From the denial of abortion rights in Ireland to sexual violence against British South Asian women in England, the state and its institutions continue to fail women. This book offers a counter narrative to contemporary injustices and a persistent culture of victim-blaming.The academic and activist contributions to this collection explore contemporary research areas and pursue new discursive directions in order to present a feminist criminology, built on feminist praxis, for the twenty-first century. Providing a direct challenge to regressive and ineffective theory, policy and practice, this book resists the politics of gendered victimisation through extending feminist analyses of the state and documenting interventions into contemporary injustices.
Employee change championing (i.e., discretionary behaviors to promote change to others) is critical for implementing organizational change successfully. However, extant research has been focused on individual‐level championing without considering the broader group context in which championing occurs. Our study adopts a multilevel perspective to provide insights into the effects of change championing at both the group and the individual level. We collected data at two points in time from 267 employees in 69 groups undergoing an organizational change in a German technology company. Multilevel modeling results show that group championing asymmetry (i.e., the degree to which group members differ in their championing) weakens the positive effects of group championing level on change implementation effectiveness. Moreover, we shed light on the individual‐level processes that underpin group championing dynamics. Our findings reveal that employees who are embedded in groups with high average championing levels perceive a more positive change impact (but do not experience higher levels of enthusiasm) and report higher levels of individual championing at a later point in time compared to employees in groups with lower championing levels. Our study expands the championing literature to the group‐level and offers a multilevel perspective on the championing dynamics between individuals and groups.
Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic generated concerns about rising stress and alcohol use, especially in U.S. veterans who experience high rates of anxiety disorders (ADs), alcohol use disorder (AUD), and dual AD+AUD diagnoses. This study investigated differences among these diagnostic groups in a veteran population related to their concern about COVID-19, impacts of COVID-19 on quality of life, and self-reported changes to urge to drink and drinking frequency. Methods A nationally administered online survey was given to a sample of U.S. veterans reporting substance use issues during the pandemic. Differences in the level of concern about COVID-19, impacts of COVID-19 on quality of life, and drinking behaviors were examined in those self-reporting AD ( n = 98), AUD ( n = 46), or AD+AUD ( n = 67). Consensual qualitative research was used to analyze an open-ended question about COVID-19’s impact on substance use, health, and quality of life. Results Veterans with AD+AUD experienced significant increases in urge to drink and alcohol consumption compared to veterans with AD only. Greater urge and frequency of drinking were associated with greater negative impacts of COVID-19 on quality of life. There were no differences among groups in global negative impact on quality of life or level of COVID-19 concern. However, respondents described specific COVID-19 worries, with qualitative findings revealing that those with AD+AUD reported a disproportionate psychosocial burden due to the pandemic. Discussion Special attention in screening and treatment should be given to those with a dual AD+AUD diagnosis who may be experiencing both an increase in alcohol use and psychosocial burden as stress increases due to the pandemic.
This qualitative study provides a platform for women veterans to inform our perspective of their experienced impacts following military sexual trauma (MST). We engaged 23 women veterans in semistructured interviews and used a grounded theory-informed thematic analytic approach, to interpret women's experiences. Women described negative impacts of their MST experiences across psychological, behavioral, and occupational domains. Less frequently, women discussed experiences of posttraumatic growth. These results aid our understanding of the complexities of women's posttrauma experiences and suggest that holistic intervention frameworks focused on a range of potential intervention targets are warranted in helping women veterans recover from MST.
Although the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea’s (DPRK) nuclear program has been a challenge to international security for three decades, the world still knows little about its nuclear intentions. A recently available dataset of Korean Central News Agency’s English publications (1997–2018) provides a complete coverage of DPRK’s nuclear activities in the time span. Our study employs the Louvain method of community detection in large networks to detect patterns and trends in North Korea’s nuclear rhetoric. We have two findings: Pyongyang’s primary objective is deterrence, although it also utilizes nuclear development to boost regime legitimacy. This secondary intention of legitimization is more prominent under Kim Jong-un than under Kim Jong-il, but still not as salient as deterrence. Our results suggest a policy approach of engagement and deterrence.
Most research on youth mentoring relationships has focused on the mentor–mentee dyad, yet caregivers play an important role in supporting these relationships. Drawing on a large, multisite sample of youth in formal mentoring programs (N = 2165), this study investigated associations between caregiver–mentor collaboration and mentoring relationship outcomes in the context of environmental and individual youth risk factors. Analysis of novel quantitative measures assessing caregivers' experiences of the mentoring relationships revealed two factors reflecting caregivers' collaboration with mentors (caregiver involvement and mentor backing), and three factors reflecting caregivers' perceptions of mentor effectiveness (meeting youth needs, advocating for youth, and supporting youth behavior). Results indicated that greater caregiver involvement was associated with higher‐quality and longer‐lasting mentoring relationships. Few associations between risk and mentoring relationships were observed; however, indirect effects indicated that youth environmental risk was positively associated with caregiver involvement, which, in turn, was positively associated with mentoring relationship outcomes.
In this editorial statement, we briefly delineated a series of observations, guidelines, and directions for future research focused on the most common outcome of multi-informant assessments of youth mental health. Discrepancies commonly occur between estimates of youth mental health and conclusions drawn from these estimates, depending on the informant’s report that led to the estimates. This editorial statement is a culmination of not only this Special Issue of JCCAP, but also 60 years of research on these informant discrepancies. We know a great deal about these discrepancies, and thus can come to some definitive conclusions about how often they occur, what they likely reflect, and, importantly, what they are unlikely to reflect. Based on these observations about informant discrepancies, we can also arrive at some preliminary guidelines for integrating multi-informant data in youth mental health research, and improve our practices for transparency in reporting the justification or evidence base for the procedures we use to integrate these data. That said, we do have a great deal more to learn about these informant discrepancies. Thus, we articulated several directions for future research that are by no means exhaustive but nonetheless are of high priority in terms of advancing knowledge about this ubiquitous assessment phenomenon. A dozen years removed from JCCAP’s first Special Section about informant discrepancies (De Los Reyes, 2011), we remain curious about the work that lies ahead. We hope that this statement informs your thinking about this most crucial area of youth mental health research.
The Optimal transport (OT) problem is rapidly finding its way into machine learning. Favoring its use are its metric properties. Many problems admit solutions with guarantees only for objects embedded in metric spaces, and the use of non-metrics can complicate solving them. Multi-marginal OT (MMOT) generalizes OT to simultaneously transporting multiple distributions. It captures important relations that are missed if the transport only involves two distributions. Research on MMOT, however, has been focused on its existence, uniqueness, practical algorithms, and the choice of cost functions. There is a lack of discussion on the metric properties of MMOT, which limits its theoretical and practical use. Here, we prove new generalized metric properties for a family of pairwise MMOTs. We first explain the difficulty of proving this via two negative results. Afterward, we prove the MMOTs’ metric properties. Finally, we show that the generalized triangle inequality of this family of MMOTs cannot be improved. We illustrate the superiority of our MMOTs over other generalized metrics, and over non-metrics in both synthetic and real tasks.
Despite attending schools in a state internationally recognized for innovation, research and education, Latine students in Massachusetts, USA continue to disproportionately experience discrimination, economic segregation, health disparities and racial inequities that have shaped their schooling experiences and outcomes across the educational pipeline (Colón, “We are beautiful people”: The schooling experiences of Puerto Rican school‐aged mothers [PhD Thesis]. Tufts University, 2019). Grounded in critical analysis of intercultural education towards social justice (Pica‐Smith et al., Social justice education in European multi‐ethnic schools. Addressing the goals of intercultural education. Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, London, 2019), this paper critically examines publicly available data to highlight barriers, opportunities and the need for educational researchers, policymakers and administrators to collectively reimagine an educational project that attends to the needs of this population. In the context of the unyielding disparate impact of COVID‐19, we argue that more ever, this reimagination needs to be grounded in the dynamic conception of culture (Levitt et al., International Migration Review, 38, 1002, 2004), intercultural perspectives on education that are based on critical notions of intergroup contact, dialogue and exchange (Allport, Forms and techniques of altruistic and spiritual growth: a symposium, 1954, 367; Council of Europe, White paper on intercultural dialogue. Living together as equals in dignity, Strasburgo, 2008) and multidimensional notion of belonging at the micro and macro levels for a more just education writ large.
This study highlights the impact of digital financial services as enhancing the capacity of development goals as well as social sustainability. The selected emerging markets are Ghanaian financial service providers (FSP)s and microenterprise customers (CME)s, where we examine how “Ubuntu”, an African philosophy of humanism, legitimizes spaces for a more democratic, egalitarian, and ethical engagement of human beings. This study adopts a grounded theory methodology for investigation of the phenomena with a sample size of 70 relationship managers. The findings further existing sustainability literature pertaining to social sustainability and consumer wellbeing. We contribute to theory by presenting a psychological perspective which be leveraged for digital financial services branding to expand usage within communal systems. This leverage of Ubuntu becomes especially relevant when there is the need to compensate for deficits in weak business infrastructures in low-income but expanding markets. Our study highlights digital financial services can be used to improve the emotional and psychological consumer wellbeing and to strengthen business relationships, meeting joint goals of market share expansion, brand image enhancement and profitability. This perspective also contributes to social sustainability on a global scale since the Western world depends on quality products from emerging markets.
Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) cause a major burden of disease in the United States (US)-especially among structurally marginalized populations, including transgender and nonbinary people, individuals assigned female at birth (AFAB), Black and Latinx/e individuals, and young adults. Although screening can help detect and prevent STIs, research on STI testing among populations at diverse intersections of multiple forms of structural marginalization, including Black, Latinx/e, and other racially/ethnically minoritized transgender men and nonbinary AFAB US young adults, is extremely scarce. Methods: We conducted a national cross-sectional online survey of transgender and nonbinary US young adults from February to July 2019. Using Poisson regression, we estimated prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between race/ethnicity-which we conceptualized as a system of structural inequality that shapes individuals' and groups' exposure to racism-and lifetime and past-year STI testing among transgender men and nonbinary AFAB US young adults aged 18-30 years with at least one-lifetime sexual partner (N = 378). Results: Approximately 74% of participants had received an STI test in their lifetime, and, among those, 72% with a past-year sexual partner had been tested for an STI in the last 12 months. We observed no statistically significant association between race/ethnicity and lifetime STI testing among transgender and nonbinary AFAB young adults with a lifetime sexual partner. In contrast, Black (PR = 1.32; 95%: 1.03, 1.68) and Latinx/e (PR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.75) transgender men and nonbinary AFAB young adults who ever received an STI test and had a past-year sexual partner were significantly more likely to have received an STI test in the last 12 months relative to their White counterparts, adjusting for demographic factors. Further adjustment for lifetime STI diagnosis and health insurance status did not appreciably attenuate these observed adjusted differences; however, the adjusted difference in the prevalence of past-year STI testing between Black (but not Latinx/e) and White transgender men and nonbinary AFAB young adults was no longer statistically significant upon further adjustment for educational attainment and employment status, possibly due to small sample sizes. Conclusion: The higher adjusted prevalence of past-year STI testing among Black and Latinx/e compared to White transgender men and nonbinary AFAB US young adults may reflect racist and xenophobic sexual stereotypes about Black and Latinx/e people among health care providers and institutions, the history of hyper-surveillance of Black and Latinx/e people by public health institutions in the context of infectious disease containment, and/or agency and resistance among Black and Latinx/e transgender men and nonbinary AFAB young adults with regard to sexual health promotion in the face of multiple compounding systems of oppression.
It is critical to understand how and why a city's economy rises or falls, especially when an abrupt change is triggered. Not all cities are able to maintain economic sustainability and resilience at the same time they support industrial vigour and innovation activities. This study reviews data collected from eighty-seven cities worldwide to understand how they were able to regain and extend their technological venturing momentum and reinforce their resilience following adverse economic events. It examines patenting indexes derived from the regional innovation system (RIS) of each city. Our difference-in-differences analysis identifies the innovation dynamics of cities in OECD countries, revealing their ability to lay a local knowledge base and to command cross-regional knowledge networks. Our study found that this highly resilient framework surprisingly demonstrated a clear downtrend after the Dotcom Bubble crisis. In contrast, many cities in BRICS and developing countries are relatively behind in terms of both their ability to command the local knowledge base and progress in developing regional and interregional networks. Our resilience analysis breaks new ground in the understanding of regional system orientations and the development context required for a city to maintain resiliency and support its ability to quickly recover from an adverse event.
The implementation of course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) has made it possible to expose large undergraduate populations to research experiences. For these research experiences to be authentic, they should reflect the increasingly collaborative nature of research. While some CUREs have expanded, involving multiple schools across the nation, it is still unclear how a structured extramural collaboration between students and faculty from an outside institution affects student outcomes. In this study, we established three cohorts of students: 1) no-CURE, 2) single-institution CURE (CURE), and 3) external collaborative CURE (ec-CURE), and assessed academic and attitudinal outcomes. The ec-CURE differs from a regular CURE in that students work with faculty member from an external institution to refine their hypotheses and discuss their data. The sharing of ideas, data, and materials with an external faculty member allowed students to experience a level of collaboration not typically found in an undergraduate setting. Students in the ec-CURE had the greatest gains in experimental design; self-reported course benefits; scientific skills; and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) importance. Importantly this study occurred in a diverse community of STEM disciplinary faculty from 2- and 4-year institutions, illustrating that exposing students to structured external collaboration is both feasible and beneficial to student learning.
To provide early career scientists with professional development related to science communication, we developed a full day workshop funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) entitled Developing the Science of Science Communication. This workshop has been funded since 2019 by NSF and presented in both virtual and in‐person formats. Because of the success of the virtual 2021 workshop and building upon foundations from prior years (in‐person in February 2019 and February 2020), a second virtual workshop was held in conjunction with the Ocean Sciences Meeting in January 2022. 2022 workshop attendees voluntarily participated in a full day virtual workshop comprised of verbal and visual communication skill sessions. In previous years, attendance was capped at 50 participants. In 2022, only 17 participants completed the pre‐workshop survey. The all‐day workshop included two presentation skills‐focused sessions and two poster design sessions. Participants overwhelmingly agreed that they (a) would recommend the workshop to others and (b) found the workshop content would be useful in their careers. The low attendance in 2022 is believed to be due to the virtual format combined with the timing of the workshop. In years prior, the workshop was held the day before the conference. This year, we attempted to hold the workshop 1 month prior to the conference to help students prepare in advance—we think most students simply had not prepared their presentations this far in advance. NSF has already funded an exciting future workshop structure for 2023. The workshop will be held across 2 days with a virtual “pre‐workshop” day for those who are ready and would like extra time and materials along with a second, in‐person workshop the day prior to the conference in Palma de Mallorca, Spain in conjunction with the June 2023 Aquatic Sciences Meeting.
Diagnosis of primary brain tumors relies heavily on histopathology. Although various computational pathology methods have been developed for automated diagnosis of primary brain tumors, they usually require neuropathologists’ annotation of region-of-interests or selection of image patches on whole-slide images (WSI). We developed an end-to-end Vision Transformer (ViT) – based deep learning architecture for brain tumor WSI analysis, yielding a highly interpretable deep-learning model, ViT-WSI. Based on the principle of weakly-supervised machine learning, ViT-WSI accomplishes the task of major primary brain tumor type and subtype classification. Using a systematic gradient-based attribution analysis procedure, ViT-WSI can discover diagnostic histopathological features for primary brain tumors. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ViT-WSI has high predictive power of inferring the status of three diagnostic glioma molecular markers, IDH1 mutation, p53 mutation, and MGMT methylation, directly from H&E-stained histopathological images, with patient level AUC scores of 0.960, 0.874, and 0.845, respectively.
We estimate spatially disaggregated measures of intergenerational mobility in Chile through an administrative dataset linking children’s and their parents’ earnings from the formal private labour sector. We report remarkable heterogeneity as we find higher and lower upward mobility in mining and agricultural regions, respectively, corroborating previous findings by Connolly et al. in 2019 Connolly, M., Corak, M., & Haeck, C. (2019). Intergenerational mobility between and within Canada and the United States. Journal of Labor Economics, 37(S2), S595–S641. https://doi.org/10.1086/703465[Crossref] , [Google Scholar] with the distinction that Chile is a unitary state, implying that factors other than institutional differences shape mobility.
Service-learning is an experiential pedagogy that combines community service opportunities with academic content and critical reflection. When higher education rapidly shifted to online learning because of the COVID-19 pandemic, educators, community partners, and students had to reimagine how to implement the community component of this pedagogy. As a part of a larger study from a pilot service-learning-mentoring program, results from the spring 2020 semester showed that students’ attitudes about civic action, social justice, and diversity decreased throughout the semester. We argue that a decrease in civic attitudes seen in service learners during the spring 2020 semester points to important implications about the impact of shared and sustained distress on student’s capacity to engage in service activities that deviate from their expectations of service as an opportunity to provide in-person help to individuals. We consider the role of psychological proximity in moving students to see themselves as interconnected with the communities they serve and to see the problems that exist in these communities as their own. We suggest that a crisis like the COVID-19 pandemic might provide an opportunity for service learners to build psychological proximity to communities and social problems in the absence of physical proximity.
Psychology of working theory (PWT) emphasizes the role of contextual constraints in career development, as well as promotive factors that might be cultivated to navigate these constraints. Although PWT has implications for promoting youth career development, most research has focused on college students and working adults. We interviewed 12 youth residing in a Latinx community with a high level of poverty and attending a well-resourced private high school with a high degree of college acceptance to explore developmentally and culturally relevant promotive factors that might inform the extension of PWT for youth. Analyses conducted through Consensual Qualitative Research revealed a strong sense of purpose and hope that were grounded in family, school, and workplace supports. Participants reported critical awareness of societal inequities and a focus on challenging inequity through hard work rather than societal change. We discuss implications for extending PWT theory, research, and intervention with Latinx youth.
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