State University of New York at Plattsburgh
Recent publications
Since the publication of the Christ Church Spitalfields crypt, London, in 1993, archaeologists and paleopathologists have increasingly recognized the importance of post-medieval burial assemblages. Increasingly paleopathologists have explored the impact industrialization and urbanization had on disease. This virtual special issue focuses upon a global examination of the transition to industry commencing in the mid-18th century. The objectives are to identify commonalities and disparities in general health during the development of industry within a global context, and to examine, and in some cases challenge, long-held assumptions about health during this period of dramatic social change. It gathers together papers from international scholars in order to examine patterns in health experience throughout the transition to industry. The individual papers address this transition in terms of the unique chronological, political, economic, and social parameters of their specific region. This introduction identifies long held assumptions about the impact the industrial revolution had on health and outlines the specific environmental and social conditions of industry that influenced human disease.
Noncommunicable chronic diseases are associated with lifestyle behaviors. Psychological and social factors may influence the adoption of such behaviors. Being mentally and physically energized or fatigued may influence the intention–behavior gap of healthy lifestyle adoption accordingly. We investigated the associations of age, sex, lifestyle behaviors, mood, and mental and physical energy and fatigue at both the trait and state levels. The participants (N = 670) completed questionnaires assessing their sleep, mood, mental and physical state energy and fatigue, physical activity, mental workload, and diet. The ordinary least squares regression models revealed an overlap between the mental state and trait energy levels for males who consume polyphenols, have a high mental workload, and sleep well. Being younger, having a high stress level, bad sleep habits, and being confused and depressed were associated with high mental fatigue. Physical energy and fatigue shared the same commonalities with the previous results, with greater discrepancies observed between the state and trait indicators compared to that between mental energy and fatigue. Diet and stress management seem to be predictors of high physical energy, and females report higher physical fatigue levels. Health care professionals should consider this psychosocial complex profiling in their differential diagnosis and when one is implementing lifestyle behavioral changes to address the facets of preventive medicine, wellness, and health promotion.
Recreational anglers have been key players in aquatic conservation, but this role is increasingly obscured. Other environmental sectors are now more visible stakeholders engaged with biodiversity. Recreational fishing has relevant environmental and moral implications, but these can be resolved via improved governance and management. More difficult is replacing the stewardship capacity provided by anglers. When analysed against a novel environmental stewardship framework based on place and identity, care, knowledge and agency, we find that marginalizing anglers could diminish aquatic biodiversity conservation. This outcome is likely because excellence in recreational fishing involves habituation of skills and ethical imperatives associated with sustainable and responsible use of fish populations. These dimensions are probably not so pertinent and correspondingly less developed in other nature stakeholders. Importantly, catching and killing wild animals catapults anglers into a food web and associated ecological conscience that most other outdoor activities cannot generate. As a result, recreational fishing often engenders feelings of care and responsibility for aquatic systems that support personal well‐being, bridging the stewardship value‐action gap through development of local assessment, management and evaluative competencies and associated agency. Transdisciplinary cooperation with scientists, managers and policymakers can unleash the stewardship potential of recreational anglers and engage their capacity for the common good.
Objective this research seeks to investigate the impact the industrial revolution had on the population of England. Materials Pre-existing skeletal data from 1154 pre-Industrial (1066–1700 CE) and 4157 industrial (1700–1905) skeletons from 21 cemeteries (N = 5411). Methods Context number, sex, age-at-death, stature and presence/absence of selected pathological conditions were collated. The data were compared using chi square, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, t-tests and logistic regression (α = 0.01). Results There was a statistically significant increase in cribra orbitalia, periosteal reactions, rib lesions, fractures, rickets, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, enamel hypoplasia, dental caries and periapical lesions in the industrial period. Osteomyelitis decreased from the pre-industrial to industrial period. Conclusion Our results confirm the industrial revolution had a significant negative impact on human health, however the prevalence of TB, treponemal disease, maxillary sinusitis, osteomalacia, scurvy, gout and DISH did not change, suggesting these diseases were not impacted by the change in environmental conditions. Significance This is the largest study of health in the industrial revolution that includes non-adults and adults and considers age-at-death alongside disease status to date. This data supports the hypothesis that the rise of industry was associated with a significant decline in general health, but not an increase in all pathological conditions.
COVID-19 may affect police activities (i.e., traffic stops, arrests, and use of force) due to public compliance with COVID-19 restrictions, changes in individuals’ daily activities, and health threats posed by COVID-19. The purpose of this research is to examine the effects of COVID-19 on police activities and the trends in these activities in Burlington, Vermont. The data that measured arrests, traffic stops, and use of force were obtained from the Burlington Police Department website and covered the period from December 10, 2018 through June 14, 2021. Then, the daily time-series data for arrest rate, use of force rate, and traffic stop rate were created (N = 918; 459 days pre-COVID-19 and 459 days during COVID-19). The results showed that COVID-19 statistically significantly decreased traffic stops and arrests, but not use of force on the day immediately following the implementation of the COVID-19 restrictions and then remained stable over time. However, no significant change was detected in the trends of arrests, traffic stops, and use of force before and during the COVID-19 period. COVID-19 had a significant immediate and lasting effect on traffic stops and arrests, but not use of force.
Physical ability test (PAT) evaluates firefighters’ (FF) occupational capacity. The contribution of anaerobic systems during PAT and mental toughness (MT) relationship to PAT is unexplored. PAT modeling based on anaerobic fitness (AF), MT, and respective relationships were examined. Fourteen male FFs (Age: 29.0 ± 7.0 years) completed a PAT composed of occupationally-specific tasks in full gear. On a separate day, a series of AF assessments were performed (handgrip-dynamometry: HG; vertical-jump: VJ; Margaria-Kalamen: MK; 300-yard shuttle run: 300YD). MT was evaluated using military training MT inventory (MTMTI) and sports MT questionnaire (SMTQ). We tested the PAT model using multiple backward regression and related correlations coefficients at p < 0.05. A 78% proportion of PAT was explained by AF parameters (F2,13 = 20.2, <0.05). PAT was significantly correlated with HG (r = −0.71, p < 0.01), VJ (r = −0.73, p < 0.01), MK (r = −0.75, p < 0.01), and with 300YD (r = 0.60, p < 0.05). MT did not demonstrate significant correlation with PAT (p > 0.01). Anaerobic system significantly contributes to PAT performance. FFs should optimize AF training, which would allow for enhanced occupational performance in PAT. Further investigation into psychological determinants of FFs is recommended.
The cardiovascular system must distribute oxygen and nutrients to the body while maintaining appropriate blood pressure. This is achieved through a combination of central and peripheral mechanisms that influence cardiac output and vasomotor tone throughout the vascular system. Furthermore, the capability to preferentially direct blood to tissues with increased metabolic demand (i.e., active hyperemia) is crucial to exercise tolerance. However, the interaction between these systems is difficult to understand without real life examples. Fortunately, monitoring blood flow, blood pressure and heart rate during a series of laboratory protocols will allow students to partition the contributions of these central and peripheral factors. The three protocols include 1) reactive hyperemia in the forearm, 2) small muscle mass handgrip exercise, and 3) large muscle mass cycling exercise. In addition to providing detailed description of the required equipment, specific protocols and expected outcomes this report also reviews some of the common student misconceptions that are associated with the observed physiological responses.
The Remote Learning & Community Building project was designed as a course assignment to provide students with a meaningful opportunity to apply qualitative research methodology to their personal experience of remote learning in an undergraduate social work program. This article reports on student findings, interpretations, and their recommendations to advance social work program community-building efforts in a remote learning context. SHOWeD Method for Photovoice, Community Exhibition and a follow-up, key informant focus group data were analyzed resulting in eight emergent themes: Zoom or Technology-Base, Hope & Positivity, New Normal/Flexibility/Isolation, Health & Wellness, Distractions, Community-Building, and Burnout. Recommendations for enhanced community-building efforts in the remote learning context are provided.
Background In recent years, intermediary organizations have increasingly influenced educational policy. Among other proposals, they have promoted teacher education redesign based on technocratic values and stringent accountability measures. In response to these policy changes and the intensifying crisis in the teaching profession, teacher educators have been called to engage in policy debates. Yet, to date, few studies have explored how teacher educators participate in policy advocacy. Purpose/Research Question The purpose of this study is to examine variations in teacher educators’ efforts to influence policymaking decisions. Using the conceptual framework of policy advocacy, the study addresses the following research question: How do teacher educators engage in policy advocacy? Research Design The study utilizes multiple case study methodology and incorporates four cases. Through a qualitative analysis of interviews, policy artifacts, policy documents, and videos of official policymaking and legislative meetings, we document how teacher educators seek to influence the direction of teacher education reforms by engaging with policymakers, the public, and other policy actors. We compare advocacy activities of different teacher educators and note the varying outcomes these activities produce. Findings Our study shows that teacher educators engaged in information campaigning through research briefs, policy reports, letter writing, and sharing personal stories. Although some attempted to engage the public, most focused their efforts on building relationships with decision-makers. Despite those efforts, study participants were rarely consulted when new policies were conceptualized. Our study also points to a contrast between groups that worked to disrupt policy agendas of intermediary organizations and those that aligned their advocacy work with them. Those who attempted to advocate against the measures promoted by intermediary organizations faced more challenges than those who formed coalitions with intermediary organizations. Conclusions Our study sheds light on the paradox teacher educators faced when they engaged in policy advocacy. Resisting the agendas of intermediary organizations (IOs) made policy advocacy more challenging for teacher educators. But coalitions with IOs could co-opt teacher educators’ voices toward technocratic agendas of teacher education reform.
Purpose: This scoping review examined studies reporting restorative treatments designed to improve auditory comprehension in people with aphasia. Method: We searched eight databases using keywords aphasia, auditory comprehension, treatment, intervention, and rehabilitation, for studies published between 1970 and 2020. Searches returned 170 records, and after applying exclusionary criteria, 28 articles remained. For each article, two authors independently extracted data on study design parameters, participant characteristics, treatment protocol, and treatment outcomes, including generalization. Results: Studies were categorized by treatment focus: direct auditory (n = 7), mixed auditory (n = 13), or indirect (n = 8). Study designs were group (n = 12), single-subject experimental design (n = 11), or case study (n = 5). Fifteen studies had a control condition and/or a control group. Thirteen studies included two to 10 participants. Aphasia severity and auditory comprehension severity were infrequently reported, and most participants were greater than 1-year poststroke. Treatment targets and tasks varied. Sessions ranged from 8 to 240 min, once or more per week, for eight to 60 total sessions over 2-20 weeks. Impairment-based outcome measures were typically used. Improvement and generalization were regularly reported; however, authors frequently did not report statistical significance. Conclusions: A variety of treatments have addressed auditory comprehension deficits in people with aphasia, with many reporting improvements in auditory comprehension for some people. However, the variability in treatment tasks and delivery and outcome measurements preclude confidently offering specific clinical recommendations for implementing auditory comprehension treatments. Gaps identified by the current study may guide the development and exploration of transparent, repeatable, patient-centered treatments. Supplemental material: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.21291345.
The epistemic components of science are included in instruction through the three-dimensional learning of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Students use the Science & Engineering Practices to engage the Disciplinary Core Ideas through the perspective of the Crosscutting Concepts. The NGSS focus on the epistemic aspects that all sciences share, but the domain-specific epistemic aspects, referred to here as ways of knowing, are still important to include in science education because they require different pedagogical methods. In this paper, I show how curriculum developers can incorporate the ways of knowing of the Earth & Space Sciences into their units through the choice of Practices and Crosscutting Concepts in the lesson-specific learning performance statements. I start by identifying the most common Practice-Crosscutting Concept pairs of the Earth & Space Sciences performance expectations and comparing them to the literature on the ways of knowing in the geosciences. The performance expectations represent the multiple modes of inquiry and systems thinking characteristic of the Earth & Space Sciences. Yet, they don’t effectively represent other aspects of the Earth & Space Sciences, like visualization, spatial reasoning, deep time, and large size and spatial scales. I then encourage curriculum developers to move beyond the example of the performance expectations by providing suggested Practice and Crosscutting Concept pairs and groupings that can be used by curriculum developers to communicate these other aspects. I also include example unit outlines to show what the suggestions might look like in application.
The research on predictors of successful terrorism incidents is scarce and warrants more scholarly attention to minimize the number of successful terrorist attacks. This study examined whether suicide attack, region, weapon type, attack type, target/victim type, and type of terrorist organization are predictors of successful terrorism incidents. The data contained global terrorism incidents that occurred between 1970 and 2019 and were obtained from the Global Terrorism Database (N = 154,289). The results of multivariate analyses obtained from the binary logistic regression test showed that successful terrorism is less likely to occur in North America but, when such attacks do occur, they are more likely to involve facility/infrastructure as the attack type and a firearm as the weapon type; target private citizens and property; and be committed by religious terrorist organizations. The findings of the study and its policy implications are discussed.
We identify critical science needed to understand conflict between black vultures and humans to inform effective management of this species in North America.
Melissa Wei-Tsing Inouye’s China and the True Jesus is a study of the True Jesus Church (TJC), which began in Beijing in 1917 and is still in existence today. While the headquarters of the TJC is currently in California, the focus of this study is the church in the People’s Republic of China. Inouye describes the church as “charismatic” and “Pentecostal.” Her overarching goal in the study is to “understand how charismatic claims inspire human organization and hold communities together” (4). Inouye contributes to a growing body of scholarship on “independent” Christianity in China. Beginning in the early twentieth century and expanding throughout the 1920s and 1930s, some Chinese Christians broke away from denominations introduced by foreign missionaries and began independent churches. These churches were usually characterized as “fundamentalist” and tended to reject the Social Gospel emphasis of mainstream Protestant churches in China. Daniel Bays began publishing scholarship on “independent” Christianity in the 1990s, discussing the “indigenization” of Christianity, which complicated previous scholarship that had viewed Christianity in China primarily as a foreign export. Lian Xi’s Redeemed by Fire (2010) is the most extensive English-language treatment of independent Christianity. As Inouye suggests, these and other scholars have discussed connections between this charismatic, independent Christianity and indigenous popular religious traditions in China (5). While Inouye does not dispute this, she focuses instead primarily on “the transplanted and innovative aspects of charismatic practice within the True Jesus church” (10). In contrast to a focus on “continuity” with existing traditions of popular religion, Inouye sees the TJC as a “new form of Chinese community with an exciting but durable organizational model” (13).
Interest in cellulose-based nanomaterials has continued to increase dramatically in the past few years, especially with advances in the production routes of nanocellulose-such as cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and bacterial nanocellulose (BNC)-that tailor their performances [...].
Credit data barriers, such as incomplete credit records, false credit information, and low security of credit data, exist in the supply chain financial credit system, rendering it difficult to support the closure of the whole financing chain's credit system. Emerging blockchain technology can help improve credit-reporting ability through greater integrity, decentralization, transparency, security, and reliability. Aiming to address the problem of extensive credit investigation data and privacy protection, we propose a blockchain-based model to realize access control and management of the shared transaction information in the supply chain. Our model adopts a consensus mechanism to solve the problem of large credit investigation data and privacy protection of credit investigation data and realizes access control and management of the shared data chain. In our model, data are stored on the cloud server and shared with the proxy reencryption method. The model's data structure and workflow are designed to facilitate specific applications in supply chain finance. The embedded blockchain technology helps build the open shared reference architecture and establish the entire life cycle of a monitoring mechanism. The existing blockchain consensus mechanism has low security and a large resource consumption; as such, it is particularly important to design a new consensus mechanism to serve the credit investigation system. In this study, blockchain data sharing and traceability can be realized by improving the consensus mechanism, helping to improve the existing credit investigation service system. Our findings help optimize the existing supply chain financial credit system and enhance the efficiency of supply chain financing.
Objective There is no unified standard for measuring workplace non-Gaussian noise (known as complex noise) exposure. This study aimed to develop a draft guideline for measuring workplace non-Gaussian complex noise exposure based on noise temporal structure adjustment. Methods Noise exposure level, e.g., the A-weighted sound pressure level normalized to a nominal 8-h working day (L EX,8h ), was adjusted using the temporal structure (expressed by kurtosis) of noise. Noise waveform analysis or the instrument's direct reading was used. Results The framework of the draft guideline included measurement metrics, the protocol using kurtosis to adjust L EX,8h , technical requirements for measuring instruments, measurement steps, data analysis, and measurement recording. Conclusion The draft guideline could provide a basis for accurately measuring workers' exposure to non-Gaussian noise.
A learning experience designed for the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) should integrate the Science & Engineering Practices and Crosscutting Concepts (CCCs) with science content. Such three-dimensional learning engages students in the epistemic components of the scientific process. Whether the Practices and CCCs are used in epistemically meaningful ways to build more expert-like understanding and behaviors is context dependent. The NGSS defines learning progressions for the Practices and CCCs, but they do not provide the detail needed to build activities within the grade bands. It is also up to curriculum developers to decide how to incorporate the Practices and CCCs using technology in domain-specific inquiry contexts. We document the development and evaluation of the week-long middle school summer Camp NANO, where campers participated in an observational investigation of a stream habitat from the macro-to-nano scale using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) as well as produced an interactive Virtual Field Environment (VFE) communication of the stream environment. This pilot is an example of a domain-specific authentic scientific inquiry experience built around three-dimensional learning as guided by the novice-to-expert literature to meet the NGSS middle school learning targets of the selected Practices and CCCs. We found that it was possible to build an activity plan that authentically incorporated and integrated the Practices and CCCs with the SEM and VFE, and that the involvement with the SEM and VFE in association with the observational investigation facilitated expert-like thinking and behaviors towards the selected Practices and CCCs.
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Inmaculada Ibanez-Casas
  • Department of Psychology
Joel Parker
  • Department of Biological Sciences
Rajesh Sunasee
  • Department of Chemistry
Wei Qiu
  • Auditory Research Laboratories
Linda A Luck
  • Department of Chemistry
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