Although received research emphasizes direct experiential knowledge as a key driver of firms’ internationalization, the role of indirect experience has been increasingly recognized in recent studies. In this paper, we extend these studies by examining the role of source and context of experiential knowledge in relation to firms’ internationalization into specific host markets, and offer a fine-grained analysis of when and how indirect experience complement or substitute direct experience. We test our hypotheses with data from 1,478 Swedish SMEs. Our results reveal that a firm can address its knowledge gaps and increase its extent of internationalization into a host market by combining direct and indirect experience, especially when they yield different types of knowledge needed for internationalization. We further show that direct and indirect experience derived from comparable contexts could substitute for each other but may also create knowledge redundancies.
Using textual analysis of annual reports of US-listed firms, we provide empirical evidence that uncertainty (rather than risk) and optimism are distinctive characteristics of high-impact entrepreneurial firms (recently listed firms) relative to old incumbent firms. We construct an entrepreneurial entry predation model with uncertainty based on this evidence. We show that optimistic entrepreneurs may enter markets that otherwise would be blocked from entry by incumbents’ predatory threats. Thus entrepreneurial optimism may be to the benefit of consumers. Entrepreneurial optimism can also create a strategic advantage for entrepreneurs since incumbents may react by being less aggressive in product market interactions, which will benefit the profitability of the entrepreneur’s venture and consumers via lower prices.
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) transparency has predominantly been treated as an organizational outcome in previous literature. Drawing on rich qualitative data, we find that CSR transparency can emerge through sensemaking processes where employees are instrumental in exercising moral judgements, engaging with stakeholders, and creating shared narratives. The study contributes to our understanding of CSR transparency by showing that the phenomenon is reflected by social processes and should not be narrowly conceptualized as an outcome of information disclosure at the corporate level. The study also provides fine-grained details about the cognitive and organizational mechanisms at play in the shaping of CSR transparency. Specifically, we introduce a bottom-up model which explains how reserved and non-reserved approaches of CSR transparency are developed.
I examine how neighbourhood-level food store access, proxied by distance to the nearest food store, changed in Sweden between 2000 and 2013, and how this change is correlated with changes in potential market size, proxied by population density. I find that distance has increased in rural and more affluent neighbourhoods. Furthermore, an increase in distance is negatively correlated with an increase in population density and is most pronounced in rural areas. The results are driven by the growing, rather than the declining, regions. Since the latter have often been a target for subsidies over the years, this could suggest that the aid may have had an impact.
Smoking is one of the leading causes of preventable death globally, yet it remains a common behavior. Interventions that increase the concreteness of future smoking outcomes have been suggested to be effective, but little research has examined what type of future outcomes should be highlighted, and in what way. The present study therefore explores the efficacy of two types of framings of smoking cessation consequences: Benefit appeal (time vs. money) and valence (gain vs. loss). A randomized controlled field experiment with 2935 participants conducted via a digital therapeutics app found an interplay between appeal type and valence such that messages focusing on money were most likely to lead to immediate reduced smoking behavior when framed as a gain, rather than loss. Effects on motivation or long‐term smoking cessation were not detected. The results shed light on psychological differences between money and time, between attitudes and behaviors, and between short‐term and long‐term behavior change. This study highlights the importance of considering both benefit appeal and valence framing when designing smoking cessation messages.
Throughout his professional life, Bo Södersten was a prolific writer of essays. The chapter examines his early efforts, most of which was collected in a book, on topics like economics and politics, autobiographic books, not least those by the legendary political scientist and newspaperman Herbert Tingsten, as well as Socialist ideology, manifested above all in an essay about the Swedish Prime Minister in the 1930s and 1940s, Per Albin Hansson.KeywordsBo SöderstenEssaysHerbert TingstenPer Albin HanssonSocialism
Bo Södersten’s interest in development problems was manifested mainly in articles on Cuba and Chile and comparisons of the two countries: one centrally planned and the other on its way to an economy ruled by neoliberal market principles. Bo also dealt with Botswana, Swaziland, and Namibia, and their dependence on South Africa, to a lesser extent, with attempts to liberalize economies in Asia.
Bo Södersten wrote his doctoral dissertation on the effects of economic growth on foreign trade. He was, however, also interested in the mechanisms that generated the economic growth itself. In this context he wrote a number of articles dealing with Sweden’s economic growth and edited a number of anthologies on the Swedish economy. His interest in growth and development also resulted in edited books on development problems.KeywordsBo SöderstenEconomic growthEconomic development
The chapter examines a Bo Södersten’s views of the Swedish public sector, which he thought was overgrown. High taxes resulted in nothing but low-productive public jobs. The “nourishing” private sector had to feed a “draining” public sector—a view that caused a lot of criticism. The chapter also contains Bo’s suggestions for reform of the Swedish pension system—an essential part of the public sector.KeywordsBo SöderstenSwedish public sectorNourishing and draining sectors
In 1979, Bo Södersten became a Member of Parliament for the Swedish Social democratic party. The chapter tells the story of his period in parliament, until 1988. In spite of strong efforts to become a minister, Bo failed, partly because he refused to fall in line with his party, in questions where he thought that the top party hierarchy was mistaken.KeywordsBo SöderstenSwedish Parliament
In 1990, Bo Södersten launched a frontal attack on the Swedish Social Democrats arguing that it was capitalism that had built the Swedish economy and that the party had simply redistributed incomes. The party was about to turn left which Bo saw as a problem. The chapter also deals with the problem that Swedish economic growth did not result in any new jobs.KeywordsBo SöderstenSocial Democracyeconomic growth
One of Bo Södersten’s best genres as a writer was that of book reviews. He always found interesting writers that he found worthwhile to deal with. These included politicians (memoirs), culture and biography, notably his book with Mats Lundahl on his predecessor as professor of international economics in Lund: Torsten Gårdlund.
Three of the topics which Bo Södersten dealt within his newspaper articles after 1988 were the issue of nuclear power, the organization of the public childcare system, and the organization of higher education in Sweden. Bo thought that it was a waste of resources to close down the Swedish nuclear power plants ahead of time, that a preschool system should be substituted for the daycare centers and that the universities should be decentralized and be managed by researchers and teachers instead of by bureaucrats.KeywordsBo SöderstenNuclear powerChildcareSwedish university system
During the 1970s, Bo Södersten wrote extensively on the idea of a labor-managed economy, where the employees managed the firms. He popularized the idea in newspaper articles and wrote longer essays where he explained the theory its relation to the issue of capital formation in wage-earners’ funds and advocated the introduction of such companies in Sweden—an idea which in the end turned out to be utopian.KeywordsBo SöderstenLabor-managed economy
Between 1968 and 1970, Bo Södersten applied for a number of chairs in economics in Sweden and Denmark, with negative results until in 1971 he became August Röhss Professor of Economics in Gothenburg. The chapter contains a critical examination of the statements made by the expert committees involved in the appointments. It also deals with Bo’s role in the creation of the Swedish Institute for Social Research and with his appointment as professor of international economics in Lund in 1978.KeywordsBo SöderstenChairs in economicsSwedish Institute for Social Research
The chapter deals with the aftermath of Bo Södersten’s doctoral dissertation, with some later works that he wrote, which build on the latter, and with the writing of his major work, International Economics, which immediately became a standard international textbook.KeywordsBo SöderstenInternational Economics
Bo Södersten thought that the Social Democratic Party suffered from a number of systemic defects. The chapter deals with the exaggerated influence of the trade unions, the inefficiency which it had bred in such central areas health care and childcare, and it presents Bo’s ideas about the necessary reforms of the welfare system.KeywordsBo SöderstenSwedish Social Democratic PartyHealth careChildcareWelfare society
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