Background The outcome after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is in general disappointing with unacceptable number of athletes that do not return to pre-injury level of sports, high re-injury rates, early development of osteoarthritis and shorter careers. Athletes after ACLR have high expectation to return to sports which is in contrast with the current outcomes. The aim of this manuscript is to present an overview of factors that are needed to be incorporated and to personalize the rehabilitation process for an athlete who has undergone an ACLR. Level of evidence 4.
The use of technology in football is increasing, although, products predominantly focus on men’s football in performance, safety, comfort, and fit considerations. A recent scoping review identified just 32 published scientific articles on technology in women’s football, despite demands of those playing/working in the women’s game increasing. We wish to highlight the progressions made so far and barriers remaining in the elite women’s football technology to shed a light on this topic and prod researchers and manufacturers to help support the evolution of women’s-football-focussed technological considerations. The ten questions presented in this paper address the generic question on whether women’s specific tailoring is needed (Question 1) as well as addressing specific questions on football technology and engineering, such as the progressions made and ongoing issues in the following areas: football kits, religious considerations (hijab designs), sports bras, football boots, balls, football pitches, performance tracking devices, menstrual cycle tracking devices (Question 2–10). It is evidence that certain areas have received more attention than others and with these ten questions we hope to steer readers towards research and engineering gaps for future work.
This study assessed if scheduling (start time and day type) and workload variables influenced sleep markers (activity monitor) in professional academy footballers (n=11; 17.3±0.7yrs) over a 10-week in-season period. Separate linear mixed regressions were used to describe the effect of start time on the previous nights sleep, and the effect of day type (matchday, matchday+1) and workload on subsequent sleep. Workload variables were modelled by day (day), 7-day (acute), and 28-day (chronic) periods. Sleep duration following matchday+1 (400mins; 95%CI:368-432) was significantly reduced compared to all other day types(p<0.001). Sleep onset time following matchday (00:35; CI:00:04-01:12) and wake time on matchday+1 (09:00; CI:08:37-09:23) were also significantly later compared to all other day types (p<0.001). Sleep duration (19.1mins; CI:9.4-28.79), wake time (18mins; CI:9.3-26.6), and time in bed (16.8mins; CI:2.0-31.5) were significantly increased per hour delay in start time. When no activity was scheduled sleep duration (37mins; CI:18.1-55.9), sleep onset (42.1mins; CI:28.8-56.2), and wake times (86mins; CI:72-100) were significantly extended, relative to a 09:00 start time. Day, acute, and chronic workloads were associated with sleep onset and wake times only. Scheduled start times were associated with changes in sleep duration, therefore, delaying start times may increase sleep in this population.
The dearth of research with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, intersex, and asexual plus (LGBTQIA+) members within the physical education (PE) community, is of great concern; to some degree members of this community are invisible in the profession. The unfortunate reality is that PE is largely recognised as a heteronormative space with deeply rooted gendered practices that often go unacknowledged. In PE, the high visibility of one’s body, and the value placed on ‘select’ bodies, uncovers and reinforces society’s ‘isms’ such as ‘genderism’ and ‘heterosexism’. The constantly recycled dualistic understanding of these social identities has made PE an ‘exclusive’ space. Drawing on feminism and poststructuralism as our theoretical lens, this scholarly collaboration utilised a collaborative autoethnography from intersectional voices who identify as members of the LGBTQIA + community (a lesbian teacher, bi-sexual teacher educator, transgender student, and an ally), to explore our experiences from the PE space. Data were generated by several qualitative methods, initially from our individual narratives, which then ‘birthed’ poetry and visual artefacts. Our findings highlighted how complicity helps to maintain the heteronormative space, the never-ending nature of trauma, and the love that we experienced in various forms. Moreover, we all expressed a love of PE, even if/when it conflicts with our ‘bodies’. We leave this as an unfinished collaboration filled with hope and love; one that invites you to join us in solidarity to create a safe, welcoming space for every member of our community.
The 23 December 1919 ushered in a new dawn for women: the Sex Disqualification (Removal) Act 1919 (SDRA) received Royal Assent, thus finally enabling women to join the professions, and in particular the legal profession. This legislation was not a benign gift from the establishment in recognition of women’s war effort, but rather the result of a successful feminist campaign vociferously fought for by women and supportive men. Newspapers, both local and national, greeted women’s admission to the professions with both celebration and hope, and so did some women. However other women were ambivalent about the SDRA, and welcomed it because it was better than nothing. These women predicted a harder and more prolonged struggle for substantive equality lay ahead. Their foreshadowing was proved correct, as inequality is still rife in the legal profession today. This article will explore some contemporaneous newspaper commentary on the passing of the SDRA, and compare and contrast it with what is known of the legal careers of the first cohort of women lawyers. These reports provide us with an invaluable insight and understanding of the passing of the Act, the hopes and expectations, as well as the doubts and disbeliefs.
This article presents an analysis of why advocates of RE in English Catholic schools have managed to avoid seriously engaging with confessional Religious Education. The arguments presented here are set against the context of curriculum change in RE with the impending introduction of the Religious Education Directory in England and Wales (in September 2025). In this time of curriculum change and innovation, an argument is developed in favour of embracing a non-confessional account of RE in Catholic schools.
This article draws on the experiences of teachers and teacher educators within the "Bristol Decolonising Network", an informal professional learning network based in South West England, to share examples of teacher-led decolonising/antiracist initiatives. The seven vignettes presented cover a range of subject areas across the English Secondary school curriculum, with varying rationales, foci, forms and intended outcomes. For this Special Issue, we look across these cases to consider links between teacher-led decolonising and antiracist initiatives and professional learning. We suggest that professional learning is both a condition for, and outcome of, teachers' engagement in such work; and that extending collaboration beyond hierarchical and institutional boundaries is a key enabler for progress on this agenda.
This paper explores St Ignatius Loyola’s relationship to the medieval tradition of theologia mystica, especially in the Spiritual Exercises. Although the evidence is scanty, it is clear that the young Iñigo was acquainted with the methods and structures of Abbot García de Cisneros’ Exercitatorio de La Vida Espiritual during his extended stay at Montserrat and Manresa after his conversion of life. Commentators have disagreed over the extent of the influence of these writings on Ignatius’ later spirituality; however, this paper will explore the ‘family resemblances’ between the type of spirituality developed by Ignatius after his stay in Catalonia and the later medieval spirituality expressed in the Abbot’s work. In particular, the paper concentrates on one aspect of that work that has not received much attention: namely, the strand in Cisneros’ work that explores the late medieval tradition of theologia mystica, particularly as reworked from the writings of Jean Gerson (1363–1429), sometime Chancellor of the University of Paris. The paper argues that Gerson’s form of ‘affective Dionysianism’ shares much in common with the spirituality later developed by Ignatius, and will conclude with some final remarks as to how this helps us to understand the ‘mystical desire’ that lies at the heart of Ignatius’ project.
Issue The aim of the Horizon 2020 unCoVer project (Unravelling Data for Rapid Evidence-Based Response to COVID-19) is to coordinate research expertise in utilising Real World Data (RWD) to investigate the underlying risk factors for COVID-19 infection and severity, the effectiveness of treatments and the impact on health systems. RWD is particularly useful in a dynamic health context as it is relevant, timely, and more ecologically valid. Pooling clinical databases and integrating epidemiological principles and powerful biostatistical tools optimises resources and fully exploits routinely-collected data. Description of the problem RWD sharing poses new practical and ethical challenges to research. The unCoVer network has developed a federated data platform to access diverse databases for advanced analytics. This data access process entails GDPR, and regulatory and ethical nuances. The use of large-scale data from heterogeneous sources across multiple jurisdictions for research purposes presents a complex systems challenge. Effects & Lessons A dedicated team of unCoVer network members is responsible for addressing these challenges. Here, we describe the ethical and regulatory aspects of RWD sources, the role of the Data Protection Authorities and the Data Protection External Authority Board (DP-EAB) of the Uncover project, and the documentation involved, including a data processing agreement and a data transfer agreement. We provide an overview of the main principles for sharing RWD whilst maintaining integrity and security and how this translates into procedures to protect the rights, security, and well-being of human research participants. This represents a practical framework for researchers. Key messages
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use in elite sport is high, with football being no exception. Increased awareness of significant adverse drug reactions from published research and retired players commentary in the media have made the topic mainstream. Despite this increased awareness, usage rates show no sign of significantly reducing. Footballers, like all elite athletes are focused on maximising their performance and potential - even at the expense of their long-term health. An educational intervention prior to the 2010 FIFA Men’s World Cup aimed at reducing rates was ineffective, suggesting that education alone is not the answer. Our author group propose a “safer use” rather than “no use” of NSAIDs in football. A ‘Keeping SCORE’ approach is suggested, designed as a prescribing aid. The approach guides medical staff towards focusing on Safety checks, Clinical indication/judgement, Open dialogue, Recording, and Evaluation.
Teaching creative writing in primary schools requires an understanding of creative pedagogies that value autonomy and for educators to draw on their own experiences of the creative writing process to support the development of their pupils. This article draws on evidence from 58 undergraduate primary student teachers to further understand how their appreciation of creative pedagogies, combined with their experiences of creative writing, impacts on their approach to the teaching of writing in primary schools. Evidence from questionnaires and interviews reveals that factors such as freedom, choice and focusing on the personal aspects of writing are valued but often because they make writing fun for children, rather than because they develop children's creative behaviours and creative writing. Student teachers' own personal experiences of these factors affect whether they are likely to integrate them into their future practice in school. It is argued that if students experience creative writing that is underpinned by a creative pedagogy within their initial teacher education, they will be better equipped to teach creative writing and prepare children for being writers.
Background High blood pressure (BP) is associated with high-salt consumption especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Although the pressor effect of salt is viewed as a chronic effect, some studies suggest that a salty meal may increase BP immediately in some individuals, and that this effect may cause endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, the aim of our research was to study the immediate pressor response to oral salt (IPROS) and its determinants, with the expectation that a simple methodology may be devised to diagnose it in the clinic or in low-resource environments. Methods We conducted a time series trial at Livingstone Central Hospital. We present data in 127 normotensive participants who ingested 2 g of sodium chloride; their BP was monitored for 120 minutes in intervals of 10 minutes. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for analyses of data. Results Median age was 30 years (interquartile range, 22–46 years) and 52% were female patients. An increase of ≥10 mmHg in mean arterial pressure (MAP), considered a clinically significant IPROS, was present in 62% of participants. Systolic BP 30 minutes after the salt load was a significant predictor of IPROS, avoiding the need to calculate MAP in the clinic setting. Conclusions We confirm the presence of an IPROS in a high proportion (62%) of otherwise normotensive participants. The average time course for this response was 30 minutes and its duration was sustained for the 120-minutes period of study in most of the participants. Prediction of IPROS by ∆SBP (change in systolic blood pressure) at 30 minutes allows for easy assessment of possible responder status in the clinic. Our data indicate that the IPROS to oral salt-loads in the range currently consumed by the Western world and African populations in single meals may increase the 24-hour BP load, which is a risk factor for hypertension and target organ damage. The relevance of our findings indicates the need to include dietary sodium assessment in the diagnosis, prevention, and management of high BP.
Abstract Background: This study aimed to identify the predictor variables which account for neutral breast position variance using a full independent variable dataset (the gravity-loaded breast position, age and anthropometrics, and magnetic resonance imaging breast composition data), and a simplified independent variable dataset (magnetic resonance imaging breast composition data excluded). Methods: Breast position (three-dimensional neutral and static gravity-loaded), age, anthropometrics and magnetic resonance imaging breast composition data were collected for 80 females (bra size 32A to 38D). Correlations between the neutral breast position and the gravity-loaded breast position, age, anthropometrics, and magnetic resonance imaging breast composition data were assessed. Multiple linear and multivariate multiple regression models were utilised to predict neutral breast positions, with mean absolute differences and root mean square error comparing observed and predicted neutral breast positions. Findings: Breast volume was the only breast composition variable to contribute as a predictor of the neutral breast position. While ≥69% of the variance in the anteroposterior and mediolateral neutral breast positions were accounted for utilising the gravity-loaded breast position, multivariate multiple regression modelling resulted in mean absolute differences >5 mm. Interpretation: Due to the marginal contribution of breast composition data, a full independent variable dataset may be unnecessary for this application. Additionally, the gravity-loaded breast position, age, anthropometrics, and breast composition data do not successfully predict the neutral breast position. Incorporation of the neutral breast position into breast support garments may enhance bra development. However, further identification of variables which predict the neutral breast position is required.
Background: The use of compression garments (CGs) during or after training and competition has gained popularity in the last few decades. However, the data concerning CGs’ beneficial effects on muscle strength-related outcomes after physical exercise remain inconclusive. Objective: The aim was to determine whether wearing CGs during or after physical exercise would facilitate the recovery of muscle strength-related outcomes. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted across five databases (PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Scopus, and EBSCOhost). Data from 19 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) including 350 healthy participants were extracted and meta-analytically computed. Weighted between-study standardized mean differences (SMDs) with respect to their standard errors (SEs) were aggregated and corrected for sample size to compute overall SMDs. The type of physical exercise, the body area and timing of CG application, and the time interval between the end of the exercise and subsequent testing were assessed. Results: CGs produced no strength-sparing effects (SMD [95% confidence interval]) at the following time points (t) after physical exercise: immediately ≤ t < 24 h: − 0.02 (− 0.22 to 0.19), p = 0.87; 24 ≤ t < 48 h: − 0.00 (− 0.22 to 0.21), p = 0.98; 48 ≤ t < 72 h: − 0.03 (− 0.43 to 0.37), p = 0.87; 72 ≤ t < 96 h: 0.14 (− 0.21 to 0.49), p = 0.43; 96 h ≤ t: 0.26 (− 0.33 to 0.85), p = 0.38. The body area where the CG was applied had no strength-sparing effects. CGs revealed weak strength-sparing effects after plyometric exercise. Conclusion: Meta-analytical evidence suggests that wearing a CG during or after training does not seem to facilitate the recovery of muscle strength following physical exercise. Practitioners, athletes, coaches, and trainers should reconsider the use of CG as a tool to reduce the effects of physical exercise on muscle strength.
This article offers an original contribution to the field of victimization studies by investigating the current context of, and responses to, British nationals who are victims of modern slavery in the UK (BVs). Through the examination of National Referral Mechanism and Duty to Notify statistics, a current picture of specific experiences of BVs in the UK is illustrated with reference to identification and access to support. An exploration of the reasons for non-engagement of BVs with services and the detrimental impact this may have on their recovery highlights pertinent issues of mistrust, stigma and shame. Compounded by the current criminal justice approach towards modern slavery, the effects on the well-being of victims and survivors document the barriers to accessing services. A lack of engagement with the complexity of modern slavery; a lack of knowledge, training and expertise; and a lack of comprehensive guidance result in poor outcomes for BVs. Overall, the findings of this article are important in recognizing that the needs of BVs are currently not adequately met. A comprehensive investigation is required to examine the specific needs and experiences of BVs so that responses can be improved to effectively and appropriately support them into long-term and meaningful recovery.
This chapter will examine the process by which Latin came to be established as the liturgical language of the Western Church from the fourth century onwards. In this process, the elaboration of Christian revelation proved definitive in transforming a traditional style of prayer that was firmly embedded in the Roman world. Particular attention will be given to the development of the Roman Eucharistic prayer, the Canon missae. Characteristic features of the new liturgical idiom will be analysed with the help of selected examples, both from the canon and from the variable prayers of the Mass.
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