Srinakharinwirot University
Recent publications
Rare earths namely lanthanum (La), neodymium (Nd) and cerium (Ce) obtained from the monazite concentrate processing were comprehensively characterized using XRF, XRD, FTIR, N2 adsorption–desorption, CO2/NH3-TPD and SEM to reveal their catalytic performance in esterification of oleic acid for biodiesel production. The effect of calcination temperatures (500–1000 °C) on the catalyst properties and biodiesel conversion was also investigated. The catalytic performances of the catalysts were tested under the conditions of catalyst loading 3 wt%, molar ratio of oil to methanol 1:20, reaction temperature 200 °C, stirring rate 600 rpm for 5 h. It is interesting that the Ce catalyst calcined at 1000 °C showed the best performance and the highest FAME content of 78.54% could be achieved, even its acid sites was very low, which is probably associated to the availability of oxygen vacancies at high calcination temperature. The La catalysts calcined at 600 °C exhibited the balancing of strong Lewis acid and Lewis basic sites, which is related to the catalytic activity with FAME content of 74.44%. For the catalytic performance of Nd catalysts, the FAME content of 63.60% was obtained at calcination temperature of 500 °C, which was lower than those La and Ce catalysts.
Twelve stains of marine-derived Trichoderma namely, four of T. asperellum, three of T. harzianum, two of T. hamatum, two of T. viride and one of T. longibrachiatum, were evaluated their antagonistic activity against rice pathogens. Ten out of twelve Trichoderma strains showed potent in vitro antagonistic activities via high competition and their crude extracts displayed promising antifungal activity against Biopolaris oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani of 92.59–100% at 10 g L⁻¹ and Fusarium semitectum and Curvularia oryzae of 62.35–100% at 50 g L⁻¹ as well as significantly improving the germination and seedling growth when applied as a seed treatment. All selected Trichoderma strains exhibited tolerance to salt at 7% NaCl. Trichoderma hamatum KUFA 0077 displayed the most effective reduction in rice sheath blight severity of up to 92% in vivo. Moreover, T. asperellum KUFA 0042 showed the greatest biocontrol activity against dirty panicle disease, reducing the disease incidence by up to 64.50%, which was similar to the fungicidal activity of difenoconazole 15% + propiconazole 15 %EC when applied three times at the panicle initiation, flowering and milk stages in field trials. Treatment with marine Trichoderma strains also improved the rice yield by up to 21.73%. Three applications of Trichoderma strains resulted in better biocontrol effectiveness against dirty panicle disease and yield improvement than two applications. The results indicated that marine-derived Trichoderma are a novel source of biocontrol agents that show promising antagonistic activities and halo-tolerance in controlling rice diseases and significant improvement of rice yield and can be developed as new biocontrol agent alternatives to fungicide in rice disease management.
Background: The eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) is an effective cutaneous anesthetic, although its application is time consuming and poses a risk of methemoglobinemia. Currently, the efficacy of topical 10% lidocaine cream is unclear. Objective: To compare the onset, anesthesia depth, and duration of topical 10% lidocaine and EMLA cream. Methods: The randomized, split-body, comparative trial performed on 40 participants who received a topical 10% lidocaine cream or EMLA on forearms for 15-150 min. Pain was stimulated using a 21-gauge needle insertion and evaluated with the Verbal Pain Score. Adverse effects were recorded. Results: EMLA conferred significantly better efficacy than 10% lidocaine (p < 0.001). For acceptable pain at 4-mm depth, the minimal application times were 40.88 and 45.38 min of EMLA and 10% lidocaine creams, respectively. With 60/120-min application, the maximal needle-insertion depths with acceptable pain were 6.61/9.47 mm (EMLA) and 6.01/8.94 mm (10% lidocaine). EMLA's anesthetic effect showed an early increase after removal which was sustained for 60-90 min. Both creams caused adverse effects, with EMLA showing higher proportions, although the differences were statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The efficacy of EMLA was superior to 10% lidocaine cream, especially regarding anesthesia onset and duration.
I outline a theory of moral motivation which is compatible with the metaphysical claims of strong emotionism—a sentimentalist account of morality first outlined by Jesse Prinz (The emotional construction of morals, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2007) and supported by myself (Bartlett in Axiomathes, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10516-020-09524-5) which construes moral concepts and properties as a subset of emotion-dispositional properties. Given these claims, it follows that sincere moral judgements are necessarily motivating in virtue of their emotional constitution. I defend an indefeasible version of judgement motivational internalism which takes into consideration both positively and negatively valenced affective states and how they promote both approach and avoidance motivation, respectively. On this view, in making sincere moral judgements agents are antecedently motivated by standing Desires to avoid or approach the stimuli picked out by their judgements. I also defend internalism against the objections from defeating circumstances and amoralists. As regards the former, I claim that the tendency of philosophers to frame the motivation debate in terms of positive moral judgements makes the argument from defeating circumstances appear more plausible than it is; as regards the latter, I claim the amoralist argument only has force if it is empirically well supported and that psychological data has hitherto been unconvincing.
In this study, we examine macrocyclic compounds to determine whether they can provide a safer replacement and stable complex for BPA in thermochromic dyes. To achieve this objective, a series of macrocyclic compounds, Methyl-N-benzylhexahomotriazacalix[3]arene (MeAC3), p-Chloro-N-benzylhexahomo-triazacalix[3]arene (ClAC3), α-Cyclodexdrin (α-CD), β-Cyclodexdrin (β-CD), p-tert-Butylthiacalix[4]arene (TC4), Calix[4]arene (C4), and Resorcin[4]arene (RC4), were synthesized. Among these macrocyclic compounds, RC4 was determined to be the most appropriate candidate to replace BPA as the developer material used in thermochromic dyes. In tests of prepared thermochromic dyes, RC4 had results similar to those of BPA, achieving the best protonation/deprotonation equilibria and providing a dark contrast with the thermochromic dye. DFT calculations also showed stable complexes between RC4 and CVL via hydrogen-bond interactions.
Background: Narrowband ultraviolet (NBUVB) phototherapy is an effective therapeutic option for generalized vitiligo. Previous reports showed the potential benefit of minocycline to stop disease progression in vitiligo. Meanwhile, minocycline has antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulating properties. There is no clinical study combining oral minocycline and NBUVB for treating generalized vitiligo. Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of the combination treatment of NBUVB plus oral minocycline and NBUVB alone in generalized vitiligo. Methods: A randomized, double-blinded controlled pilot study was conducted. Patients were randomly treated with either combined oral minocycline 100 mg per day plus NBUVB phototherapy or NBUVB alone, two times per week, for 12 weeks. The outcomes were assessed using Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score (VASI) percent change, Quartile grading scale (QGS) of repigmentation, and Vitiligo Disease Activity Index (VIDA) score. Results: Fourteen generalized vitiligo patients were included, and seven cases were assigned in each group. At week 12, the mean VASI score was decreased by 28.87% (24.15) in the minocycline plus NBUVB group compared to 27.26% (7.98) in NBUVB alone (p=0.886). No significant difference was observed between both treatment modalities in QGS of repigmentation and mean VIDA score change. Two of the seven patients (29%) receiving minocycline developed hyperpigmentation, dark-brown and muddy brown discoloration, which was only confined to some vitiliginous patches. Conclusion: Combination therapy with oral minocycline does not enhance the efficacy of NBUVB in generalized vitiligo. Due to the high incidence of drug-induced skin hyperpigmentation, minocycline plus NBUVB should be avoided. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most prominent neurodegenerative disease represented by the loss of memory and cognitive impairment symptoms and is one of the major health imperilments among the elderly. Amyloid (Aβ) deposit inside the neuron is one of the characteristic pathological hallmarks of this disease, leading to neuronal cell death. In the amyloidogenic processing, the amyloid precursor protein (APP) is cleaved by beta-secretase and γ-secretase to generate Aβ. Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant drug that causes neurodegeneration and detrimental cognitive deficits. The analogy between the neurotoxic and neurodegenerative profile of METH and AD pathology necessitates an exploration of the underlying molecular mechanisms. In the present study, we found that METH ineluctably affects APP processing, which might contribute to the marked production of Aβ in human neuroblastoma cells. Melatonin, an indolamine produced and released by the pineal gland as well as other extrapineal, has been protective against METH-induced neurodegenerative processes, thus rescuing neuronal cell death. However, the precise action of melatonin on METH has yet to be determined. We further propose to investigate the protective properties of melatonin on METH-induced APP-cleaving secretases. Pretreatment with melatonin significantly reversed METH-induced APP-cleaving secretases and Aβ production. In addition, pretreatment with luzindole, a melatonin receptor antagonist, significantly prevented the protective effect of melatonin, suggesting that the attenuation of the toxic effect on METH-induced APP processing by melatonin was mediated via melatonin receptor. The present results suggested that melatonin has a beneficial role in preventing Aβ generation in a cellular model of METH-induced AD.
Sulfur-containing compounds are considered as attractive pharmacophores for discovery of new drugs regarding their versatile properties to interaction with various biological targets. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling is one of well-recognized in silico tools for successful drug discovery. In this work, a set of 38 sulfur-containing derivatives (Types I - VI) were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer activities against 6 cancer cell lines. In vitro findings indicated that compound 13 was the most potent cytotoxic agent toward HuCCA-1 cell line (IC50 = 14.47 μM). Compound 14 exhibited the most potent activities against 3 investigated cell lines (i.e., HepG2, A549, and MDA-MB-231: IC50 range = 1.50 – 16.67 μM). Compound 10 showed the best activity for MOLT-3 (IC50 = 1.20 μM) whereas compound 22 was noted for T47D (IC50 = 7.10 μM). Subsequently, six QSAR models were built using multiple linear regression (MLR) algorithm. All constructed QSAR models provided reliable predictive performance (training sets: Rtr range = 0.8301 - 0.9636 and RMSEtr = 0.0666 - 0.2680; leave-one-out cross validation sets: RCV range = 0.7628 -0.9290 and RMSECV = 0.0926 - 0.3188). From QSAR modeling, chemical properties such as mass, polarizability, electronegativity, van der Waals volume, octanol-water partition coefficient, as well as frequency/presence of C-N, F-F, and N-N bonds in the molecule are essential key predictors for anticancer activities of the compounds. In summary, a series of promising fluoro-thiourea derivatives (10, 13, 14, 22) were suggested as potential molecules for future development as anticancer agents. Key structure-activity knowledge obtained from the QSAR modeling was suggested to be advantageous for suggesting the effective rational design of the related sulfur-containing anticancer compounds with improved bioactivities and properties.
Objectives: To explore factors associated with prescribing confidence and competence of final-year medical students for prescribing antiplatelet and fibrinolytic agents in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods: The study was conducted among final-year medical students with a triangular convergent mixed-methods approach. First, an online survey was conducted using a voluntary sampling method with concurrent in-depth interviews performed. The survey data was analysed using descriptive statistics and paired t-tests, while survey factors were compared using the chi-squared or Fisher's exact test. The interview data were coded and analysed thematically. The relations between the qualitative and quantitative findings were finally described. Results: Totally 92 validly replied to the questionnaire, and 20 participated in the interviews. The quantitative analysis indicated that they had high competence in the diagnosis of STEMI and prescribing antiplatelet and fibrinolytic agents. The mean confidence score of prescribing for both was medium and was significantly lower in fibrinolytic agents. (M=3.3, SD=1.1 vs. M=2.8, SD=1.0, t(91)=5.39, p<0.01). Their experience, knowledge, and mentoring were accounted for, considering the prescribing confidence factors in both approaches. Besides, providing guidelines and standing orders were derived from the interview data. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated that final-year medical students have a high ability to diagnose and prescribe essential medications in STEMI but tend to have low confidence in prescribing fibrinolytic agents. Experiential learning, mentorship and providing guidelines can help them, especially in emergency settings to prescribe confidently and safely. Further multicenter studies on undergraduate and graduate medical students' confidence and perspective of prescribing are required, especially for high-alert medications.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is considered one of the health problems in the aging society. Due to the limitations of currently available drugs in preventing disease progression, the discovery of novel neuroprotective agents has been challenged. Sulfonamide and its derivatives were reported for several biological activities. Herein, a series of 17 bis-sulfonamide derivatives were initially tested for their neuroprotective potential and cytotoxicity against the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neuronal death in SH-SY5Y cells. Subsequently, six compounds (i.e., 2, 4, 11, 14, 15 , and 17 ) were selected for investigations on underlying mechanisms. The data demonstrated that the pretreatment of selected compounds (5 μM) can significantly restore the level of cell viability, protect against mitochondrial membrane dysfunction, decrease the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), decrease the intracellular oxidative stress, and enhance the activity of NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1 (SIRT1). Molecular docking was also performed to support that these compounds could act as SIRT1 activators. In addition, in silico pharmacokinetic and toxicity profile prediction was also conducted for guiding the potential development. Thus, the six neuroprotective bis-sulfonamides were highlighted as potential agents to be further developed for PD management.
Novel MoWO4 with ZnO nanoflowers was synthesized on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MW-Z@MWCNTs) through a simple hydrothermal method, and this unique structure was applied as a counter electrode (CE) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) for the first time. The synergetic effect of ZnO nanoflowers and MoWO4 on MWCNTs was systematically investigated by different techniques. The amount of MWCNTs was optimized to achieve the best DSSC performance. It was found that the 1.5% MW-Z@MWCNTs composite structure had the highest power conversion efficiency of 9.96%, which is greater than that of traditional Pt CE. Therefore, MW-Z@MWCNTs-based CE can be used to replace traditional Pt-based electrodes in the future.
Objective Feeding tubes harbor microbial contaminants; studies to date have not explored differences between orogastric (OG) and nasogastric (NG) tube biofilms. We sought to extend a previous analysis by comparing bacterial colonization by location (OG v NG) and by evaluating clinical factors that may affect tube bacterial populations. Study design The pharyngeal segments of 41 infant feeding tubes (14 OG and 27 NG) from 41 infants were analyzed by next generation 16 S rRNA sequencing on the MiSeq platform. Results At the phylum level, Proteobacteria had the highest relative abundance of both OG and NG tubes. At the genus/species level, nine taxa differed significantly between OG and NG tubes. Alpha and beta diversity analyses showed significant differences between OG and NG tubes with relatively little contribution from clinical factors. Conclusion The route of feeding tube insertion (oral vs nasal) had a greater impact on bacterial colonization than the assessed clinical factors.
Background. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) practice and outcomes vary substantially in different parts of the world. The contemporary data of PCI in Asia are limited and only available from developed Asian countries. Objectives. To explore the pattern of practice and results of PCI procedures in Thailand as well as a temporal change of PCI practice over time compared with the registry from other countries. Methods. Thai PCI Registry is a prospective nationwide registry that was an initiative of the Cardiac Intervention Association of Thailand (CIAT). All cardiac catheterization laboratories in Thailand were invited to participate during 2018-2019, and consecutive PCI patients were enrolled and followed up for 1 year. Patient baseline characteristics, procedural details, equipment and medication use, outcomes, and complications were recorded. Results. Among the 39 hospitals participated, there were 22,741 patients included in this registry. Their mean age (standard deviation) was 64.2 (11.7) years and about 70% were males. The most common presentation was acute coronary syndrome (57%) with a high proportion of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (28%). Nearly two-thirds of patients had multivessel disease and significant left main stenosis was reported in 11%. The transradial approach was used in 44.2%. The procedural success rate was very high (95.2%) despite the high complexity of the lesions (56.9% type C lesion). The incidence of procedural complications was 5.3% and in-hospital mortality was 2.8%. Conclusion. Thai PCI Registry provides further insights into the current practice and outcomes of PCI in Southeast Asia. The success rate was very high, and the complications were very low despite the high complexity of the treated lesions.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of nanocrystal cellulose (NCC) from bamboo on the flexural strength of heat-cured acrylic resin. A total of 35 specimens (3.3 mm × 10 mm × 64 mm) were prepared and the specimens were divided into five groups of seven specimens each. Group 1 used conventional acrylic resin that was prepared based on the instructions of the manufacturer (0%). The filled NCC from bamboo fiber in four concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2% w/w) was used in the four-reinforcing resin workpiece groups. The specimens were loaded until failure occurred on a three-point bending test machine. One-way analysis of variance and Dunnett’s multiple comparison test at a 95% confidence level were used to determine the statistical differences in the flexural strength among the five groups. The results found that the average flexural strength of five specimen groups (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2% w/w) were 60.11 ± 2.4, 60.75 ± 2.18, 66.50 ± 5.08, 56.04 ± 0.31, and 48.05 ± 2.61 MPa, respectively. The flexural strength of 0.5 mg% w/w NCC-reinforced acrylic resin was significantly higher than the control group (p < 0.01). The reinforced NCC from bamboo fiber to acrylic resin improved the flexural strength properties.
Objective N6-methyladenosine is the most frequent mRNA modification in eukaryotic cells. It is catalyzed by the methyltransferase complex, methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3). Previous studies have revealed that METTL3 plays a role in various cancers. However, there is limited information about the roles of METTL3 in oral epithelial dysplasia (OED). This study determined METTL3 expression in normal oral mucosa (NOM), OED, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) by immunohistochemistry. Materials and Methods Twenty formalin-fixed paraffin embedded specimens each of NOM, OED, and OSCC were included. The expression pattern, the number of positive cells, the staining intensity, and the histochemical score (H-score) of METTL3 were investigated. Statistical Analysis The data were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance, chi-squared test, and a Kruskal–Wallis test. A p- value < 0.05 indicated statistically significant. Results The METTL3 expression in NOM was observed in the basal, parabasal, and lower layers of epithelium. In low-grade OED, METTL3 was expressed in the lower epithelial layers and partially presented in the spinous layer. However, in high-grade OED, METTL3 expression was observed in the lower layers, spinous layers, and upper layers of dysplastic epithelium. For OSCC, METTL3 immunostaining was presented in both the peripheral and central cells of the tumor islands. All NOM samples showed weak-to-moderate METTL3 staining intensity, while the moderate-to-strong METTL3 staining intensity was observed in 95% of both OED and OSCC specimens ( p < 0.05). The percentage of METTL3 positive cells and H-score was highest in OSCC, followed by OED and NOM, respectively ( p < 0.05). Interestingly, H-score was greater in high-grade OED (209.8 ± 18.61) when compared with low-grade OED (162.1 ± 38.93) ( p < 0.05). Conclusion METTL3 expression in OED and OSCC was more outstanding than in NOM, suggesting possible roles for OED and OSCC pathogenesis. Additionally, METTL3 expression may be an indicator for OED progression to OSCC.
The carnivorous terrestrial snail family Streptaxidae, recognized by having a regular to eccentric shell with complex apertural dentition, remains little-known and largely unexplored in Myanmar. This article presents historically recorded species and provides new data on this family. A total of eighteen species in five genera, namely Carinartemis , Discartemon , Haploptychius , Oophana , and Perrottetia from the southeastern and eastern parts of Myanmar, is examined herein. Among these, Haploptychius is the most diverse with eight species, while the remaining genera are comprised of fewer than five species each. Streptaxis birmanica and Streptaxis blanfordianus are herein synonymized with Haploptychius blanfordi , while Streptaxis hanleyanus is synonymized with Carinartemis sankeyi . Furthermore, the first genitalia and radula descriptions for three previously known species, D. tonywhitteni , C. exacutus , and C. sankeyi , are provided. Using comparative morphological and anatomical approaches, four new species are described: D. paurodeviatus sp. nov. , H. heliakosus sp. nov. , H. tenasserimicus sp. nov. , and H. karenorum sp. nov. This present study enhances the understanding of the land snail fauna in Myanmar, specifically the streptaxids, and highlights that limestone areas are important for biodiversity conservation.
The purpose of this research was to isolate microorganisms from coffee fermentation processes and screen them for their potential to improve the flavor of Arabica coffee using a new approach that included pectin degradation ability and growth in mucilage broth. All of the studied microorganisms were isolated from 38 different samples of fresh coffee cherries, coffee mucilage and coffee pulp. A total of 262 microbial isolates were obtained and subjected to screening using pectinase screening agar medium for pectinolytic organisms. The results of the pectinase production test showed that 18 yeast isolates were found to produce pectinase that could degrade the pectin present in solid media. The sugar assimilation profiles and growth of selected strains in mucilage broth were studied. Therefore, 18 isolates from the selected yeasts were subjected to molecular identification by the use of 18S rRNA gene sequencing. The diversity of the yeast isolates was studied, and they were identified as Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Naganishia liquefaciens, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kazachstania naganishii and Kazachstania sp. Moreover, isolates SWU3YWP1-3, SWU3YSK9 and INFCY1-4 were used as a seed culture for Arabica coffee fermentation. The cupping sensory scores of the control (without yeast inoculation) and those inoculated with three isolated yeast strains that were determined by Q-Arabica Graders were 73.75, 84.75, 80.25 and 75.00, respectively. Unique flavors and aromas were detected. This is the first report of screening microorganisms from the Arabica coffee fermentation process by the combination of various properties with success in improving the quality of coffee beverage.
The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were assembled using counter electrodes (CEs) constructed of carbonized yogurt/PEDOT:PSS composites and evaluated for their efficiency. The influences of two different crucible materials used during the pyrolysis of hydrothermally treated nonfat yogurt on the structures and properties of derived carbons were compared. Carbons denoted by Aa and Ab were pyrolyzed on an aluminum alloy boat and an alumina one, respectively. Hydrophobic carbon/nano-Whitlockite (WH) composites were obtained for both crucible materials. The carbon features are primarily made up of nanocarbons, micronized carbon spheres, and carbyne nanowires. Aa and Ab have surface areas (SBET) of 1060 and 289.7 m² g⁻¹, respectively. Moreover, the Aa carbon has a lower degree of oxidation than the Ab sample. The electrocatalytic activity of Aa carbon is higher than that of Ab carbon but Aa is less hydrophobic than Ab. Whitelockites were also prepared from hydrothermal synthesis and oxidation of Aa and Ab samples. Notably, the electrocatalytic activities of Whitlockites/PEDOT:PSS are as good as that of Pt but it is still lower than Aa/PEDOT:PSS and Ab/PEDOT:PSS electrodes. The DSSC with an Aa/PEDOT:PSS CE has a slightly higher efficiency (7.40%) than the DSSC with an Ab/PEDOT:PSS CE (7.05%) and the one with a Pt CE (7.01%) because Aa DSSC has a slightly higher fill factor (FF) and short-circuit current density (Jsc). Note that the Whitelockites/PEDOT: PSS can not be used as counter electrodes since these films swell excessively, resulting in a short circuit. Carbon in Aa and Ab plays a very important role in preventing such swelling incidence.
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Suthee Rattanamongkolgul
  • Faculty of Medicine
Somkiat Phornphisutthimas
  • Department of Biology
Tapanee Hongratanaworakit
  • Faculty of Pharmacy
Parin Chaivisuthangkura
  • Department of Biology
Patcharakamon Nooeaid
  • Faculty of Agricultural Product Innovation And Technology
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