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ABSTRACT: 16S rRNA sequences of morphologically and biochemically identified 21 thermophilic bacteria isolated from Unkeshwar hot springs (19° 85′ N and 78° 25′ E), Dist. Nanded (India) has been deposited in NCBI repository. The 16S rRNA gene sequences were used to generate QR codes for sequences (FASTA format and full Gene Bank information). Diversity among the isolates is compared with known isolates and evaluated using CGR, FCGR and PCA i.e. visual comparison and evaluation respectively. Considerable biodiversity was observed among the identified bacteria isolated from Unkeshwar hot springs. The hyperlinked QR codes, CGR, FCGR and PCA of all the isolates are made available to the users on a portal https://sites.google.com/site/bhagwanrekadwad/.
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ABSTRACT: Formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) has been demonstrated to be a basic prerequisite for sustainable growth and proliferation of tumor. Several growth factors, cytokines, small peptides and enzymes support tumor growth either independently or in synergy. Decoding the crucial mechanisms of angiogenesis in physiological and pathological state has remained a subject of intense interest during the past three decades. Currently, the most widely preferred approach for arresting tumor angiogenesis is the blockade of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway; however, the clinical usage of this modality is still limited by several factors like adverse effects, toxicity, acquired drug resistance, non availability of valid biomarkers etc. Nevertheless, angiogenesis, being a normal physiological process imposes limitations in maneuvering it as therapeutic target for tumor angiogenesis. The present review offers an updated relevant literature describing the role of well-characterized angiogenic factors, such as VEGF, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), placenta growth factor (PLGF), hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) and angiopoetins (ANGs) in regulating tumor angiogenesis. We have also attempted to discuss tumor angiogenesis with a perspective of ‘an attractive target with emerging challenges’, along with the limitations and present status of anti-angiogenic therapy in the current state-of-the-art.
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ABSTRACT: Efficient alkaline protease producer was isolated from hyper alkaline-saline Lonar Soda Lake and identified as Bacillus alcalophilus LW8 using culture dependent techniques like morphological characters, microscopic features, biochemical pattern, physiological characters and molecular analysis. The 16S rRNA gene sequence was submitted in GenBank nucleotide repository under the accession number KC689353. Alkaline protease production was optimized by adopting one-variable-at-a-time approach using submerged fermentation system in modified fermentation medium (MFM). The optimized components of MFM were (w/w) casein (1%), sugarcane molasses (1%), NaCl (1%), ammonium sulphate (0.5%), KH2PO4 (0.05%), K2HPO4 (0.05%) and Na2CO3 (1%). The optimized culture conditions were used for alkaline protease production. Final yield of partially purified alkaline protease was achieved 53.35% after dialysis. The molecular weight of the dialyzed alkaline protease was determined by SDS–PAGE as 27 kDa. As per Lineweaver-Burk plot, calculated Km and Vmax values were 24 mg/mL and 1000 U/mg respectively. The enzyme was remarkably stable at the pH range of 7.0–12.0 with optimum activity at pH 10.0. LW8 alkaline protease was completely inhibited by PMSF at 10 mM concentration, indicating that the enzyme belongs to class serine protease. The metal ions viz. Ca2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Fe3+, Cu2+, Mn2+ had increased catalytic activity of partially purified alkaline protease. Partially purified LW8 alkaline protease effectively decomposed gelatinous coating on X-ray film, hydrolyzed blood clot, removed blood stain from a piece of cotton fabric and hairs from a piece of goat skin.
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