Streamflow reductions have been attributed to the impacts of soil nutrient availability on plant transpiration, connecting soil biogeochemical and hydrological processes. Here we conducted a plot-scale acid addition experiment and monitored long-term hydrology in a subtropical watershed to provide direct evidence for the underlying mechanisms of these connections. These results showed that acid deposition enhanced plant growth and thus increased plant transpiration in the early treatment period. It indicates that plants can increase their transport of water and nutrients to satisfy physiological demands under continuous acid deposition. Acid deposition mainly contributed to increased evapotranspiration and decreased streamflow at the watershed scale. These results provide complementary evidence of plants adjusting to acid deposition-induced changes in soil nutrient availability and these acclimations result in streamflow reductions at the watershed scale. Our results call for integrating forest biogeochemical feedback into watershed hydrology.
Earth ovens are a ubiquitous feature of eastern North America, used throughout many cultures and periods, leaving a highly visible signature of habitational life. This study focusses on one of the four uniquely outsized earth ovens from the center of a woodhenge at Hopewell Mound Group, the type site of the Hopewell culture. Cleaned of artifacts and fire-cracked rock, this feature required specialized analysis to shed light on its function: macrobotanical methods of seed identification and wood charcoal analysis along with phytolith and soil micromorphological analysis. These analyses create a holistic picture of the earth oven, the woodhenge, and the nature of feasting and ritual at Hopewell Mound Group, along with a snapshot of the paleoenvironment. Results show ritual use of ash wood (Fraxinus sp.), Eastern Agricultural Complex seeds seasonally timed with a summer solstice ritual, and grass leaf phytoliths deposited deeper than the surrounding natural strata. Feasting at this site seems to be focused on feeding large numbers of people, as opposed to a small set of competitive elites.
The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of preservice music educators’ perceptions of elementary general music (EGM), pedagogical competencies, and specialization preference. Preservice music teachers responded to a survey about perceptions of personal experiences with EGM, preparation and comfort related to EGM, and confidence in the ability to teach content and skills common in EGM curricula. Participants ( n = 203) also answered questions about their preferred specialization and about factors that would influence their choice of job in the future. Most participants remembered having positive personal experiences with general music in elementary school and believe it is important for future musical success. Confidence in content and skills common in teaching EGM increases as they progress through their degree program. Most identify ensemble teaching and middle and high school grades as their future aspirations. Significant predictors of future career choice included undergraduate major and comfort teaching.
Fine-grained organic matter (OM) particles are commonly widely dispersed in shale deposits. However, carrying out investigations of pores hosted by OM particles and the nature of grain interactions in OM particles and associated detrital grains using optical microscopy is difficult at best. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is much better suited for characterizing the microstructure of dispersed OM particles and has found wide application in the study of unconventional oil and gas systems. Scanning electron microscopy was used to define the types of OM contained in marine shale deposits of the Wufeng and Longmaxi Formations spanning the Ordovician–Silurian transition in South China. Of particular interest was the development of OM-hosted pores and the identification of the factors that controlled their formation. The dominant OM type contained in the studied deposits is pyrobitumen, with subordinate graptolitic OM and sparse OM of unknown origin. Pyrobitumen is present in four forms, including pore fillings among authigenic quartz grains, within framboidal pyrite, and between authigenic clay grains and massive material. Diagenetic alteration has given rise to OM pores of differing morphology, size, and time of formation. Common small, equisized circular or oval OM pores are most developed and appear to have formed in association with the generation of hydrocarbons. Shale deposits containing abundant pyrobitumen filling interparticle pores among authigenic quartz crystals display robust reservoir and fracturing capacity. A sedimentary environment appears to have been the main factor affecting the type of OM and the nature of its association with detrital and authigenic minerals. Results of this study demonstrate that a sedimentary environment is a primary requisite for the formation of highly prospective/high-yielding hydrocarbon shale reservoir deposits.
The increased prevalence of social media in organizational communication suggests that it is only a matter of time before it is used in sport doping prevention and control. This commentary intends to highlight not only how antidoping organizations and individual athletes are using social media to promote awareness to clean sport competition but also how the relationship between social media and various sport stakeholders may develop in the future. In particular, it focuses on three main areas in the intersection of social media and doping prevention: agenda-setting by antidoping organizations via formal social media campaigns, social norm control by athletes when they post on social media, and social media use by athletes and fans as a form of framing. Prospective research directions, as well as probable future uses of social media in doping enforcement and control, are also discussed, including using social media to monitor athlete whereabouts and to communicate directly with athletes in doping matters.
This literature review is aimed at how music affects language acquisition throughout the long term music training process or music therapy sessions. We discussed, analyzed and summarized several experiment’s results about music’s effects on both physiological(brain, natural system…) and psychological side of people in different life stages. We found the obvious similarity and differences of music and language and their mutual effect. Also, we developed music as a therapeutic tool to improve language acquisition. All in all, we come to the conclusion that specific attention will be paid to the influence of music on the language learner, as well as the implications of incorporating music into the language learning curriculum.
Some proponents of the “war on cops” thesis have suggested that the Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement encourages people to murder police officers and is responsible for many civilian-on-police homicides. To evaluate such claims, this study examines all homicides of on-duty police officers by civilians from 2008 to 2021 ( n = 595) for ideological motives, and uses interrupted times series analysis to test for post-Ferguson trends. Ideological motivations were present in 12% of civilian-on-police homicides, and only 3% constituted terrorism. Right-wing motivations were far more common (6%) than left-wing motives (3%). Most analyses showed no significant increase in ideological civilian-on-police homicides after Ferguson. Although homicides with left-wing motives unconnected to personal revenge significantly increased after Ferguson, this only accounts for a small proportion of post-Ferguson homicides (4%). In short, there is no evidence that BLM unleashed a “war on cops” in which officers are increasingly targeted in ideological homicides.
Does geographic variation in personality across the United States relate to COVID‐19 vaccination rates? To answer this question, we combined multiple state‐level datasets: (a) Big Five personality averages (i.e., extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness; Rentfrow et al., 2008), (b) COVID‐19 full‐vaccination rates (CDC, 2021a), (c) health‐relevant demographic covariates (population density, per capita gross domestic product, and racial/ethnic data; Webster et al., 2021), and (d) political and religiosity data. Analyses showed openness as the strongest correlate of full‐vaccination rates ( r = 0.51). Controlling for other traits, demographic covariates, and spatial dependence, openness remained significantly related to full‐vaccination rates ( r p = 0.55). Adding political and religiosity data to this model diminished openness effects for full‐vaccination rates to non‐significance ( r p = 0.26); however, extraversion emerged as a significant correlate of full‐vaccination rates ( r p = 0.37). Although politics are paramount, we suspect that states with higher average openness scores are more conducive to novel thinking and behavior—dispositions that may be crucial in motivating people to take newly‐developed vaccines based on new technologies to confront a novel coronavirus.
This research examines what companies can learn from consumer statements made about them over social media, specifically, how the valence (positive or negative statements) and tweet character (emotional or rational statements) of consumer statements coupled with the type of CSR/CSR related fraud impacts consumers’ beliefs about firm CSR use as well as firm confidence. This was conducted via an experimental design manipulating the type of CSR used and related fraud, and then participants responded to the events via simulated tweets and responded to questions about their beliefs in firms engaging in CSR as well as their overall confidence in a firm. Through applying how individuals assess moral judgments via ethical philosophies (idealism vs. relativism) and how those apply to the types of “tweets” made (emotional vs. rational), it was found that the valence and character of a tweet coupled with the CSR type and the related CSR fraud can be used to understand CSR beliefs and confidence in the firm. Additionally, it was found that tweet valence (positive or negative) moderated by the tweet character (emotional vs. rational) impacts the beliefs that firms should engage in CSR. In certain instances, some consumers will not like that a firm engages in CSR, therefore, after a fraud and related negative buzz, it is recommended that firms withhold broadcasting their CSR activities.
In the ordered phase of the 3D Ising model, minority spin clusters are surrounded by a boundary of dual plaquettes. As the temperature is raised, these spin clusters become more numerous, and it is found that eventually their boundaries undergo a percolation transition when about 13\% of spins are minority. Boundary percolation differs from the more commonly studied site and link percolation, although it is related to an unusual type of site percolation that includes next to nearest neighbor relationships. Because the Ising model can be reformulated in terms of the domain boundaries alone, there is reason to believe boundary percolation should be relevant here. A symmetry-breaking order parameter is found in the dual theory, the 3D gauge Ising model. It is seen to undergo a phase transition at a coupling close to that predicted by duality from the boundary percolation. This transition lies in the disordered phase of the gauge theory and has the nature of a spin-glass transition. Its critical exponent $\nu \sim 1.3$ is seen to match the finite-size shift exponent of the percolation transition further cementing their connection. This predicts a very weak specific heat singularity with exponent $\alpha \sim -1.9$. The third energy cumulant fits well to the expected non-infinite critical behavior in a manner consistent with both the predicted exponent and critical point, indicating a true thermal phase transition. Unlike random boundary percolation, the Ising boundary percolation has two different $\nu$ exponents, one associated with largest-cluster scaling and the other with finite-size transition-point shift. This suggests there may be two different correlation lengths present.\\\\ Keywords: Ising model, Gauge Ising model, spin glass, percolation, phase transition
This book focuses on the nature and importance of harm by providing a sustained defense of the counterfactual comparative account, in particular by extending the account to allow for a certain kind of plural or collective harm. According to the counterfactual comparative account, an event harms a person provided that she would have been better off had it not occurred. On the account defended in this book, there are cases in which some events harm a given individual even though none of them by itself harms the individual. This account aims to solve the most serious problem facing the counterfactual comparative account, a problem involving cases of preemption. In such cases, an intuitively harmful event does not make the victim worse off, since if it had not occurred, another event would have had a similar adverse influence on the victim’s well-being. The book also contains discussion of various competing accounts of harm, and it replies to other challenges to the counterfactual comparative account. It argues, moreover, that an action that would harm a person does not thereby have a strong moral reason against it; if there is a strong moral reason against a harmful act, the reason is due primarily to some of the act’s other features.
Through an experimental design and using the theoretical lens of categorization and cognitive appraisal theories, this research examines how tweets evaluated based on tone (valence and character) coupled with the CSR type (Corporate Operating Performance vs. Corporate Social Performance) and the related CSR fraud can subsequently impact their CSR beliefs and confidence in the firm. CSR beliefs are the extent that an individual feels a firm should be engaging in CSR activities. It was found that the valence of the tweets moderated by the tweet’s character or tone impacts the consumer’s belief in firms engaging in CSR activities. Tweet valence increases confidence in firms while tweet valence moderated by the fraud type (CSP fraud vs. COP fraud) decreases confidence in firms. Negative utilitarian tweets lead to less confidence in firms while positive utilitarian tweets lead to more confidence in firms, which can be explained through cognitive appraisal theory.
In this paper, I argue for two theses. First, if Christianity is true, then morality should depend on the metaphysics of the afterlife. Second, if Christianity is true, then contemporary moral theory is mistaken. The argument for the first thesis rests on two premises. If rightness depends on an act’s effects on an individual, then—at least in part—it depends on the long-term effects on him. If rightness depends—at least in part—on the long-term effects on an individual, then it depends on the metaphysics of the afterlife. The argument for the second thesis rests on how heaven or hell swamp other considerations. By changing assumptions about the nature of heaven or hell, who goes there, and standard mathematics, we end up with different ethical theories. Some of these assumptions conflict with contemporary moral theory regarding killing, letting die, and saving.
A vertex in a graph is referred to as fixed if it is mapped to itself under every automorphism of the vertices. The fixing number of a graph is the minimum number of vertices, when fixed, that fixes all of the vertices in the graph. Fixing numbers were first introduced by Laison and Gibbons, and independently by Erwin and Harary. Fixing numbers have also been referred to as determining numbers by Boutin. The main motivation is to remove all symmetries from a graph. A very simple application is in the creation of QR codes where the symbols must be fixed against any rotation. We determine the fixing number for several families of graphs, including those arising from combinatorial block designs. We also present several infinite families of graphs with an even stronger condition, where fixing any vertex in a graph fixes every vertex.
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Psychological Science Accelerator coordinated three large-scale psychological studies to examine the effects of loss-gain framing, cognitive reappraisals, and autonomy framing manipulations on behavioral intentions and affective measures. The data collected (April to October 2020) included specific measures for each experimental study, a general questionnaire examining health prevention behaviors and COVID-19 experience, geographical and cultural context characterization, and demographic information for each participant. Each participant started the study with the same general questions and then was randomized to complete either one longer experiment or two shorter experiments. Data were provided by 73,223 participants with varying completion rates. Participants completed the survey from 111 geopolitical regions in 44 unique languages/dialects. The anonymized dataset described here is provided in both raw and processed formats to facilitate re-use and further analyses. The dataset offers secondary analytic opportunities to explore coping, framing, and self-determination across a diverse, global sample obtained at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, which can be merged with other time-sampled or geographic data.
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