State University of New York Upstate Medical University
Recent publications
Introduction Cribrifrom-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (CMVPTC) is an uncommon thyroid neoplasm that occurs predominantly in women and is sometime associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Some of these tumors may undergo dedifferentiation to poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC). We describe a rare case of this carcinoma in a women without a history of FAP. Case presentation A 49-year-old woman with a history of breast carcinoma presented with a thyroid mass. A CMVPTC was diagnosed after excision. There was no history of FAP. Histological examination showed classical features of CMVPTC in most areas, but about 20% of the carcinoma showed features of a poorly differentiated carcinoma with a solid pattern of growth, increase mitotic activity and a high Ki-67 proliferative index (25%). Immunohistochemical stains were positive for nuclear and cytoplasmic beta catenin staining. These special studies supported the diagnosis. Conclusion CMVPTC with dedifferentiation to PDTC is a rare carcinoma with only 4 previous documented cases in the literature. This aggressive variant of thyroid carcinoma is more common in females, as is CMVPTC, and is often associated with an aggressive biological course. The cases usually express nuclear beta catenin and estrogen, progesterone and androgen receptors have been reported in some cases. Some cases may have somatic alterations of the APC gene and TERT promoter mutations. These carcinomas may metastasize to lung, bones and lymph nodes. Because of its aggressive behavior, patient with this diagnosis should be treated aggressively to control disease spread and mortality from the carcinoma.
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus that can cause severe congenital birth defects. The utmost goal of ZIKV vaccines is to prevent both maternal-fetal infection and congenital Zika syndrome. A Zika purified inactivated virus (ZPIV) was previously shown to be protective in non-pregnant mice and rhesus macaques. In this study, we further examined the efficacy of ZPIV against ZIKV infection during pregnancy in immunocompetent C57BL6 mice and common marmoset monkeys ( Callithrix jacchus ). We showed that, in C57BL/6 mice, ZPIV significantly reduced ZIKV-induced fetal malformations. Protection of fetuses was positively correlated with virus-neutralizing antibody levels. In marmosets, the vaccine prevented vertical transmission of ZIKV and elicited neutralizing antibodies that remained above a previously determined threshold of protection for up to 18 months. These proof-of-concept studies demonstrate ZPIV’s protective efficacy is both potent and durable and has the potential to prevent the harmful consequence of ZIKV infection during pregnancy.
Alcohol use among people living with HIV (PWH) has been increasingly recognized as an important component of HIV care. Transdiagnostic treatments, such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), that target core processes common to multiple mental health and substance-related problems, may be ideal in HIV treatment settings where psychological and behavioral health comorbidities are high. In advance of a randomized clinical trial (RCT), the overall objective of this study was to systematically adapt an ACT-based intervention originally developed for smoking cessation, into an ACT intervention for PWH who drink at hazardous levels. Consistent with the ADAPT-ITT model, the adaptation progressed systematically in several phases, which included structured team meetings, three focus group discussions with PWH (N = 13), and in-depth interviews with HIV providers (N = 10), and development of standardized operating procedures for interventionist training, supervision, and eventual RCT implementation. The procedures described here offer a template for transparent reporting on early phase behavioral RCTs.
Primary intracranial germ cell tumors are rare, occurring more frequently in children and young adults in midline locations of the brain. Teratomas are an uncommon variant of germ cell neoplasm, although they account for a high proportion of fetal brain tumors. Here, we report a 27-year-old male who presented with a heterogeneously enhancing lesion in the left thalamus, without evidence of systemic disease. Histologic and immunohistochemical analysis were consistent with immature teratoma; next-generation sequencing was negative for targetable molecular alterations. The patient received chemotherapy and radiotherapy post-excision. Following the initial resection, ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement was performed due to left temporal horn entrapment. Nine months later, imaging revealed mediastinal and hilar adenopathy as well as pleural disease, with encasement and compression of pulmonary vasculature, and multiple, bilateral pulmonary nodules. Fine needle aspiration showed malignant cells with an immunohistochemical profile similar to the original tumor, consistent with metastases. Though germ cell tumors are known to spread via cerebrospinal fluid or blood, metastasis outside of the CNS from a primary intracranial germ cell tumor is a rare complication. Spread via ventriculoperitoneal shunt, which may have occurred in the present case, has also rarely been observed.
Antisocial and aggressive behaviors show considerable heritability and are central to disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs), but are also frequently observed in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While the amygdala is implicated as a key neural structure, it remains unclear whether common genetic variants underlie this brain-behavior association. We hypothesized that polygenic (risk) scores for antisocial and aggressive behaviors (ASB-PRS) would be related to amygdala morphology. Using the Broad Antisocial Behavior Consortium genome-wide association study (GWAS; mostly population based cohorts), we calculated ASB-PRS in the NeuroIMAGE I ADHD case-control sample with varying levels of DBD symptomatology (n=679 from 379 families, aged 7 – 29). We first investigated associations of several ASB-PRS p value thresholds with the presence of DBD symptoms and self-reported antisocial behavior (ASB) to determine the threshold for further analyses. This PRS was then related to amygdala volume and shape using regression and vertex-wise analyses. Our results showed associations of ASB-PRS with the presence of DBD symptoms, self-reported ASB, and left basolateral amygdala shape, independent of ADHD symptom severity and ADHD-PRS, with a relative outward displacement of the vertices. No associations of ASB-PRS, DBD symptoms or self-reported ASB with amygdala volume were found. Our results indicate that genetic risk for antisocial and aggressive behaviors is related to amygdala shape alterations, and point to genetic sharing across different DBD and ASB and aggression-related phenotypes as a spectrum of genetically related quantitative traits. Additionally, our findings support the utility of vertex-based shape analyses in genetic studies of ASB, aggression, and DBDs.
Egypt has been steadily progressing in the past two decades, seeking to improve mental health services. Now is a suitable time for the Egyptian Government to adopt a national suicide prevention strategy. The early detection of and care for people with depression and other mental health problems would enable Egypt to deal with the spark before the fire breaks out.
Introduction The gastrointestinal tract plays a major role in regulating glucose homeostasis and gut endocrine function. The current study examines the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on intestinal GLP-1, glucose transporter expression and function in the obese Zucker rat (ZR). Methods Two groups of ZRs were studied: RYGB and sham surgery pair-fed (PF) fed rats. Body weight and food intake were measured daily. On post-operative day (POD) 21, an oral glucose test (OGT) was performed, basal and 30-minute plasma, portal venous glucose and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels were measured. In separate ZRs, the biliopancreatic, Roux limb (Roux) and common channel (CC) intestinal segments were harvested on POD 21. Results Body weight was decreased in the RYGB group. Basal and 30-minute OGT plasma and portal glucose levels were decreased after RYGB. Basal plasma GLP-1 levels were similar, while a 4.5-fold increase in GLP-1 level was observed in 30-minute after RYGB (vs. PF). The increase in basal and 30-minute portal venous GLP-1 levels after RYGB were accompanied by increased mRNA expressions of proglucagon and PC 1/3, GPR119 protein in the Roux and CC segments. mRNA and protein levels of FFAR2/3 were increased in Roux segment. RYGB decreased brush border glucose transport, transporter proteins (SGLT1 and GLUT2) and mRNA levels of Tas1R1/Tas1R3 and α-gustducin in the Roux and CC segments. Conclusions Reductions in intestinal glucose transport and enhanced post-prandial GLP-1 release were associated with increases in GRP119 and FFAR2/3 after RYGB in the ZR model. Post-RYGB reductions in the regulation of intestinal glucose transport and L cell receptors regulating GLP-1 secretion represent potential mechanisms for improved glycemic control.
Somatic hotspot mutations and structural amplifications and fusions that affect fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (encoded by FGFR2) occur in multiple types of cancer1. However, clinical responses to FGFR inhibitors have remained variable1–9, emphasizing the need to better understand which FGFR2 alterations are oncogenic and therapeutically targetable. Here we apply transposon-based screening10,11 and tumour modelling in mice12,13, and find that the truncation of exon 18 (E18) of Fgfr2 is a potent driver mutation. Human oncogenomic datasets revealed a diverse set of FGFR2 alterations, including rearrangements, E1–E17 partial amplifications, and E18 nonsense and frameshift mutations, each causing the transcription of E18-truncated FGFR2 (FGFR2ΔE18). Functional in vitro and in vivo examination of a compendium of FGFR2ΔE18 and full-length variants pinpointed FGFR2-E18 truncation as single-driver alteration in cancer. By contrast, the oncogenic competence of FGFR2 full-length amplifications depended on a distinct landscape of cooperating driver genes. This suggests that genomic alterations that generate stable FGFR2ΔE18 variants are actionable therapeutic targets, which we confirmed in preclinical mouse and human tumour models, and in a clinical trial. We propose that cancers containing any FGFR2 variant with a truncated E18 should be considered for FGFR-targeted therapies. Truncation of exon 18 of FGFR2 (FGFR2ΔE18) is a potent driver mutation in mice and humans, and FGFR-targeted therapy should be considered for patients with cancer expressing stable FGFR2ΔE18 variants.
Background: A range of sleep disturbances and disorders are problematic in people following stroke; they interfere with recovery of function during post-stroke rehabilitation. However, studies to date have focused primarily on the effects of one sleep disorder-Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)-on stroke recovery. Objectives: The study protocol for the SLEep Effects on Post-Stroke Rehabilitation (SLEEPR) Study is presented with aims of characterizing proportion of non-OSA sleep disorders in the first 90 days following stroke, evaluating the effect of non-OSA sleep disorders on post-stroke recovery, and exploring the complex relationships between stroke, sleep, and recovery in the community setting. Methods: SLEEPR is a prospective cohort observational study across multiple study sites following individuals from inpatient rehabilitation through 90 days post-stroke, with three measurement time points (inpatient rehabilitation, i.e., ~15 days post-stroke, 60 days post-stroke, and 90 days post-stroke). Measures of sleep, function, activity, cognition, emotion, disability, and participation will be obtained for 200 people without OSA at the study's start through self-report, capacity assessments, and performance measures. Key measures of sleep include wrist actigraphy, sleep diaries, overnight oximetry, and several sleep disorders screening questionnaires (Insomnia Severity Index, Cambridge Hopkins Restless Legs Questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and Sleep Disorders Screening Check List). Key measures of function and capacity include the 10-meter walk test, Stroke Impact Scale, Barthel Index, and modified Rankin Scale. Key performance measures include leg accelerometry (e.g., steps/day, sedentary time, upright time, sit-to-stand transitions) and community trips via GPS data and activity logs. Discussion: The results of this study will contribute to understanding the complex interplay between non-OSA sleep disorders and post-stroke rehabilitation; they provide insight regarding barriers to participation in the community and return to normal activities following stroke. Such results could lead to strategies for developing new stroke recovery interventions.
Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL) is characterized by the t(15;17) chromosomal translocation resulting in a PML-RARA fusion protein. The all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and Arsenic Trioxide (ATO) only regimens have demonstrated success in treating low- and intermediate-risk patients. However, induction with ATRA/ATO only regimens have been showing increased incidence of differentiation syndrome (DS), a potentially lethal complication, traditionally treated with dexamethasone. We conducted a three-institution retrospective study, aiming to evaluate the role of short-term adjuvant chemotherapy in managing moderate DS for patients with low- or intermediate-risk APL initially treated with ATRA/ATO only protocols. We evaluated the difference in incidence and duration of moderate DS in APL patients who were treated with ATRA/ATO with or without adjuvant chemotherapy. 57 low- or intermediate-risk APL patients were retrospectively identified and included for this study; 36 patients received ATRA/ATO only induction treatment, and 21 patients received ATRA/ATO/adjuvant chemotherapy combination induction therapy. Similar proportions of patients experienced DS in both groups (66.7% vs. 81.0%, P = 0.246). The median duration of DS resolution in patients receiving ATRA/ATO only was 17 days (n = 23), and in patients receiving combination therapy was 8 days (n = 16) (P = 0.0001). The lengths of hospital stay in patients receiving ATRO/ATO only was 38 days (n = 7), and in patients receiving combination therapy was 14 days (n = 17) (P = 0.0007). In conclusion, adding adjuvant chemotherapy to ATRA/ATO only protocol may reduce the duration of DS and the length of hospital stay during APL induction treatment.
To advance understanding of the heterogeneity in the course of ADHD, joint symptom trajectories of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity from childhood to young adulthood were modelled and associated with genetic, demographic, and clinical characteristics. Data were obtained from the NeuroIMAGE cohort which includes 485 individuals with ADHD, their 665 siblings, and 399 typically developing children. Trajectories were based on scores of the Conners Parent Rating Scale Revised and estimated over seven homogeneous age bins (from 5 to 28 years) using parallel process latent class growth analysis on data collected across 2–4 time points. Multilevel multinomial logistic regression was used to identify characteristics that differentiated between the derived classes. A seven-class solution revealed “severe combined stable” (4.8%), “severe combined decreasing” (13%), “severe inattentive stable” (4.8%), “moderate combined increasing” (7.5%), “moderate combined decreasing” (12.7%), “stable mild” (12.9%), and “stable low” (44.3%) classes. Polygenic risk for depression, ADHD diagnosis, ADHD medication use, IQ, comorbid symptom levels (foremost oppositional behaviour), and functional impairment levels differentiated classes with similar ADHD symptom levels in childhood but a diverging course thereafter. The course of ADHD is highly heterogeneous, with stable, decreasing, and increasing trajectories. Overall, severe symptom levels in childhood are associated with elevated-to-severe symptom levels in adolescence and young adulthood, despite substantial symptom reductions. Beyond symptom severity in childhood, genetic, demographic, and clinical characteristics distinguish the heterogeneous course.
Objective The use of oral dextrose gel (DG) reduces IV dextrose use. Prior studies used weight-based dosing (WD), though barriers exist, and are mitigated using standard dosing (SD). Our outcomes include IV dextrose use, NICU admissions, breastfeeding, adverse events, and assessment of WD vs SD. Study design Retrospective chart review comparing pre-DG, WD, and SD in 16490 newborns (1329 hypoglycemic) ≥ 35 weeks admitted to the nursery over 3 years. Results There was reduction in IV dextrose use 10.9% vs 6.5% (p = 0.004) and NICU admissions 27.9% vs 16.1% (p < 0.001) associated with DG use, and increased rate of breastfed infants 33.8% vs 43.5% (p = 0.001), with no difference between WD and SD. No difference noted in adverse events across the study period. Conclusions DG utilization is associated with reduced IV dextrose use, NICU admissions, and improved breastfeeding rates without changes in adverse events. We offer SD as a safe alternative to WD.
Recognizing early cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) imaging phenotypes can help identify opportunities for effective treatment before irreversible myocardial pathology occurs. We aimed to characterize regional CS myocardial remodeling features correlating with future adverse cardiac events by coupling automated image processing and data analysis on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging datasets. A deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) was used to process a CMR database of a 10-year cohort of 117 consecutive biopsy-proven sarcoidosis patients. The maximum relevance − minimum redundancy method was used to select the best subset of all the features—24 (from manual processing) and 232 (from automated processing) left ventricular (LV) structural/functional features. Three machine learning (ML) algorithms, logistic regression (LogR), support vector machine (SVM) and multi-layer neural networks (MLP), were used to build classifiers to categorize endpoints. Over a median follow-up of 41.8 (inter-quartile range 20.4–60.5) months, 35 sarcoidosis patients experienced a total of 43 cardiac events. After manual processing, LV ejection fraction (LVEF), late gadolinium enhancement, abnormal segmental wall motion, LV mass (LVM), LVMI index (LVMI), septal wall thickness, lateral wall thickness, relative wall thickness, and wall thickness of 9 (out of 17) individual LV segments were significantly different between patients with and without endpoints. After automated processing, LVEF, end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, LV mass and wall thickness of 92 (out of 216) individual LV segments were significantly different between patients with and without endpoints. To achieve the best predictive performance, ML algorithms selected lateral wall thickness, abnormal segmental wall motion, septal wall thickness, and increased wall thickness of 3 individual segments after manual image processing, and selected end-diastolic volume and 7 individual segments after automated image processing. LogR, SVM and MLP based on automated image processing consistently showed better predictive accuracies than those based on manual image processing. Automated image processing with a DCNN improves data resolution and regional CS myocardial remodeling pattern recognition, suggesting that a framework coupling automated image processing with data analysis can help clinical risk stratification.
Purpose Increased ophthalmology-specific risk of novel coronavirus 2019 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission is well-established, increasing the fear of infection and causing associated decreased rates of procedures known to save vision. However, the potential transmission from exposure to clinic instrumentation is unknown, including which additional pathogens may be spreading in this context. This study seeks to fill this gap by characterizing the microbiota of instrumentation in ophthalmology clinics during the COVID-19 pandemic and identifying potential sources of pathogenic spread encountered by patients and healthcare workers. Methods Thirty-three samples were captured using standard cultures and media. Ten positive and negative controls were used to confirm proper technique. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all samples. Samples were collected from the retina (N = 17), glaucoma (N = 6), cornea (N = 6), and resident (N = 4) clinics with rigorous disinfection standards at a tertiary academic medical center. Standard media cultures and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for each sample. Results From 33 samples, more than half (17/33, 51.5%) yielded bacterial growth. Using two different molecular methods, three samples (3/33, 9%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (cycle thresholds 36.48, 37.14, and 37.83). There was no significant difference in bacterial growth (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: − 0.644–0.358, p = 0.076) among different clinics (retina, glaucoma, cornea, resident). Staphylococcus (S.) epidermidis grew most frequently (12/35, 34%), followed by S. capitis (7/35, 20%), Micrococcus luteus (2/35, 5.7%), Corynebacterium tuberculostearicum (2/35, 5.7%), and Cutibacterium ([C.], Propionibacterium) acnes (2/35, 5.7%). C. acnes growth was more frequent with imaging device forehead rests (2/7, 28.6%) than other surfaces (0/26, 0%, 95% CI: 0.019–0.619, p = 0.040). No samples isolated fungus or adenovirus. Conclusions Most samples across subspecialty clinic instrumentation grew bacteria, and several tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Many isolated pathogens have been implicated in causing infections such as endophthalmitis, conjunctivitis, uveitis, and keratitis. The clinical implications of the ophthalmology microbiome for transmitting nosocomial infections warrant optimization of disinfection practices, strategies for mitigating spread, and additional study beyond the pandemic.
Atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) can exert a significant impact on human health, especially on causing pulmonary diseases. Inorganic elements and organic compounds are primary toxic components in PM2.5 that cause cell death and tissue injury. To study the concentration characteristics as well as cytotoxic effects of PM2.5 and chemical components, PM2.5 samples were collected in Jinan during 2016. Major inorganic elements and organic components were analyzed and the cell viability of human lung epithelial cells (A549) exposed to PM2.5 was examined. The results showed that PM2.5 concentrations were higher in Jinan than 90% of cities in China during 2016, and the concentrations of inorganic elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) in PM2.5 were also higher than in other studies. Furthermore, the cytotoxic analysis indicated that cell viability decreased significantly in correspondence with the increase of PM2.5 concentrations, which indicated that PM2.5 pollution could induce adverse cell injury. The concentrations of most inorganic elements and organic components such as mercury, fluoranthene, anthracene, and dibenzo (a,h) anthracene were significantly negatively correlated with cell viability, indicating that these species were effective chemical toxic components and played a key role in adverse health effects induced by PM2.5.
Oxidative stress is a major contributor to the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD) including hemolysis and vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC). L-glutamine is a conditionally essential amino acid with important roles, including the synthesis of antioxidants, such as reduced glutathione and the cofactors NAD(H) and NADP(H), as well as nitric oxide. Given the increased levels of oxidative stress and lower (NADH):(NAD + + NADH) ratio in sickle erythrocytes that adversely affects the blood rheology compared to normal red blood cells, L-glutamine was investigated for its therapeutic potential to reduce VOC. While L-glutamine was approved by the United States (US) Food and Drug Administration to treat SCD, its impact on the redox environment in sickle erythrocytes is not fully understood. The mechanism through which L-glutamine reduces VOC in SCD is also not clear. In this paper, we will summarize the results of the Phase 3 study that led to the approval of L-glutamine for treating SCD and discuss its assumed mechanisms of action. We will examine the role of L-glutamine in health and propose how the extra-erythrocytic functions of L-glutamine might contribute to its beneficial effects in SCD. Further research into the role of L-glutamine on extra-erythrocyte functions might help the development of an improved formulation with more efficacy.
Cells ingest large particles, such as bacteria, viruses, or apoptotic cells, via the process of phagocytosis, which involves formation of an actin-rich structure known as the phagocytic cup. Phagocytic cup assembly and closure results from a concerted action of phagocytic receptors, regulators of actin polymerization, and myosin motors. Recent studies using advanced imaging approaches and biophysical techniques have revealed new information regarding phagocytic cup architecture, regulation of actin assembly, and the distribution, direction, and magnitude of the forces produced by the cytoskeletal elements that form the cup. These findings provide insights into the mechanisms leading to the assembly, expansion, and closure of phagocytic cups. The new data show that engulfment and internalization of phagocytic targets rely on several distinct yet complementary mechanisms that support the robust uptake of foreign objects and may be precisely tailored to the demands of specific phagocytic pathways.
Background Maintenance of the kidney filtration barrier requires coordinated interactions between podocytes and the underlying glomerular basement membrane (GBM). GBM ligands bind podocyte integrins, which triggers actin-based signaling events critical for adhesion. Nck1/2 adaptors have emerged as essential regulators of podocyte cytoskeletal dynamics. However, the precise signaling mechanisms mediated by Nck1/2 adaptors in podocytes remain to be fully elucidated. Methods We generated podocytes deficient in Nck1 and Nck2 and used transcriptomic approaches to profile expression differences. Proteomic techniques identified specific binding partners for Nck1 and Nck2 in podocytes. We used cultured podocytes and mice deficient in Nck1 and/or Nck2, along with podocyte injury models, to comprehensively verify our findings. Results Compound loss of Nck1/2 altered expression of genes involved in actin binding, cell adhesion, and extracellular matrix composition. Accordingly, Nck1/2-deficient podocytes showed defects in actin organization and cell adhesion in vitro , with podocyte detachment and altered GBM morphology present in vivo . We identified distinct interactomes for Nck1 and Nck2 and uncovered a mechanism by which Nck1 and Nck2 cooperate to regulate actin bundling at focal adhesions via α actinin-4. Furthermore, loss of Nck1 or Nck2 resulted in increased matrix deposition in vivo , with more prominent defects in Nck2-deficient mice, consistent with enhanced susceptibility to podocyte injury. Conclusion These findings reveal distinct, yet complementary, roles for Nck proteins in regulating podocyte adhesion, controlling GBM composition, and sustaining filtration barrier integrity.
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1,760 members
Snehalata Pawar
  • Department of Radiation Oncology
Nevena Radonjic
  • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
Christopher P. Morley
  • Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine
Mobin Karimi
  • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
Mariano S. Viapiano
  • Department of Neuroscience and Physiology
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