Swansea University
  • Swansea, Wales, UK, United Kingdom
Recent publications
This study extends the post-acceptance model of information systems (IS) continuance, which is widely used to explain users’ satisfaction and IS continuance intentions. The extended model includes additional variables such as perceived ease of use (PEOU), attitude, trust, and enjoyment. The proposed model was tested using meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM). The analysis included 1,056 observations on fifteen relationships from 214 independent studies with a combined sample of 84,343. The results confirm the significance of all the relationships proposed in the original model. Furthermore, the findings indicate that PEOU directly influences perceived usefulness, satisfaction, and attitude. Trust and enjoyment both have a positive impact on users’ satisfaction and IS continuance, wherein the effect of enjoyment was higher than trust. post-consumption satisfaction resulted in a favorable attitude toward technology, which further affected IS continuance. From a theoretical perspective, the current study acknowledges the shift in users’ attitude toward technology and emphasizes the hedonic value of IS usage as users report a higher degree of satisfaction toward responsive, easy to use, and enjoyable technologies. Marketers should focus on the enjoyment and gratifications derived from technology to increase potential IS usage.
Multivariate piecewise polynomial functions (or splines) on polyhedral complexes have been extensively studied over the past decades and find applications in diverse areas of applied mathematics including numerical analysis, approximation theory, and computer aided geometric design. In this paper we address various challenges arising in the study of splines with enhanced mixed (super-)smoothness conditions at the vertices and across interior faces of the partition. Such supersmoothness can be imposed but can also appear unexpectedly on certain splines depending on the geometry of the underlying polyhedral partition. Using algebraic tools, a generalization of the Billera–Schenck–Stillman complex that includes the effect of additional smoothness constraints leads to a construction which requires the analysis of ideals generated by products of powers of linear forms in several variables. Specializing to the case of planar triangulations, a combinatorial lower bound on the dimension of splines with supersmoothness at the vertices is presented, and we also show that this lower bound gives the exact dimension in high degree. The methods are further illustrated with several examples.
This paper investigates the antecedents and consequences of electronic word of mouth (eWOM) credibility using a meta-analysis technique. The extant literature provides inconsistent findings related to eWOM credibility. These inconsistencies are primarily because of methodological differences or heterogeneity among previous studies, which leads to confusion amongst researchers and managers. We resolve this inconsistency and provide a conclusive takeaway on the determinants and consequences of eWOM credibility by conducting a meta-analysis of the 51 primary studies comprising 124 effect sizes. Results show that both review and reviewer-related determinants have a significant positive influence on eWOM credibility while consequences, namely purchase intention, eWOM adoption, and attitude towards the product, have a significant relationship with eWOM credibility. Furthermore, results indicate that culture, product type, and platform type are the moderating factors. Results of the study can be used by researchers to address the issue of omitted variable bias, while managers can use the findings to enhance the credibility of eWOM messages on various eWOM platforms.
A parameter study is presented to determine effects of planet gear design parameters on the global modal behaviour of planetary geared rotor systems. The modal sensitivity analysis is conducted using a three-dimensional dynamic model of a planetary geared rotor system for the number of planet gears, planet mistuning, mass of planet gears, gear mesh stiffness and planet gear speed. These parameters have varying impacts on both natural frequencies and mode shapes, therefore the sensitivity of the planetary geared rotor vibration modes to the planet gear parameters is determined by computing the frequency shifts and comparing the mode shapes. The results show that the mass and mesh stiffness of planet gears have a larger influence on the global dynamic response. Torsional modes and coupled torsional-axial modes are more sensitive to gear mesh stiffness whereas lateral vibration modes are more sensitive to gearbox mass. Planet mistuning results in coupling between lateral and torsional vibrations. The planetary gearbox becomes more rigid in the torsional-axial modes and more flexible in the lateral modes with an increase in the number of planet gears. Planet gears are also found to be having significant gyroscopic effects inside the planetary gearbox. The main original findings in this study can be directly used as initial guidelines for planetary geared rotor design.
Ultraviolet (UV) photodetector has found extensive applications, ranging from optical communication to ozone sensing. Wide bandgap metal oxide heterostructures have gained significant interest in the development of UV photodetectors due to their excellent electronic and optical properties, as well as ease of fabrication. However, there are surface and interface issues at these heterostructures that have detrimental effects on device performance. In this work, UV photodetector consisting of p-NiO/SiO2/n-ZnO heterostructure was prepared by RF magnetron sputtering method. The device exhibited remarkable performances, such as having a rectification ratio of 57, responsivity (R) of 5.77 AW⁻¹, external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 1.96 × 10³% and rise time of 0.048 s at a low power consumption of −0.1 V under 365 nm UV irradiation. This work demonstrated a method for low-cost fabrication of photodetectors with rectification behavior and at low power consumption.
Background Health information (HI) strategies exist in several EU Member States, however, they mainly focus on technical issues and improving governance rather than on content-related priority setting. There is also little research available about national prioritization processes underlying HI development for policy support in the EU. The aim of this study was to broaden the knowledge base on HI prioritization strategies and to encourage expert exchange towards good practice models. A specific focus was put on HI produced for national health reporting, this being a crucial tool for policy advice . Methods We conducted a literature search to identify published and grey literature on national HI prioritization. This was followed by a two-round Policy Delphi study, where we explored which processes and methods exist in EU Member States and associated countries for the prioritization of HI collection. In the first round, information about these processes was gathered in semi-structured questions; in the second round, participants were asked to rank the identified approaches for desirability and feasibility. The survey was conducted online; participants were recruited from the membership of the Joint Action on Health Information (InfAct – Information for Action). Results 119 experts were contacted, representing 40 InfAct partner institutions in 28 EU Member States and associated countries. Of these, 28 experts responded fully or partially to the first round, and six to the second round. In the first round, more than half of the respondents reported the existence of structured HI prioritization processes in their countries. To prioritize HI, a clear preference was given in the second round for a formal, horizontal process which includes different experts and stakeholders. National public health institutes were named desirable key stakeholders in this process, and also desirable and feasible coordinators for stakeholder coordination. Conclusion Health information prioritization methods and procedures reflect the heterogeneity of national public health systems in European countries. Mapping, sharing and ranking prioritization methods and procedures for “good practices” provides a meaningful basis for expert knowledge exchange on HI development. We recommend to make this process part of a future sustainable EU health information system and to use the information gathered in this project to initiate the development of a guidance “Good Practice HI Prioritization” among EU Member States and associated countries.
Background Congenital anomalies are the leading cause of perinatal, neonatal and infant mortality in developed countries. Large long-term follow-up studies investigating survival beyond the first year of life in children with rare congenital anomalies are costly and sufficiently large standardized cohorts are difficult to obtain due to the rarity of some anomalies. This study aimed to investigate the survival up to 10 years of age of children born with a rare structural congenital anomaly in the period 1995–2014 in Western Europe. Methods Live births from thirteen EUROCAT (European network for the epidemiological surveillance of congenital anomalies) population-based registries were linked to mortality records. Survival for 12,685 live births with one of the 31 investigated rare structural congenital anomalies (CAs) was estimated at 1 week, 4 weeks and 1, 5 and 10 years of age within each registry and combined across Europe using random effects meta-analyses. Differences between registries were evaluated for the eight rare CAs with at least 500 live births. Results Amongst the investigated CAs, arhinencephaly/holoprosencephaly had the lowest survival at all ages (58.1%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 44.3–76.2% at 1 week; 47.4%, CI: 36.4–61.6% at 1 year; 35.6%, CI: 22.2–56.9% at 10 years). Overall, children with rare CAs of the digestive system had the highest survival (> 95% at 1 week, > 84% at 10 years). Most deaths occurred within the first four weeks of life, resulting in a 10-year survival conditional on surviving 4 weeks of over 95% for 17 out of 31 rare CAs. A moderate variability in survival between participating registries was observed for the eight selected rare CAs. Conclusions Pooling standardised data across 13 European CA registries and the linkage to mortality data enabled reliable survival estimates to be obtained at five ages up to ten years. Such estimates are useful for clinical practice and parental counselling.
Background Current infant feeding support is often targeted at establishing breastfeeding in healthy term infants, or supporting lactation for preterm infants in the neonatal setting. Breastfeeding presents different challenges for children beyond the neonatal period who have a medical complexity. The tendency to focus on breastfeeding as a preventative public health intervention overlooks the fact that mothers and children with medical complexity often require additional and targeted support to continue to breastfeed. Despite this identified need, there is very little research, policy or clinically specific teaching within paediatrics that is nuanced enough to support this vulnerable population. Raising awareness of breastfed children with medical complexity in paediatrics While research, policy and embedded Baby Friendly Health Initiative (BFHI) standards in both the maternity and neonatal directorates exists, paediatrics is a separate discipline and contrastingly, has very little lactation support infrastructure. To this end, a doctoral study was commenced aiming to identify the differences for this vulnerable and largely overlooked group. One of the related outputs of the ongoing research is the use of creative methods to raise awareness. This commentary highlights a project with an artist to develop a series of portraits alongside a book and health professional education to increase awareness of these children’s needs. Conclusions The breastfeeding needs and challenges of children in the paediatric setting are unique and require additional awareness, creativity and skills to support optimal infant and young child breastfeeding. Using art can connect professionals to the lived experiences of families trying to persevere through medical complexity.
The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) has the potential to reveal wonders about the fundamental theory of nature at play in the extreme gravity regime, where the gravitational interaction is both strong and dynamical. In this white paper, the Fundamental Physics Working Group of the LISA Consortium summarizes the current topics in fundamental physics where LISA observations of gravitational waves can be expected to provide key input. We provide the briefest of reviews to then delineate avenues for future research directions and to discuss connections between this working group, other working groups and the consortium work package teams. These connections must be developed for LISA to live up to its science potential in these areas.
As electronic transactions between governments and users become increasingly common, the role of users’ trust in e-government assumes considerable importance. While prior models of technology acceptance have identified several factors that influence behavioral intention and use behavior, trust has largely been missing in such models. This study incorporates e-government trust into the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model and conducts an empirical analysis using meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) methods on findings gathered from 90 prior studies on e-government. Results show that trust plays a central role in users’ intention to use and use of e-government systems. Specifically, in e-government contexts, trust is impacted by performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, and facilitating conditions; has a direct effect on system use; and an indirect effect on system use through behavioral intention. Practitioners should strive to leverage users’ trust to leverage the full potential of e-government systems.
Big data analytics (BDA) has recently gained importance as an emerging technology for handling big data. The use of advanced techniques with differing levels of intelligence, such as descriptive, predictive, prescriptive, and autonomous analytics, is expected to create value for firms. By viewing BDA as a sociotechnical system, we conduct a meta-analysis of 107 individual studies to integrate prior evidence on the role of the technical and social factors of BDA in creating BDA business value. The findings underline the predominant role of the social components in enhancing firm performance, such as the BDA system’s human factors and a nurturing organizational structure, in contrast to the minor role of the technological factors. However, both the technical and social factors are found to be strong determinants of BDA business value. Through the combined lens of sociotechnical theory and the IS business value framework, we contribute to research and practice by enhancing the understanding of the main technical and social determinants of BDA business value at the firm level.
This paper proposes an approach that combines reduced-order models with machine learning in order to create an digital twin to predict the power distribution over the core during the operation stage. The operational digital twin is designed to solve forward problems given input operation parameters, as well as to solve inverse problems given some observations of the power field. The forward model is non-intrusive and realised using SVD autoencoder reduced order model with the combination of machine learning methods, namely, k-nearest-neighbours and decision trees to build the input–output map. For model parameter estimation, the inverse model is based on a generalised latent assimilation method. The proposed approach is able to make use of the non intrusive reduced order model and the online measurements of the power field. The effectiveness in the sense of accuracy and real-time solver of the digital twin is illustrated through a real engineering problem in nuclear reactor physics — reactor core simulation in the life cycle of HPR1000 affected by input parameters, i.e., control rod inserting step, burnup, power level and inlet temperature of the coolant, which shows potential applications for on-line monitoring purpose.
Power quality disturbances (PQDs) consist in deviation of voltage and current waveforms from the ideal sinusoid at fundamental frequency, and need to be monitored to ensure a reliabile electrical supply. While, traditionally, power quality monitoring has been performed using signal processing techniques, coupled with shallow Machine Learning classifiers or wave change detection methods, more recently, new approaches, based on Deep Learning, have been proposed. These methods have the potential to achieve high classification accuracy and to remove the need of extensive data pre-processing, hence being more suitable for real-time deployments. However, high classification performance has been only demonstrated using synthetically generated data. In order to address limitations related to processing time and accuracy, this paper proposes a novel end-to-end framework for automated detection of PQDs based on Deep Transfer Learning. The proposed approach uses a small set of images of voltage waveforms to train the model and classify different types of PQDs. This method leverages on the high performance of existing pre-trained models for image classification and shows consistent high accuracy for data with varying resolution. The proposed methodology provides a pathway towards effective deployment of Deep Learning in power quality monitoring systems and real-time applications.
The use of polysaccharides in preparation of microbially triggered colon-targeted delivery system has been explored extensively to deliver drugs at the colonic site. This type of targeting is attributed to inherent property of polysaccharides by virtue of which they are digested in the gut only by the colonic microflora. In last two decades, the use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been reported widely to treat colonic diseases such as Crohn's disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. It has been established that FMT downregulates inflammatory proliferation and pro carcinogenic pathways. Although a few reports exist on the use of colon-targeted FMT capsules in increasing the microbial diversity of gut microflora, they have not been able to establish clinical superiority of the colon-targeted capsules over conventional orally administered capsules. Hence, in the present study, an attempt has been made to utilize a multipronged strategy through a single formulation, wherein an anticancer phytoconstituent, polysaccharides, fecal microbiota extract (FME), and nanodelivery systems have been designed for the effective treatment of colon cancer. Overall, the study is aimed toward the development of an oral colon-targeted solid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (S-SNEDDS) in which curcumin (CCM) was loaded. These SNEDDS were added to polysaccharide mixture of guar gum, pectin, lactose along with aerosol 200 (A-200) and then to the slurry of fecal microbiota extract. The liquid was then freeze dried and developed into solid SNEDDS powder. The process of formulating liquid SNEDDS was optimized using ternary phase diagram and Box Behnken Design. The developed formulation was characterized for physicochemical, physicomechanical, drug release and cytotoxic potential studies. The droplet size of reconstituted S-SNEDDS was found to be 78.46 ± 0.87 nm. The site-specific release of S-SNEDDS powder was confirmed by dissolution studies in medium containing rat caecal contents, wherein, the formulation containing guar gum and pectin in 1% w/w ratio showed less than 10% drug release in initial 5 h and burst release between 5th and 10th h indicating colon-specific release of CCM. Significant cytotoxic effect was seen for CCM-loaded S-SNEDDS as compared to control formulations. The use of 16s metagenomic technique confirmed no significant change in fecal microbiota composition of formulation pre- and postlyophilization. Overall, the study suggested a novel, oral colon-targeted SNEDDS-based formulation containing fecal microbiota and CCM for the treatment of colon cancer.
The complex dynamics of a frictional contact interface have been the subject of many research investigations. However, a comprehensive model has not been proposed that can be easily solved and considers the effect of all parameters of interest, i.e., the variation in contact pressure, the interaction of normal and tangential direction mechanisms, and contact surface degradation. This paper proposes a generalized slip model based on the original Valanis model with the ability to generate non-symmetric hysteresis loops for frictional contact interface modelling and identification. Various numerical and simulation results are used to show the capability of the generalized Valanis model. The advantages of the model presented in this paper are its simplicity and accuracy. The model offers an explicit solution for the Hysteresis loop and is Lipschitz continuous, making it an ideal choice for real-time analyses, such as in digital twins’ applications. The model can represent both point-to-point contacts in a joint interface and the joint interface as a whole. The latter application is considered in this paper.
The continued growth of the steel industry poses concerns for the health of the planet and the health of the environment. The waste produced by the steel industry is an untapped resource that is not used nearly as much as it should be. The potential of using basic oxygen steelmaking slag (BOS) as a fertilizer was tested on cereal wheat plants' growth, with samples that are both hydrophobic and hydrophilic through functionalization. Parameters tested included: mass gain, height grown (cm), germination rate (GR), mean germination time (MGT) and a composite visual score (CVS). The results found that the BOS slag improved the growth of the samples due to the high amount of Ca and Fe provided to the sample. It was proposed that the improved performance of hydrophobically functionalized slag over those with hydrophilic functionalization was due to the water reservoir created around the seed. Lanolin functionalized samples are the optimum fertilizer in this study, providing the optimum conditions for nutrient transfer to the seed samples.
Freshwater species and their habitats, and transportation networks are at heightened risk from changing climate and are priorities for adaptation, with the sheer abundance and individuality of road-river structures complicating mitigation efforts. We present a new spatial dataset of road-river structures attributed as culverts, bridges, or fords, and use this along with data on gradient and stream order to estimate structure sensitivity and exposure in and out of special areas of conservation (SAC) and built-up areas to determine vulnerability to damage across river catchments in Wales, UK. We then assess hazard of flooding likelihood at the most vulnerable structures to determine those posing high risk of impact on roads and river-obligate species (fishes and mussels) whose persistence depends on aquatic habitat connectivity. Over 5% (624/11,680) of structures are high vulnerability and located where flooding hazard is highest, posing high risk of impact to roads and river-obligate species. We assess reliability of our approach through an on-ground survey in a river catchment supporting an SAC and more than 40% (n = 255) of high-risk structures, and show that of the subset surveyed >50% had obvious physical degradation, streambank erosion, and scouring. Our findings help us to better understand which structures pose high-risk of impact to river-obligate species and humans with increased flooding likelihood.
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13,603 members
Ruth Davies
  • Department of Nursing
Venkateswarlu Kanamarlapudi
  • Swansea University Medical School
Caroline Brooks
  • Institute of Life Science "ILS"
Andrew James Bruce
  • Department of Mathematics
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Vice Chancellor Prof Paul Boyle
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