Multi-temporal, high-resolution, and homogeneous geospatial datasets acquired by space- and/or airborne sensors provide unprecedented opportunities for the characterization and monitoring of surface changes on very large spatial scales. Here, we demonstrate how an off-the-shelf, open-source image correlation algorithm can be combined with SwissALTI3D LiDAR-derived elevation data from different tracking periods to create country-scale surface displacement and vertical change maps of Switzerland, including Liechtenstein, with minimal computational effort. The results show that glacier displacement and ablation make up the most significant fraction of the detected surface changes in the last two decades. In addition, we identify numerous landslides and other geomorphic features, as well as manmade changes such as construction sites and landfills. All produced maps and data products are available online, free of charge.
Soil fungi, as a major decomposer of organic matter, govern carbon (C) cycle and act as crucial regulators of the soil C and nutrient balance in terrestrial ecosystems. Climate change and parent material alter important environmental conditions that may affect fungal community. However, very little is known about the diversity and community structure of soil fungi along elevation gradients with distinct parent material properties. We investigated the effects of climate and vegetation changes on soil fungal diversity and community structure at two Austrian alpine sites with different bedrock properties (limestone at the Hochschwab site and silicate at the Rauris site), but with similar climatic conditions. At these sites we sampled soils from 0 to 25 cm depth along three elevation gradients ranging from 900 to 2100 m above sea level and examined how the fungal communities vary by using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Our results show that the fungal community structures at the Hochschwab and the Rauris site were defined by elevation-induced changes in vegetation and associated differences in soil pH. In forest soils, symbiotrophic fungi (mainly belonging to the class Agaricomycetes, phylum Basidiomycota) were dominant at the Hoschwab site, while at the Rauris site the Ascomycota were the most dominant phyla. The change to grass dominated vegetation generally increased the contribution of saprotrophic fungi (mainly belonging to various classes of the phylum Mucoromycota) at both elevational sites. Prevalence of ectomycorrhizal fungi and associated lignolytic enzymes induced soil C loss might explain lower soil organic C stocks at the Rauris site compared to the Hochschwab site. Our results suggest that parent material can modulate fungal communities indirectly via vegetation (e.g., litter quality) adapted to particular soil conditions. Therefore, changes in fungal structural composition might exert important consequences on ecosystem C balances.
Trachycarpus fortunei (Arecaceae: Coryphoideae) is an Asian palm that was introduced during the nineteenth century in southern Switzerland and northern Italy as an ornamental plant. In the recent decades, the palm has become an aggressive invasive species in the region. Before this study, the genetic structure and diversity of the naturalised populations were unknown. We aimed at understanding the dynamics of invasion and at comparing the results obtained with two types of markers. This genetic approach aimed at tracing back as far as possible the source of invasive populations comparing historical information found in literature and invasive genetic patterns. The genetic diversity was analysed using eight microsatellites (five were developed for that purpose) and 31′000 SNPs identified through GBS analyses. Genetic analyses were carried out for 200 naturalised individuals sampled from 21 populations in the Canton Ticino (Switzerland) and the provinces of Lombardy and Piedmont (Italy). The observed general panmixia indicates that the expansion of T. fortunei is active in its naturalised areas. The genetic pattern found for both SNPs and microsatellites appears to be related to the colonisation process, with a lack of geographic structure and bottleneck signatures occurring at the colonisation front, distantly from historical sites. This study gives a better understanding of the expansion of T. fortunei and adds new insights to its ecology.
Increasing disturbances may significantly impact the long-term protective effect of forests against natural hazards. Quantifying the temporal evolution of the protection service of forests after disturbances is thus crucial for finding optimal management strategies. In this study, we quantified the long-term protective effect of spruce, beech and fir forests against rockfall after severe disturbances based on a straightforward mod-eling approach. We therefore modelled stand growth of the three tree species based on data of the Swiss National Forest Inventory (NFI) and parameterized the potential rockfall energy dissipation capacity of these stands as a function of their age. We then quantified the evolution of their protective effect for varying rockfall dispositions. The recovery of the protective effect mainly depends on the increase in basal area of a stand, the block volume and the forested slope length. While maximum protection against small blocks is guaranteed after only 10 to 50 yr, 50-150 yr are necessary to regain the maximum possible protective effect against blocks ≥ 1 m 3. The here presented approach can serve practitioners to forecast the recovery of the protection provided by forest stands. As a next step, the proposed model should be adapted to future climate conditions.
The Brown Treesnake (Boiga irregularis; BTS) invasion on Guåhan (in English, Guam) led to the extirpation of nearly all native forest birds. In recent years, methods have been developed to reduce BTS abundance on a landscape scale. To help assess prospects for successful reintroduction of native birds to Guåhan following BTS suppression, we modeled bird population persistence based on their life history characteristics and relative sensitivity to BTS predation. We constructed individual‐based models and simulated BTS predation in hypothetical founding populations for each of seven candidate bird species. We represented BTS predation risk in two steps: risk of being encountered and risk of mortality if encountered. We link encounter risk from the bird's perspective to snake contact rates at camera traps with live animal lures, the most direct practical means of estimating BTS predation risk. Our simulations support the well‐documented fact that Guåhan's birds cannot persist with an uncontrolled population of BTS but do indicate that bird persistence in Guåhan's forests is possible with suppression short of total eradication. We estimate threshold BTS contact rates would need to be below 0.0002 to 0.0006 snake contacts per bird per night for these birds to persist on the landscape, which translates to an annual encounter probability of 0.07 to 0.20. We simulated the effects of snake‐proof nest boxes for Sihek (Todiramphus cinnamominus) and Såli (Aplonis opaca), but the benefits were small relative to the overall variation in contact rate thresholds among species. This variation among focal bird species in sustainable predation levels can be used to prioritize species for reintroduction in a BTS suppressed landscape, but variation among these species is narrow relative to the required reduction from current BTS levels, which may be four orders of magnitude higher (>0.18). Our modeling indicates that the required predation thresholds may need to be lower than have yet been demonstrated with current BTS management. Our predation threshold metric provides an important management tool to help estimate target BTS suppression levels that can be used to determine when bird reintroduction campaigns might begin and serves as a model for other systems to match predator control with reintroduction efforts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This paper investigates urban imaginaries conveyed in publications in ecology over the past century. We examine some urban ecologists’ view that urban areas have been disregarded by ecology due to negative views on cities and urbanisation. Inspired by previous work on imaginaries in social and cultural geography and political ecology, and by textual data analysis methods, we adopted a methodological framework that applies both quantitative and qualitative methods in the analysis of a corpus of 960 articles (published 1922–2018) drawn from 10 long-standing international journals in ecology. Our hypothesis is that ecology has embraced an anti-urban imaginary that is manifested in urban invisibility as well as the recurrent expression of negative ideas about cities (constituting an ‘anti-urban bias’). Our results partially confirm this hypothesis. We show that until the 1970s only a few papers were published on cities. We identify nine main themes relating to cities around which ideas about cities have been constructed (threats, pests, refuges, fragmentation, gradients, pollution, homogenisation, planetary urbanisation, and planning) and show how these ideas have been mobilised in the articles since the 1920s. We discuss the way in which these evolving ideas reflect a move from an essentially anti-urban imaginary to a more complex and ambivalent one. This shift coincides with the rise of the idea of planetary urbanisation in ecological publications, increasing recommendations regarding urban planning, and more generally, growing conceptual debates on the ecological impact of cities.
Semi‐natural habitats provide important resources for wild bees in agricultural landscapes. Landscapes under management are dynamic and floral resources fluctuate in space and time. Thus, promoting different semi‐natural habitat types within landscapes could be key to support diverse bee meta‐communities throughout the season. Here, we integrate analyses of α‐diversity (species richness) and β‐diversity and species‐habitat networks to examine the relative contribution of all major semi‐natural habitats to wild bee meta‐communities in agricultural landscapes. We sampled extensively and conventionally managed meadows, flower strips, hedgerows and forest edges in spring, early and late summer in 25 landscapes in Switzerland. Habitat types varied in their importance for wild bees throughout the season: While extensively managed meadows supported more rare species, habitat specialists and bee species overall than the other habitat types, flower strips were most important later in the season. Each of the five investigated habitat types harboured relatively unique sets of species with different habitats generally acting as distinct modules in the overall bee‐habitat network. Not only flower richness in a habitat per se, but also flower‐habitat network properties (habitat strength and functional complementarity) were good predictors of wild bee richness. In addition to local floral richness, landscape composition and configuration interactively influenced β‐diversity patterns across habitats. Synthesis and applications. Our study highlights the value of pollinator‐habitat network analysis to inform pollinator conservation management at the landscape scale, especially when combined with information on floral resources and flower‐habitat networks. Maintaining different types of semi‐natural habitats offers diverse and complementary resources throughout the season, which are crucial to sustain diverse wild bee meta‐communities in agricultural landscapes. Particularly meadow extensification schemes can play a key role in safeguarding rare and specialist species in these landscapes. While locally a high flower richness promoted bee abundance and richness in general, our results indicate that increasing connectivity between habitat patches in landscapes dominated by arable crops appears to improve species exchange between local bee communities of different habitats, thereby possibly increasing their resilience to disturbances.
Human impacts such as habitat loss, climate change and biological invasions are radically altering biodiversity, with even greater effects projected into the future. Evidence suggests human impacts may differ substantially between terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems, but the reasons for these differences are poorly understood. We propose an integrative approach to explain these differences by linking impacts to the fundamental processes that structure communities: dispersal, speciation, ecological selection and ecological drift. Our goal is to provide process-based insights into why human impacts, and the responses to these impacts, may differ across ecosystem types within a mechanistic, eco-evolutionary comparative framework. To enable these insights, we review and synthesize i) how the four processes can influence diversity and dynamics in terrestrial and freshwater communities, focusing on whether their relative importance may or may not differ among ecosystems, and ii) how human impacts can alter terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity in different ways due to differences in process strength among ecosystems. Finally, we highlight research gaps and next steps, and discuss how this approach can provide new insights for conservation. By focusing on the processes that shape diversity in communities, we aim to mechanistically link human impacts to ongoing and future changes in ecosystems.
Increasing urbanization degrades quantity, quality, and the functionality of spatial cohesion of natural areas essential to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning worldwide. The uncontrolled pace of building activity and the erosion of blue (i.e., aquatic) and green (i.e., terrestrial) landscape elements threaten existing habitat ranges and movability of wildlife. Local scale measures, such as nature-inspired engineered Blue-Green Infrastructure (BGI) are emerging mitigation solutions. Originally planned to promote sustainable stormwater management, adaptation to climate change and improved human livability in cities, such instruments offer interesting synergies for biodiversity in support of existing ecological infrastructure. BGI are especially appealing for globally declining amphibians, a rich and diverse vertebrate assemblage sensitive to urbanization. We integrated biological and highly resolved urban-rural land-cover data, ensemble models of habitat suitability, and connectivity models based on circuit theory to improve multi-scale and multi-species protection of core habitats and ecological corridors in the Swiss lowlands. Considering a broad spectrum of amphibian biodiversity, we identified distributions of amphibian biodiversity hotspots and four landscape elements essential to amphibian movability at the regional scale, namely i) forest edges, ii) wet-forest habitats, iii) soils with variable moisture and iv) riparian zones. Our work shows that cities can make a substantial contribution (e.g., up to 15% of urban space in the study area) to wider landscape habitat connectivity. We highlight the importance of planning BGI locally in strategic locations across urban and peri-urban areas to promote the permeability and availability of ‘stepping stone’ habitats in densely populated landscapes, essential to the maintenance of regional habitat connectivity and thereby enhancing biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.
In warming climates, soil water content (SWC) may act as an important factor in determining belowground carbon dynamics in boreal forests. Here, we estimated the respiration and nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations of tree roots in a mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in southern Finland during two growing seasons with contrasting weather conditions. Root respiration was estimated with four different methods: 1) incubating excised roots, 2) partitioning forest floor respirations with root exclusion, or 3) based on temperature response functions and 4) modelling with the whole-tree carbon model ‘CASSIA’. In addition, we conducted a drought experiment in a greenhouse to determine the effect of reduced soil-water availability on respiration by incubating soil and roots of Scots pine saplings. We observed that the respiration of incubated roots of Scots pine saplings and soil decreased with drying after excluding the effect of temperature on respiration (RRES), soil being more sensitive to drought than roots. Similarly, RRES of incubated roots in the field was significantly decreased by lowered SWC, whereas respiration of the entire root system estimated with other methods was clearly higher in dryer and warmer than moister and cooler year. Nevertheless, incubated roots excavated from the topsoil are most affected by drying soil, which might not reflect the response of the entire root system. RRES of incubated roots was negatively associated with root fructose and glucose concentrations. At the same time, root fructose, glucose and sucrose concentrations were negatively associated with SWC due to their role in osmoregulation. Thereby it seems that RRES does not directly follow the changes in NSCs despite the apparent correlation. Our study highlights the responsive nature of root carbon dynamics in varying weather events that should be taken into account in estimating and modelling the impacts of warming climate.
A steep decline in the quality and quantity of available climate proxy records before medieval times challenges any comparison of reconstructed temperature and hydroclimate trends and extremes between the first and second half of the Common Era. Understanding of the physical causes, ecological responses and societal consequences of past climatic changes, however, demands highly-resolved, spatially-explicit, seasonally-defined and absolutely-dated archives over the entire period in question. Continuous efforts to improve existing proxy records and reconstruction methods and to develop new ones, as well as clear communication of all uncertainties (within and beyond academia) must be central tasks for the paleoclimate community.
The increased frequency and severity of drought events due to climate warming is negatively affecting tree radial growth, particularly in drought-prone regions, such as, e.g., the Mediterranean. In this climate change hotspot, populations of the same tree species may show different growth responses to climate, due to the great variety of microclimates and environments that characterise this biogeographic region. In this study, we analysed growth-climate relationships and growth responses to drought events (i.e., resistance, recovery, and resilience) in 13 forest stands of black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold), encompassing the whole and peculiar distribution range of the ssp. laricio (Calabria, Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica). Analysis focussed on the 1981–2010 period, which is commonly covered at all sites. Stem radial growth of trees increased under a positive spring/summer water balance. However, abundant winter precipitation had a negative impact on stem radial growth. Populations in Corsica were more sensitive to drought, showing lower resistance and resilience than those in Sicily and Sardinia. Older trees were more resistant to drought events than younger trees. Our results highlight that population-specific responses to drought events are mainly explained by tree age and local environment, suggesting geographically related patterns in tree growth and forest productivity correspond to different populations. Intraspecific variability in sensitivity to drought events should be included in species distribution models to predict the range of forest productivity responses to climate change.
Sapwood characteristics, such as sapwood area as well as thermal and hydraulic conductivity, are linked to species-specific hydraulic function and resource allocation to water transport tissues (xylem). These characteristics are often unknown and thus a major source of uncertainty in sap flow data processing and transpiration estimates because bulk rather than species-specific values are usually applied. Here, we analyzed the sapwood characteristics of fifteen common tree species in eastern North America from different taxonomic (i.e., angiosperms and gymnosperms) and xylem porosity groups (i.e., tracheid-bearing, diffuse- or ring-porous species) and we assessed how uncertainties in sapwood characteristics involved in sap flow calculations are propagated in tree water use estimates. We quantified their sapwood area changes with stem diameter (allometric scaling) and thermal conductivity. We combined these measurements with species-specific values of wood density and hydraulic conductivity found in the literature and assessed the role of wood anatomy in orchestrating their covariation. Using an example sap flow dataset from tree species with different xylem porosity, we assessed the sensitivity of tree water use estimates to sapwood characteristics and their interactions. Angiosperms (ring- and diffuse-porous species), with specialized vessels for water transport, showed a steeper relationship (scaling) between tree stem diameter and sapwood area in comparison to gymnosperms (tracheid-bearing species). Gymnosperms (angiosperms) were characterized by lower (higher) wood density and higher (lower) sapwood moisture content, resulting in non-significant differences in sapwood thermal conductivity between taxonomic and xylem porosity groups. Clustering of species sapwood characteristics based on taxonomic or xylem porosity groups and constraining these parameters could facilitate more accurate sap flow calculations and tree water use estimates. When combined with an increasing number of sap flow observations, these findings should improve tree- and landscape-level transpiration estimates, leading to more robust partitioning of terrestrial water fluxes.
Whether sources or sinks control wood growth remains debated with a paucity of evidence from mature trees in natural settings. Here, we altered carbon supply rate in stems of mature red maples (Acer rubrum) within the growing season by restricting phloem transport using stem chilling; thereby increasing carbon supply above and decreasing carbon supply below the restrictions, respectively. Chilling successfully altered nonstructural carbon concentrations (NSC) in the phloem without detectable repercussions on bulk NSC in stems and roots. Ring width responded strongly to local variations in carbon supply with up to seven‐fold differences along the stem of chilled trees; however, concurrent changes in the structural carbon were inconclusive at high carbon supply due to large local variability of wood growth. Above chilling‐induced bottlenecks, we also observed higher leaf NSC concentrations, reduced photosynthetic capacity, and earlier leaf colouration and fall. Our results indicate that the cambial sink is affected by carbon supply, but within‐tree feedbacks can downregulate source activity, when carbon supply exceeds demand. Such feedbacks have only been hypothesized in mature trees. Consequently, these findings constitute an important advance in understanding source‐sink dynamics, suggesting that mature red maples operate close to both source‐ and sink‐limitation in the early growing season.
This mixed-methods paper examines the experience and effects of the loss of an allotment garden among gardeners in Zurich, Switzerland. The paper explores the subjective experience of garden loss using qualitative material gathered in field conversations with gardeners from an allotment area which was soon to be cleared for construction. In parallel, gardeners from the same area were surveyed before (2018) and after (2019) the clearance, thus constructing a natural experiment to measure effects on gardeners’ social networks, social support and general and mental health. The analysis of the qualitative material shows the (imminent) loss of the garden was a distressing experience for most participants, a result which is strongly supported by the descriptive analysis of several survey questions. Analysis of the quantitative data with ANCOVA models gives support to a negative effect of garden loss on the number of social contacts and on emotional well-being, but not on other factors. The experience of garden loss shows strong parallels to that of loss of a home, but also differs from it in relevant ways. Improved designs of similar natural experiments could lead to more reliable results. These would, however, require researchers to observe planning processes from a very early stage.
To reach the Paris Agreement, societies need to increase the global terrestrial carbon sink. There are many climate change mitigation solutions (CCMS) for forests, including increasing bioenergy, bioeconomy and protection. Bioenergy and bioeconomy solutions use climate-smart, intensive management to generate high quantities of bioenergy and bioproducts. Protection of (semi-)natural forests is a major component of ‘natural climate solution’ (NCS) since forests store carbon in standing biomass and soil. Furthermore, protected forests provide more habitat for biodiversity and non-wood ecosystem services (ES). We investigated the impacts of different CCMS and climate scenarios, jointly or in isolation, on future wood ES, non-wood ES, and regulating ES for a major wood provider for the international market. Specifically, we projected future ES given by three CCMS scenarios for Sweden 2020-2100. In the long term, fulfilling the increasing wood demand through bioenergy and bioeconomy solutions will decrease ES multifunctionality, but the increased stand age and wood stocks induced by rising greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations will partially offset these negative effects. Adopting bioenergy and bioeconomy solutions will have a greater negative impact on ES supply than adopting NCS. Bioenergy or bioeconomy solutions, as well as increasing GHG emissions, will reduce synergies and increase trade-offs in ES. NCS, by contrast, increases the supply of multiple ES in synergy, even transforming current ES trade-offs into future synergies. Moreover, NCS can be considered an adaptation measure to offset negative climate change effects on the future supplies of non-wood ES. In boreal countries around the world, forestry strategies that integrate NCS more deeply are crucial to ensure a synergistic supply of multiple ES.
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