Stella Maris College
  • Chennai, India
Recent publications
The current decade is an exciting era during which high throughput “meta omics” approaches resolve the “microbial dark matter” in the ecosystem. Meta-proteomics is a significant solution in delivering the predominant impetus units of the microbiome that ensures the mapping of morphological-genetic linkages from the environment. The current review proposes to highlight the meta-proteomic representations of the microbial communities in the activated sludge, freshwater and seawater, biofilms, mines, and industrial effluents. Metabolic modeling of interactions of the diverse microbiome in environment and health is the most demanding research to ensure a safe and better future. In comparison to the major biomolecules like sugars, fats, nucleic acids, and proteins are the most assuring alternative markers that elucidate the regulatory cascades of innumerable metabolic activities in the microbial ecosystem. Structural, comparative, and functional analysis of the metagenome in situ establishes the capable alternative strategies for remediation of dyes. A quantitative approach that integrates metaproteomics through metagenomics will reveal the connections between the taxonomy and proteins of complex microbiomes thereby pointing to the direction of precise and easier degradation of the effluents. The systems approach to create mathematical models to predict the biological response to an environmental stimulus is the best solution to address the compelling and overgrowing ecological problems. Hence metaproteomics, along with metagenomics, metabolomics, and metatranscriptomics will enable the investigation of existing hazards to the ecological niche. The proposed chapter entitles a better understanding of the microbiota and ecology to eliminate the toxic effluents and dyes in situ.
The impact of pollutants in the environment interferes with the everyday existence of humans and deteriorates their health. This results in the progressive change and malfunctioning of physiological systems that lead to several infirmities. This challenge has driven me to review various factors that can reverse the adverse conditions which threaten human health. Bioremediation has been a favored approach to mitigate toxic environmental pollutants through microbes. It is known that ecological pollutants reach the human gut through the food chain. Hence, it is imperative to review the role of the human gut microbiome in the metabolism of pollutants. The physiological functioning of the gut is immensely affected by the metabolism of pollutants, thereby increasing the intensity of bad bacteria and pathogenesis. In particular, the gut microbiome's metabolic activity is considered a foremost contributor to enhancing essential components like the immune and nervous systems. Probiotics can serve as promising candidates for protecting the body against food- water-derived contaminants that can induce toxicity. Multitudes of computational resources such as MG RAST, Metastorm, QIIME, and Metaphin offer exploration of the metagenomic composition before and after pollutant effects. Transcriptomics approaches unravel the differential gene expression signatures that elucidate the gene biomarkers for bioremediation. Hence, this review aims to solve the role and mechanism of the gut microbiome in metabolizing the pollutants and thereby reducing environmental contaminants’ toxicity.
In this work, we explores the electrochemical detection of dopamine (DA) in biological spiked samples by strontium pyrophosphate/hexagonal boron nitride (SrP/h-BN) composite. The systematic combination of multiple active sites in SrP/h-BN and their synergistic catalytic action results in excellent physicochemical features that can be leveraged for successful dopamine detection. The inherent advantages of fabricated nanocomposite modified electrode, such as low resistance charge transfer (Rct = 279.65 ± 0.0012 Ω·cm²), with an oxidation potential Epa = +0.22 V (vs Ag/AgCl), low detection limit (0.3 nM), wide linear range (1 nM – 150 µM and 170–337 µM) and high sensitivity (19.6 ± 0.015 µA µM⁻¹ cm²) along with acceptable selectivity (in the presence of 10 interfering compound), are demonstrated by the fundamental advantages of the sonochemical synthetic process in terms of uniform size distribution, improved phase purity, optimum reaction time, and mass transfer effects. Furthermore, the suggested SrP/h–BN nanocomposite has a good recovery range for precise and quantitative DA measurement in human urine (99.6 % ± 0.005) and BSA (99.8 % ± 0.003) samples which demonstrate its real-time applicability.
When China opened its doors to the outside world it was on the basis of a political decision made by its leader Deng XiaopingDeng Xiaoping. It was driven by a response to economic requirements rather than by ideology. From about 1978, Deng and the Communist Party were beginning to feel that foreign interest, and especially capitalist MNCsMultinational corporations (MNCs), could play a constructive role in the growth of China.
Ancient Chinese philosophyChinese philosophy refers to a set of beliefsBeliefs or ideas developed by philosophers during the period known as the Hundred Schools of Thought. Of these, those that gained influence and prominence were ConfucianismConfucianism, DaoismDaoism, and LegalismLegalism. China’s important classical philosophers were Confucius and Mencius (ConfucianismConfucianism), Lao Zi (DaoismDaoism) and Shang Yang, Li Si and Hanfezi (LegalismLegalism) and Sun TzuSun Tzu. For Chinese political leadersLeaders, natural disposition is a combination of the values and ethics of Confucian, Daoist, and the Legalist tradition that derive from the ideal pursuit of the Confucian nobleman, the Daoist sage, and the enlightened leader (Guo, 2003, p. 15). Traditional Chinese philosophyChinese philosophy is linked to the individual and society in that it influences the behavior and thought process of all citizens, including the leadersLeaders.
China’s foreign policy underwent a significant change since the passing away of Mao. The “Open-DoorOpen-Door” policy became an integral part of the country’s modernizationModernization and reform policy, paving the way for an expanded societal interaction.
Accidents involving diesel oil spills are prevalent in sea- and coastal regions. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be adsorbed in soil and constitute a persistent contaminant due to their poor water solubility and complex breakdown. PAHs pollution is a pervasive environmental concern that poses serious risks to human life and ecosystems. Thus, it is the need of the hour to degrade and decontaminate the toxic pollutant to save the environment. Among all the available techniques, microbial degradation of the PAHs is proving to be greatly beneficial and effective. Bioremediation overcomes the drawbacks of most physicochemical procedures by eliminating numerous organic pollutants at a lower cost in ambient circumstances and has therefore become a prominent remedial option for pollutant removal, including PAHs. In the present study, we have studied the degradation of Low molecular Weight and High Molecular Weight PAH in combination by bacterial strains isolated from a marine environment. Optimum pH, temperature, carbon, and nitrogen sources, NaCl concentrations were found for efficient degradation using the isolated bacterial strains. At 250 mg/L concentration of the PAH mixture an 89.5% degradation was observed. Vibrio algiolytcus strains were found to be potent halotolerant bacteria to degrade complex PAH into less toxic simple molecules. GC-MS and FTIR data were used to probe the pathway of degradation of PAH.
The emerging industrialization has resulted in the rapid growth of textile industries across the globe. The presence of xenobiotic pollutants in textile wastewater threatens the ecosystem. Applying different microbes (bacteria, fungi & algae) has paved the way for phytoremediation – the eco-friendly, cost-effective method. The present study focuses on the phytoremediation of reactive dyes - Reactive red, Reactive Brown & Reactive Black and Cr (VI) in synthetic textile wastewater using Salvinia sps. The mixed azo dyes of each 100 mg/L showed decolourization of 75 ± 0.5% and 82 ± 0.5% of removal of 20 mg/L of Cr (VI) after eight days of incubation in a phytoreactor setup. Chlorophyll analysis revealed the gradual decrease in the photosynthetic pigments during the remediation. The degraded metabolites were analyzed using FT-IR and showed the presence of aromatic amines on day zero, which were converted to aliphatic amines on day four. The GC-MS analysis revealed the disruption of –NN- bond, rupture of –CN- bond, scission of –N-N-bond, and loss of –SO3H from the Reactive Black dye leading to the formation of an intermediate p-Hydroxy phenylhydrazinyl. The rupture of Reactive red dye resulted in the formation of p-Hydrazinyl toluene sulphonic acid, Naphthyl amine −3,6-disulphonic acid and 8-Hydroxy Naphthyl amine −3,6-disulphonic acid. Decarboxylation, desulphonation, deoxygenation and deamination of Reactive Brown dye showed the presence of different metabolites and metabolic pathways were proposed for the reactive azo dyes which were phytoremediated.
Natural Difference labeling is assigning the labels to the vertices of the graph G, such that the induced edge labels obtained by the absolute value of the difference of the labels of the end vertices are the consecutive natural numbers. Problems on labeling has many applications in communication networks. Natural Difference Labeling on Path (Pn), Star (K1,n), Subdivision of the star S(K1,n), Bistar B(m, n), Coconut tree C(T (m, n)) are proved in this paper. Natural Odd Difference Labeling and Natural Even Difference Labeling for the above mentioned graphs will also be proved.
The cosmetics industry is expanding, and the quest for novel ingredients to improve and develop innovative products is crucial. Consumers are increasingly looking for natural-derived ingredients in cosmetic products that have been proven to be effective and safe. Macroalgae-derived compounds has growing popularity in skincare products as they are natural, abundant, biocompatible, and renewable. Due to their high biomass yields, rapid growth rates, and cultivation process, they are gaining widespread recognition as potentially sustainable resources better suited for biorefinery processes. This review demonstrates macroalgae metabolites and its industrial applications in moisturizers, anti-aging, skin whitening, hair, and oral care products. These chemicals can be obtained in combination with energy products to increase the value of macroalgae from an industrial perspective with a zero-waste approach by linking multiple refineries. The key challenges, bottlenecks, and future perspectives in the operation and outlook of macroalgal biorefineries was also discussed.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a distinguished group of pharmaceuticals with a comprehensive range of beneficial effects. Herein, this work confers the electrochemical detection of NSAIDs drug nimesulide, a prohibited drug in various countries owing to its toxic uncertainties, by employing a hybrid nanocomposite as an efficient sensor. The eco-approachable green synthesis of FeMnO3 through natural deep eutectic solvent (NaDES) integrated with f-CNF highlights the remarkable features of obtained hybrid FeMnO3@f-CNF nanocomposite. Green chemistry synthesis methodology boasts well-defined properties in developing hierarchical heterojunctions that use less energy and produce nominal by-products. Analytical and spectroscopical techniques examine the structural-chemical features. The electrochemical determination of nimesulide at the surface of the FeMnO3@f-CNF modified electrode is examined by CV and amperometric (i–t). The distinctive structural architectures of the fabricated FeMnO3@f-CNF provide excellent electrochemical activity due to rapid charge transfer between electrode/electrolyte interfaces. The as-fabricated sensor displays lower Rct value (59.41 Ω·cm²) and detection limit (0.53 nM), dynamic linear range (0.001–244.55 µM), high selectivity (12 interfering compounds), good operational (1000 sec) and cycle stabilities (10 cycles) towards the electrochemical screening of nimesulide which further marks the electrodes viability in the actual sample analysis. Hence, the modification of well-ordered structures of FeMnO3 incorporated with functional attributes of f-CNF mould the hybrid FeMnO3@f-CNF nanocomposite, which can be employed in the future for real-world analysis of drug pollutants in clinical diagnostics.
The quantification of 3-nitro-l-tyrosine (NO2-Tyr), an in vivo biomarker of nitrosative stress, is indispensable for the clinical intervention of various inflammatory disorders caused by nitrosative stress. By integrating the unique features of BiVO4 and MoS2 with matching bandgap energies, electrode materials with amplified response signals can be developed. In this regard, we introduce a hydrothermally synthesized bismuth vanadate sheathed molybdenum disulfide (MoS2@BiVO4) heterojunction as a highly sensitive electrode material for the determination of NO2-Tyr. Excellent electrochemical behavior perceived for the MoS2@BiVO4 augments the performance of the sensor and allows the measurement of NO2-Tyr in biological media without any time-consuming pretreatments. The synergistic interactions between BiVO4 and MoS2 heterojunctions contribute to low resistance charge transfer (Rct = 159.13 Ω·cm2), a reduction potential Epc = -0.58 V (vs Ag/AgCl), and a good response range (0.001-526.3 μM) with a lower limit of detection (0.94 nM) toward the detection of NO2-Tyr. An improved active surface area, reduced charge recombination, and high analyte adsorption contribute to the high loading of the biomarker for improved selectivity (in the presence of 10 interfering compounds), operational stability (1000 s), and reproducibility (six various modified electrodes). The proposed sensor was successfully utilized for the real-time determination of NO2-Tyr in water, urine, and saliva samples with good recovery values (±98.94-99.98%), ascertaining the reliability of the method. It is noteworthy that the electrochemical activity remains unaffected by other redox interferons, thus leading to targeted sensing applications.
Tallow fat is used in pharmaceuticals and also as raw material for the synthesis of glycerine which is used in oleo-chemical industries. In this study, steam-hydrolysis of animal tallow has been carried out to obtain glycerol by high pressure, temperature hydrolysis method without catalyst. The effect of process parameters such as feed ratio and temperature on the production of glycerol by hydrolysis has been studied. The beef tallow has been characterized by TGA for thermal stability where it shows slight decomposition in three stages: 59 °C, 187 °C, and 293 °C leaving 80.96% residue. H1 NMR profile shows doublet-of-doublets arising from two methylene groups and a multiplet for the CH-proton. 13C-NMR of the product demonstrated signals at 62.58 and 72.11 ppm, indicating the presence of the aliphatic carbon in the 1°- and 2°-alcohol of the final product glycerol. The 1:4 blend of (water to tallow) under 256 °C and 60 bar pressure has been recorded as an optimal operating condition (non-catalytic) to yield a degree of hydrolysis of 98.4%. The degree FTIR analysis shows a peak at 3300 cm−1 due to the presence of water and glycerol which in turn indicates the presence of glycerol.
A chatbot is an application that simulates human conversation. It is an artificial intelligence (AI) feature which could be deployed across verticals such as business, education, and medical. Chatbots are virtual assistant which can assist the users on how to do something. Students in schools and colleges expect instant answers to questions or problems. Nowadays, classes, exams, and graduation are conducted online, and it is essential to have chatbots in college/university that could solve issues during the admission process. Students need not come to college nor searching for expertise to answer their queries. They can just have a conversation with chatbot and get necessary information. Chatbots can give immediate response for queries asked by students and it is accessible 24/7. Moreover, students may find difficulties in choosing the right course with their previous education. Therefore, in this paper, we present the chatbot—Stera—that is designed to provide information about hostels, college campus, career guidance training, courses, GPA for particular semester, and much more. Students might have lot of queries regarding courses and college activities, and without a chatbot, college/university cannot give instant reply to each and every student. The main drive of creating an AI-powered Stera chatbot for college/university is to provide the needed information for students without delay in response.
Respiratory infections are the leading causes of mortality and the current pandemic COVID‐19 is one such trauma that imposed catastrophic devastation to the health and economy of the world. Unraveling the correlations and interplay of the human microbiota in the gut‐ lung axis would offer incredible solutions to the underlying mystery of the disease progression. The study compared the microbiota profiles of six samples namely healthy gut, healthy lung, COVID‐19 infected gut, COVID‐19 infected lungs, Clostridium difficile infected gut and community acquired pneumonia infected lungs. The metagenome datasets were processed, normalized, classified and the rarefaction curves were plotted. The microbial biomarkers for COVID‐19 infections were identified as the abundance of Candida and Escherichia in lungs with Ruminococcus in the gut. Candida and Staphylococcus could play a vital role as putative prognostic biomarkers of community acquired pneumonia whereas abundance of Faecalibacterium and Clostridium are associated with the Clostridium difficile infections in gut. A machine learning random forest classifier applied to the datasets efficiently classified the biomarkers. The study offers an extensive and incredible understanding of the existence of gut lung axis during dysbiosis of two anatomically different organs.
In the wake of the recent COVID-19 pandemic, antibiotics are now being used in unprecedented quantities across the globe, raising major concerns regarding pharmaceutical pollution and antimicrobial resistance (AMR). In view of the incoming tide of alarming apprehensions regarding their aftermath, it is critical to investigate control strategies that can halt their spread. Rare earth orthovanadates notable for their fundamental and technological significance are increasingly being used as electrochemical probes for the precise quantification of various pharmaceutical compounds. However, a comprehensive study of the role of the cationic site in tailoring the response mechanism is relatively unexplored. Hence, in this work we present a facile hydrothermal synthesis route of rare earth orthovanadates TVO4 (T = Ho, Y, Dy) as efficient electrocatalyst for the simultaneous detection of nitrofurazone (NF) and roxarsone (RX). There appears to be a significant correlation between T site substitution and the morphological and electrochemical properties of rare earth metal based orthovanadates. Following a comparative study of the electrochemical activity, the three rare-earth orthovanadates were found to respond differently depending on their composition of T sites. The results demonstrate that Dy-based orthovanadates displays increased electrical conductivity and rapid charge transfer characteristics. Thus, under optimal reaction conditions DyVO4- based electrodes imparts outstanding selectivity towards the detection of NF and RX with an extensive detection window of NF = 0.01–264 µM & RX = 0.01–21 µM and 36–264 µM and low detection limit (0.002, 0.0009 µM for NF and RX, respectively). In real-time samples, the proposed sensor reveals itself to be a reliable electrode material capable of detecting residues such as NF and RX.
Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a significant viral resistant drug widely acknowledged for its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities. To minimize the impact of HCQ residues on environmental pathways, exploring control measures is vital. In this regard, electrochemical sensing of HCQ using well-structured functional materials. This work aims to provide an economical and sustainable route for the synthesis of ANbO3 (A = Na,K) perovskites via a thymol-menthol-based natural deep eutectic solvent. The as-synthesized NaNbO3 and KNbO3 are pinned to functionalized carbon nanofibers (f-CNF) via an ultrasonication approach. Benefitting from the synergistic effect of rapid electron transfer and improved surface area, enhanced electrochemical activity for NaNbO3@f-CNF/GCE is achieved. The fabricated NaNbO3@f-CNF displays a LOD (DPV = 0.01 μM, i-t = 0.007 μM), wide dynamic range (DPV = 0.09–22.5 μM, i-t = 0.006–35 μM), outstanding selectivity, and reproducibility, proving feasible in real-time analysis with good recovery rates (±97.67–99.81%). The NADES-mediated preparation of perovskites evades the incorporation of traditional toxic solvents and yields atom-efficient ANbO3 (A = Na,K) associated with green solvent templates. This validates the sustainable fabrication of electrode materials with reduced energy stipulations for detecting hazardous drug pollutants in the ecosystem.
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682 members
Veena Gayathri Krishnaswamy
  • Department of Biotechnology
Aishwarya Sekar
  • Department of Bioinformatics
Rajalakshmi Sridharan
  • Department of Biotechnology
Mary N.L
  • Department of Chemistry
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Chennai, India