The aim of this paper is to better understand the dynamics of crystallogenic and starting activity in biological fluids of patients throughout surgery and the late postoperative phase in alveococcosis. Samples of saliva from 22 individuals with alveococcosis were included in the research. Biological fluid samples were taken at the time of admission and before the patient was discharged. Following that, slides were made utilizing the teziocrystalloscopy method, which incorporates the investigation of the crystal forming activity of mixed saliva with its starting characteristics using a 0.9 percent sodium chloride solution as the foundation ingredient. Using our own set of criteria, we evaluated the outcomes of crystalloscopic and tezigraphic experiments. Specrophotometric examination of tezigraphic and crystalloscopic facies was done using a PowerWave XS microplate spectrophotometer at wavelengths of 400, 350, and 300 nm to augment the results from ocular morphometry of dried saliva micro slides. Surgical therapy results in a partial normalization of physical and chemical parameters, as well as the composition of the patient's biological fluids after the patient is discharged from the hospital.
Background Perioperative myocardial infarction (PMI) increases morbidity and mortality after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The objective of the current study was to characterize patients with PMI after off-pump CABG and identify its predictors. Results We included 1181 patients who had off-pump CABG from 2010 to 2020; 59 patients (5%) had PMI. We compared patients with PMI to those without PMI. Patients with PMI were older (57 (25th–75th percentiles: 51–63) vs. 54 (48–60) years; P = 0.01) and had higher NYHA class (28 (47.46%) vs. 326 (29.06%): P = 0.01). The distal anastomosis time was longer in patients with PMI (28 (23–35) vs. 24 (16–30) min; P ˂ 0.001). Patients with PMI had higher postoperative low cardiac output (10 (18.18%) vs. 1 (0.1%): P ˂ 0.001), prolonged ventilation (12 (8–39) vs. 8 (6–10) h, P ˂ 0.001), ICU (71 (46–138) vs. 24 (23–42) h; P ˂ 0.001), and hospital stay (9 (6–15) vs. 7 (6–8) days; P ˂ 0.001). Mortality was significantly higher in patients with PMI (20 (33.9%) vs. 6 (0.53%); P ˂ 0.001). Older age (OR: 1.05 (95% CI: 1.01–1.1); P = 0.02), increased number of distal anastomoses (OR: 1.74 (95% CI: 1.20–2.50); P = 0.003), preoperative congestive heart failure (OR: 10.27 (95% CI: 2.58–40.95); P = 0.001), and thrombolysis within 24 h of surgery (OR: 15.34 (1.93–121.9); P = 0.01) were associated with increased PMI, while PMI was lower in male patients (OR: 0.42 (95% CI: 0.19–0.93); P = 0.03) and with higher body surface area (BSA) (OR: 0.08 (95% CI: 0.07–0.86); P = 0.04). Conclusions Post-off-pump CABG PMI was associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Risk factors for PMI were older age, lower BSA, females, increased distal anastomoses, preoperative heart failure, and thrombolysis.
Abstract Background Aortic valve repair in rheumatic patients is not well-studied. We aimed to present our initial Egyptian experience in the aortic valve repair and compare it with the aortic valve replacement. The study included 85 patients who had an aortic valve surgery for aortic regurgitation (AR) in a single center from 2018 to 2020. We assigned the patients to either aortic valve repair (n= 39) or aortic valve replacement (n= 46). Fifty-nine patients (69.4%) had rheumatic heart disease. Study outcomes were hospital complications and the degree of aortic regurgitation after 6 months in patients who had aortic valve repair. Results Patients who had replacement were significantly older (49.6± 7.2 vs. 43.8± 8.6 years: P= 0.002) and had more advanced New York Heart Association (P
Background Data regarding the relation between both subclinical thyroid dysfunction, thyroid autoantibodies and clinical outcomes in stroke patients are limited. This study aimed to evaluate subclinical thyroid dysfunction and thyroid autoantibodies production in acute stroke patients and their relation to long term stroke outcome. We recruited 138 patients who were subjected to thorough general, neurological examination and brain imaging. Blood samples were collected for measurement of levels of serum thyroid function [free tri-iodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxin (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)], thyroid autoantibodies within 48 h after hospital admission. FT4 and TSH after 1 year were done. The stroke severity was assessed at admission by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The stroke outcome was assessed at 3 months and after 1 year by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). We divided the patients into two groups according to thyroid autoantibodies (positive and negative groups). Results Subclinical hyperthyroidism was found in 23% of patients, and subclinical hypothyroidism in 10% of patients. Euthyroidism was detected in 67% of patients. 34% patients had positive thyroid autoantibody. Positive thyroid autoantibodies were commonly found in those with subclinical hyperthyroidism (28%), followed by subclinical hypothyroidism (21%) and euthyroidism (14%). 73% and 59% of stroke patients had poor outcomes (mRS was > 2) at 3 months and 1 year respectively with no significant difference between ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients. In the positive group final TSH level, NIHSS score at admission, and disability at 1 year were significantly higher compared with the negative group. Poor outcome was significantly associated with higher NIHSS score at admission, positive thyroid autoantibodies, subclinical hyperthyroidism, and atrial fibrillation. Conclusions Subclinical thyroid dysfunction could be found in stroke patients with positive thyroid autoantibodies. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and thyroid autoantibodies were associated with a poor outcome at 1 year in first-ever acute stroke patients especially in those presented with atrial fibrillation and higher NIHSS score at admission.
Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients have a risk of fractures due to secondary osteoporosis. This study aimed to evaluate the probability of fractures in the next 10 years in Egyptian RA patients by the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX). Results The study was a case–control study. It included a hundred RA patients as well as 51 apparently healthy volunteers. Bone mineral density (BMD) means of lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, and total femur were significantly lower in the RA patient group. Additionally, FRAX of the major osteoporotic and hip fractures means were significantly higher in the RA group than in the control group. It was also found that age, body mass index (BMI), Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI), and BMD of the femoral neck were significant predictors of FRAX of major osteoporotic and hip fractures ( P ≤ 0.05). The cumulative dose of steroids was a significant predictor for FRAX of major osteoporotic fractures; however, the 28 joints disease activity score calculated with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (DAS28-ESR) was a significant predictor for FRAX of hip fractures. Conclusions RA patients have a high fracture risk probability. Regular annual screening for BMD and FRAX of major osteoporotic and hip fractures is necessary for those patients.
Background Chronic back pain is a common health complaint among university students. A subset of chronic back pain patients suffer from increased pain sensitivity, a process termed central sensitization. Chronic pain is also associated with cognitive dysfunction, involving attention, memory, and learning. Those are key features of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This study aimed to assess the associations between adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and central sensitization in students with chronic back pain. Results Two hundred twenty-seven students completed the survey, and 90 (39.6%) had back pain for more than 3 months. Students with back pain had significantly higher central sensitization ( P <0.01) and higher attention deficit scores ( P =0.05). Significant positive correlations were found between scores of the two questionnaires ( r = 0.55, P <0.01). Regression analysis adjusted for age and gender showed that higher attention deficit scores were associated with back pain (odd’s ratio:1.025, P =0.05). The odd’s ratio was attenuated after adding central sensitization to the model (odd’s ratio: 0.99, P =0.70). Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is associated with elevated central sensitization in patients with chronic back pain. Our results support the hypothesis that central sensitization mediates the effect of attention deficit on back pain.
Background Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a major complication of Diabetes mellitus. So this study aimed at investigation of the value of tibial nerve stiffness measured by shear wave ultrasound elastography (SWE) for detection of DPN. This case–control study involved 50 patients with DPN, 50 patients with diabetes mellitus but without DPN, and 50 healthy controls. Clinical examination, nerve conduction study of both tibial nerves, high resolution ultrasound and SWE to assess cross sectional area "CSA" of tibial nerves, and tibial nerves mean stiffness, respectively. ROC curve analysis was also performed. Results Mean tibial nerve stiffness by SWE was higher in patients with DPN compared to other groups ( P value < 0.001). The CSA of the tibial nerve in the DPN group was significantly larger than that in the other groups ( P value = 0.01). The cutoff value by ROC curve analysis for tibial nerve stiffness to differentiate patients with DPN and control group was 70.6 kPa ( P value < 0.001, 95.4% sensitivity, 94.7% specificity, AUC = 0.963), while 86.5 kPa was the optimal cutoff point to differentiate patients with DPN and other groups with a 94.6% sensitivity, 93.8% specificity, AUC of 0.975 and P value < 0.001. Higher diagnostic accuracy was found when combination of SWE and high resolution US (high resolution US + shear wave; 0.987, P value < 0.001). Conclusions Tibial nerve stiffness was increased in patients with DPN. SWE can be used as an effective complementary method in diagnosis of DPN with high sensitivity and accuracy.
Background Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are a disease complex that encompasses several distinctly acquired muscle illnesses. Anti-synthetase syndrome is a subset of IIM that is characterized by the presence of antibodies against aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARS). This syndrome has a characteristic phenotype of IIM. Anti-synthetase syndrome was rarely associated with peripheral nerve involvement and endocarditis. Case presentation We report a 46-year-old female patient with a history of mitral and aortic valve replacement for seven years and on warfarin, presented with symmetrical muscular weakness, generalized edema, progressive dyspnea, dysphagia, fever, fatigue, myalgia, and polyarthralgia. The motor power grading was 2 in proximal muscles of upper limbs and 3 in the distal muscles involving hands and wrists, and it was 0 in proximal muscles in lower limbs and 2 in distal muscles involving ankle and toes movements. Also, her oxygen saturation decreased remarkably. Echocardiography revealed that the patient had severe stenosis (70%) of the prosthetic aortic valve. Electrophysiological studies showed axonal polyneuropathy with average F wave latencies. She was diagnosed with anti-synthetase syndrome for elevated muscle enzymes, interstitial lung disease (ILD), mechanic’s hands, fever, polyarthralgia, and positive anti-Jo-1 antibody. There was a significant improvement with plasmapheresis, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and high-dose prednisolone. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is a case of anti-synthetase syndrome accompanied by neuropathic involvement and cardiac valve prosthetic stenosis. These were reported as an unusual presentation of the anti-synthetase syndrome. The significant improvement with plasmapheresis gives us a treatment choice for similar critical cases.
Introduction New therapies, management approaches, and evidence regarding the management of gout have become available over the past years. This triggered the need for an updated recommendation for gout management. Through an up-to-date consensus evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the management of gout including recommendations for management of gout flares, optimum usage of urate lowering therapy for chronic gout, as well as patient education and lifestyle guidance. A wide systematic literature review was performed, and evidence-based recommendations were extrapolated, based on 16-key questions identified according to population, intervention, comparator, and outcomes (PICO) approach. These were evaluated by a panel consisted of 17 rheumatology experts via online surveys over a 2-round Delphi process. The purpose of this study is to offer an updated, consensus-evidence-based, and in the meantime patient-focused, expert recommendations for the treat-to-target approach of gout management. Results Results revealed that after round 2 ended, a total of 30-recommendation items, categorized into 10 domains, were obtained. Agreement with the recommendations (rank 7–9) ranged from 90 to 100%. Consensus was reached (i.e., ≥ 75% of respondents strongly agreed or agreed) on the wording, the grade of recommendation, and level of evidence of all the 30 clinical standards identified by the scientific committee. Conclusions This guideline provides updated evidence-based recommendations for the prevention and treatment of acute as well as chronic gout. This guideline provides an approach for physicians and patients making decisions on the management of gout. It will also facilitate improvement and uniformity of care.
Background These updated guidelines aimed to provide appropriate and convenient guidelines for the treatment of various types of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Using the Delphi technique, this study was conducted to reach expert consensus on a treat-to-target management strategy for JIA. According to the PICO (patient/population, intervention, comparison, and outcomes) approach, the preliminary scientific committee identified a total of 17 key clinical questions. To assemble evidence on the advantages and dangers associated with JIA treatments, an evidence-based, systematic literature review was conducted. Researchers and clinicians with experience in JIA management were identified by the core leadership team. To establish a consensus on the management suggestions for JIA patients, a Delphi approach (2 rounds) was used. Results An online survey was applied to the expert panel ( n = 27), and 26 of them completed both rounds. At the conclusion of round 2, a total of eighteen (18) recommendation items were gathered, which were divided into four sections to address the four key JIA categories. The percentage of those who agreed with the recommendations (ranks 7–9) ranged from 83.2 to 100% (average 86.8%). The phrasing of all 18 clinical standards identified by the scientific committee was agreed upon (i.e. 75% of respondents strongly agreed or agreed). Algorithms have been proposed for the management of JIA polyarthritis, oligoarthritis, and systemic JIA. Conclusion A wide and representative panel of experts initiated a consensus about the management of JIA. The created guidelines give a complete approach to the management of JIA for all healthcare professionals involved in its management, as well as a means of monitoring and evaluating these guidelines on a regular basis.
Background The angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 ( ACE2 ) is recognized to be the fundamental receptor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2), responsible for the worldwide Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. However, genetic differences between people besides racial considerations and their relation to disease susceptibility are still not fully elucidated. Main body To uncover the role of ACE2 in COVID-19 infection, we reviewed the published studies that explore the association of COVID-19 with the functional characteristics of ACE2 and its genetic variations. Notably, emerging studies tried to determine whether the ACE2 variants and/or expression could be associated with SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV2 have conflicting results. Some researchers investigated the potential of “population-specific” ACE2 genetic variations to impact the SARS-CoV2 vulnerability and suggested no ethnicity enrichment for ACE2 polymorphisms that could influence SARS-CoV2 S-protein binding. At the same time, some studies use data mining to predict several ACE2 variants that could enhance or decline susceptibility to SARS-CoV. On the other hand, fewer studies revealed an association of ACE2 expression with COVID-19 outcome reporting higher expression levels of ACE2 in East Asians. Conclusions ACE2 gene variants and expression may modify the deleterious consequences of SARS-CoV2 to the host cells. It is worth noting that apart from the differences in gene expression and the genetic variations of ACE2 , many other environmental and/or genetic factors could modify the disease outcome, including the genes for the innate and the adaptive immune response.
Background We aimed to provide up-to-date, evidence-based and consensus-based recommendations for Treat-to-Target management of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and associated clinical manifestations. In this recommendations, 14 key clinical questions were identified by scientific committee according to the Patient/Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes and Timing (PICOT) approach. Literature Review team performed a systematic review to summarize evidence advocating the benefits and harms of available pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies for psoriatic arthritis. Subsequently, recommendations were formulated. The level of evidence was determined for each section using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine (CEBM) system. A 3-round Delphi process was conducted with 19 experts whom were drawn from different governorates and health centers across Egypt with diverse in their experiences, including private, governmental workplace, tertiary university hospitals, and insurance hospitals. All rounds were conducted online. A consensus was achieved on the direction and the strength of the recommendations. Results An online questionnaire was sent to an expert panel who participated in the three rounds (response rate 100%). At the end of round 3, a total of 51 recommendation items, categorized into 6 sections to address the main 6 psoriatic arthritis categories, were obtained. Agreement with the recommendations (rank 7–9) ranged from 89.5 to 100%. Consensus was reached (i.e., ≥ 75%of respondents strongly agreed or agreed) on the wording of all the 51 clinical standards identified by the scientific committee. Algorithms for the management of psoriatic arthritis have been suggested. Conclusion These recommendations provide an updated consensus on the pharmacological treatment of psoriatic arthritis and strategies to reach optimal treat-to-target outcomes in in common clinical scenarios, based on a combination of evidence and expert opinion. Best treatment decisions should be tailored to each individual patient situation.
Background Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder affecting sleep quality and quality of life among women during the perinatal period. The aim of the study is to study the frequency of insomnia and sleep quality among perinatal women and their effect on quality of life: 131 participants; 64 perinatal and 67 control groups from the outpatient clinics of Suez Canal University Hospital, Ismailia, Egypt. DSM-5 criteria were used to diagnose insomnia. Sleep quality was assessed using PSQI, and SF-36 questionnaire was used for assessment of health-related quality of life. Results Insomnia was statistically significant higher among the perinatal group than the control; 28.1% and 10.4%, respectively ( P < 0.05). The perinatal women had poor sleep quality as compared with the control group with a higher mean global PSQI score; 8.02 ± 2.97 and 4.97 ± 2.45, respectively ( P < 0.05). The quality of life in the perinatal group was lower than the control group with scores of 54.96 ± 14.63 versus 62.34 ± 14.63, respectively. Conclusions Insomnia and poor sleep quality are found in higher frequency in perinatal women than their counterpart control. The study also showed a significant impact of these changes on maternal HRQoL.
Background Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a severe life-threatening hyperinflammatory state with uncontrolled activation and proliferation of macrophages and T-lymphocytes. MAS has variable causes and risk factors. Early diagnosis and optimum management could be lifesaving. Our aim was to develop a consensus, evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis, evaluation, and treat-to-target management of pediatric MAS. This study was carried out to achieve an Egyptian expert consensus on a treat-to-target management strategy for MAS using the Delphi technique. The multistep process strategy was used in developing a consensus, evidence-based treatment guidelines for MAS, started by developing 7 key clinical questions by a scientific committee according to the Patient/Population, Intervention, Comparison, and Outcomes (PICO) approach. The core leadership team identified pediatric rheumatology clinicians and researchers throughout Egypt. To generate evidence for MAS management, an evidence-based, systematic literature review was done. To obtain a consensus, the Delphi procedure (3 rounds) was used. Results Twenty-three expert panel participated in the 3 rounds with a response rate of 100%. A total of 19 recommendations, categorized into 2 sections (11 in the diagnosis section and 8 in management), were obtained. The agreement with the recommendations (ranks 7–9) ranged from 86.9 to 95.7%. The consensus was reached (i.e., ≥75% of respondents strongly agreed or agreed) on all the clinical standards. Algorithms for management have been also developed. Conclusion This was an expert, consensus recommendation for the diagnosis and treat to target of MAS, based on the best available evidence and expert opinion. The guidelines fill a gap in the literature as it presents a T2T approach for MAS.
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