomaceous earth. The smallest compressive strength degradation was found at the mixture with 15% replacement level.
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3,979 members
Harapan Harapan
  • Faculty of Medicine
Husni Husin
  • Department of Chemical Engineering
Musri Musman
  • Department of Chemistry Education
Zainal A. Muchlisin
  • Faculty of Marine and Fisheries
Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf
  • English Education
Kota Pelajar Mahasiswa (Kopelma), Darussalam, 23111, Banda Aceh, Aceh, Indonesia
Head of institution
Rector of Syiah Kuala University
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