The association of pre-participation knee muscle strength status with lower limb injury occurrence was investigated. Knee extensors and flexors muscle strength status including the traditional hamstrings/quadriceps (H/Q), Q/Q, H/H, and the non-dominant H/Q: dominant H/Q, HQ:HQ, ratios were recorded before the 10 month judo activity. Fifteen lower limb sport injuries were recorded for 53 judokas during the follow-up questionnaires. Significant accuracy of dominant H/Q ratio 60º/s (AUC 0.702, 95% CI 0.520 to .883, p = 0.023), as well as HQ:HQ ratios 300º/s (AUC .318, 95% CI 0.138 to 0.497, p = 0.040), and 60 º/s (AUC 0.311, 95% CI 0.130 to 0.491, p = .033) were revealed discriminating between injured and uninjured judokas. The optimum cut-off of dominant H/Q ratio associated with belonging to uninjured judokas group was 43.2% (sensitivity, 0.974; specificity, 0.533). Isokinetic knee muscle dynamometry is useful for predicting the likelihood of lower limb injuries in professional judokas during competitive activity.
The optical pumping of laser-induced copper plasma by incoherent light of a fast-discharge xenon flashlamp is proposed to enhance the stimulated emission of the laser-induced plasma (LIP). To study the spatio-temporal evolution of the incoherent pumping of the LIP, a numerical approach based on the collisional-radiative model and kinetic equations has been employed. The influence of total density and gas temperature on the stimulated emission and gain coefficient of the plasma plume was studied. The results show an enhancement of the intensity of the spectral lines of atomic copper. This idea demonstrates that the pumping of LIP by low energy, fast-discharge flashlamp may be replaced with the expensive laser-pumped LIP for improvement of the sensitivity of the related spectral diagnostics methods of plasma such as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.
In this work, a polycarbonate detector with 250μm thickness and 2 cm × 2 cm dimension exposed to alpha particles of an 241Am source is simulated by Geant4 toolkit. Different energies of alpha particles ranging from 0.2 to 5.0 MeV are considered. Spheres with 2μm diameter randomly positioned within the etching layer of the PC are considered as the sensitive volumes. Considering the threshold of 240 keV μm−1 for forming the tracks, specific energy distribution for any alpha energy is computed. Finally, the number of tracks and the detection efficiency are calculated applying the microdosimetric one-hit detector formulation. It is found that the obtained efficiencies differ at most 10% and 12% from the previous simulation and the measurements (adapted with the two different etchings), respectively.
Plant pathogens damage crops and threaten global food security. Plants have evolved complex defense networks against pathogens, using crosstalk among various signaling pathways. Key regulators conferring plant immunity through signaling pathways include protein-coding genes and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). The discovery of ncRNAs in plant transcriptomes was first considered “transcriptional noise”. Recent reviews have highlighted the importance of non-coding RNAs. However, understanding interactions among different types of noncoding RNAs requires additional research. This review attempts to consider how long-ncRNAs, small-ncRNAs and circular RNAs interact in response to pathogenic diseases within different plant species. Developments within genomics and bioinformatics could lead to the further discovery of plant ncRNAs, knowledge of their biological roles, as well as an understanding of their importance in exploiting the recent molecular-based technologies for crop protection.
Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the age and attentional focus instruction effects on the postural and supra-postural tasks among older adults with mild cognitive impairments.Method Forty healthy adults (mean age of 48.01 ± 5.45 years) and 40 older adults with mild cognitive impairments (mean age of 69.87 ± 4.28 years) were selected as participants. They were randomly divided into eight groups receiving internal and external attentional focus instructions for postural and supra-postural tasks. The postural status was evaluated by measuring the COP sway velocity with the Master Balance System.ResultsThe results showed that in both phases of acquisition and retention, the main effect of the attentional focus type was significant (P < 0.05). The group’s postural control with external attentional instructions was better than the group’s postural control with internal attentional instructions. Furthermore, the CI elderly gained benefit from the guidelines of attentional focus. Results showed that the task type was not significant in the acquisition phase. However, in the retention phase, the main effect of the attentional focus type was significant. The groups’ postural function with the supra-postural task was better than the groups with the postural task. Furthermore, the older adults showed a better postural function in the supra-postural task than in the postural task.Conclusions Our results showed that the ability to allocate resources of attention may decrease with CI. These findings suggest that considering the effect of the supra-postural tasks’ manipulation on postural control, it is possible to improve balance by designing training programs for directing supra-postural tasks. The findings of the present study can be a guide for educators and therapists. They can increase the balance of the patients by considering the dysfunction and the type of attentional guidelines to prevent them from falling and performing a dual task.
This study assessed the effects of movement-based interventions on the complexity of postural changes during prolonged standing. Twenty participants, equally distributed in gender and standing work experience (SWE), completed three simulated prolonged standing sessions: without movement (control), leg exercise, and footrest. The amount and complexity of variability in the center of pressure (COP) and lumbar curvature angle were quantified using linear and nonlinear tools. Lower leg swelling and back/leg discomfort were also monitored. Participants in the SWE group showed significantly greater postural complexity during the standing. Regular leg exercise resulted in significantly higher postural complexity and lower leg discomfort and swelling. The footrest led to significant changes in amount of COP variability. Both interventions significantly reduced back discomfort. Overall, the nonlinear analysis of postural changes provided different findings compared to linear ones, considering the standing time, interventions, and standing job experience. Nonlinear results were consistent with leg discomfort and swelling.
The aim was to examine the directionality of global training effects in middle-aged women after unilateral training. Thirty-nine middle-aged female volunteers (59.4 ± 5.4 years) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1. Unilateral Dominant Lower Limb Training (UDLT); 2. Unilateral Non-Dominant Lower Limb Training (UNDLT) or 3. Control group. Outcome measures assessing isometric strength, static and dynamic balance were recorded at baseline, and 1 week after 12 weeks (post-test) of training or no-intervention. The net cross education adaptation changes of the contralateral quadriceps isometric maximum voluntary (MVC) force (F2,34 = 4.33; p = 0.022), Stork balance score (F2,34 = 4.26; p = 0.023) and the Star Excursion Balance test score (F2,34 = 11.80; p = 0.001) were asymmetrical in the UNDLT group and on average, exceeded the UDLT group. The results demonstrated asymmetrical cross education training adaptations with unilateral training of non-dominant leg (UNDLT) to contralateral homologous and heterologous muscles, with the exception of knee flexor MVC. The results of this study provide a novel exercise or rehabilitation strategy that can be employed when one of the limbs is affected.
Southwest Asia has different climate types including arid, semiarid, Mediterranean, and temperate regions. Due to the complex interactions among components of the Earth system, forecasting precipitation is a difficult task in such large regions. The aim of this paper is to propose a learning approach, based on artificial neural network (ANN) and random forest (RF) algorithms for post-processing the output of forecasting models, in order to provide a multi-model ensemble forecasting of monthly precipitation in southwest Asia. For this purpose, four forecasting models, including GEM-NEMO, NASA-GEOSS2S, CanCM4i, and COLA-RSMAS-CCSM4, included in the North American multi-model ensemble (NMME) project, are considered for the ensemble algorithms. Since each model has nine different lead times, a total of 108 different ANN and RF models are trained for each month of the year. To train the proposed ANN an RF models, the ERA5 reanalysis dataset is employed. To compare the performance of the proposed algorithms, four performance evaluation criteria are calculated for each model. The results indicate that the performance of the ANN and RF post-processing is better than that of the individual NMME models. Moreover, RF outperformed ANN for all lead times and months of the year.
The consumption of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) is increasing as the global population grows. These types of emerging pollutants consist of various groups of drugs used in veterinary, agricultural practices, cosmetics, and human health, such as analgesics, hormones, antibiotics, etc. Because of the incapability of physical treatment processes (e.g., reverse osmosis, nanofiltration) and biological processes (e.g., activated sludge) to degrade PPCPs, they are discharged into lakes, rivers, and groundwater. The mechanism of biological removal of emerging pollutants from wastewater lies predominantly in their biodegradation by microorganisms such as algal, fungi, and bacteria into small molecules or water and carbon dioxide. Biological treatment technologies include a variety of conventional and unconventional methods such as activated sludge, membrane bioreactors, aerobic, anaerobic, microalgae and fungal bioreactors, trickling filters, denitrification, nitrification, and biosorption and constructed wetlands. The increasing use of intractable drugs and cosmetics together with the inability of activated sludge systems used as a biological treatment in most wastewater treatment plants to remove PPCPs make the treated effluents contain substantial concentrations of PPCPs. Therefore, comprehensive research is needed on the removal of the above-mentioned pollutants by biological processes in future studies.
As part of the biosphere, soil plays an important role in food production and environmental sustainability. The increase in population and with it the increase of scientific and technical knowledge and the expansion of industries without observing environmental issues and standards have caused environmental pollution and disturbed the balance of the soil ecosystem. Therefore, it is an undeniable necessity to be aware of soil pollutants and pay more attention to the appropriate solution to reduce them. Different chemical and physical methods were used to purify soils contaminated with potentially toxic elements (PTEs), most of which, in addition to their high cost, degrade the physical and chemical structure and vital activities of the soil and reduce land use for crop production. Therefore, it is better to use appropriate, natural, cost-effective, and on-site biological methods as much as possible. Phytoremediation is recommended as an acceptable method for moving or deactivating metals in contaminated soils. Among the rhizosphere organisms involved in plants’ reactions to the surrounding soil, plant growth-promoting bacteria, rhizobia, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AM) have been considered. Among the biological factors affecting the phytoremediation process, the role of soil microorganisms, especially fungi mycorrhizae are important, so that the efficiency of plants in the phytoremediation process can be enhanced if they coexist with these beneficial soil microorganisms. Therefore, in the present study, the effect of symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the green treatment of PTEs contaminated soils was studied by reviewing and interpreting the results obtained from previous studies. The findings of this study revealed that the ability of mycorrhizal fungi to protect plants against PTEs toxicity to various factors such as plant species, type, and race of mycorrhizal fungi, type, and concentration of PTEs, plant growth conditions, soil properties, age, physiological status depends on the root system of the plant.
Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic inflammatory, and debilitating autoimmune illness. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between animal flesh foods consumption and rheumatoid arthritis. Methods Meat consumption was assessed by using a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (168 items) in a case-control study of 297 subjects (100 newly diagnosed cases and 197 healthy controls). An expert rheumatologist diagnosed patients based on the American College of Rheumatology definitions, 2010. Multivariate logistic regression, adjusted for lifestyle and nutritional confounders, was used to evaluate the relationship between dairy consumption and rheumatoid arthritis. Results Participants with greater consumption of fish and seafood were less likely to have RA (OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.27–0.98). Conversely, a higher processed meat intake was associated with increased odds of RA (OR 3.45; 95% CI 1.78–6.68). However, no significant association was found between red meats and poultry consumption and the risk of RA in the fully adjusted model. Conclusions The present study suggests an inverse association between fish and seafood consumption and the risk of RA. On the contrary, a higher amount of processed meat intake was associated with increased odds of RA. However, further studies are warranted to confirm the veracity of our findings.
Background Opioid agonist treatment, as the most effective treatment for opioid dependency, requires patient adherence for its effectiveness over the long run. Previous studies on psychiatric and non- psychiatric patients indicated that the patient`s temperament has had effect on their treatment compliance. Some studies on different types of addiction have attributed special temperament and character traits to these patients. Introduction This study aims to investigate the impact of temperament and characteristics on opioid treatment compliance. In this study, the relationship between demographic variables, type of medication therapy, and temperament and characteristics scales of patients against opioid agonists therapy compliance was examined Methods In this cross-sectional study, 150 patients who had initiated the course of opioid agonist maintenance therapy underwent TCI 125-item test and were followed-up for 2 months regarding compliance. The data were inputted into SPSS 24. K-S and Mann-Whitney U tests were employed to explore the relationship between quantitative and qualitative variables, while for examining the relationship between qualitative variables with each other, Chi-square test was utilized. The significance level in the tests was considered p<0.05. Result The treatment compliance in this study was 67.2%. In patients who did not have treatment compliance, scores of novelty-seeking (16.7±7versus11.7±4, p<0.001), harm avoidance (16.5±5versus 11.8±5, p<0.0001), reward dependence (12.4±3 versus 10.2±3, p=0.005) and self-transcendence (10.6±2 versus 8.7±2 p=0.002) were higher, but in those who had suitable treatment compliance, scores of persistence (3.5±1 versus 2.3±1, p=0.004) and cooperativeness (17.6±3 versus14.8±4, p=0.004) were higher. Further, some temperament traits were different among patients undergoing treatment with buprenorphine versus methadone (scores of persistence, self-directedness and self-transcendence were higher in the group receiving buprenorphine, while scores of harm avoidance and cooperativeness were higher in the group under methadone treatment). There was also a significant relationship between gender (good compliance: female 100%, male 65%, poor compliance female 0%, male 35%; p=0.04), level of education (higher), as well as type of medication (buprenorphine) and treatment compliance. Conclusion The results of this study can help to identify high-risk individuals for withdrawing opioid addiction. These people can be a target for pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to have their personality traits modified. Investigation of the effect of performing these interventions on treatment compliance can be a subject of future study in this area. Also while there are differences in personality characteristics among cultures, this study investigated Iranian culture more precisely.
Gamma (γ)-radiation can target viral genome replication and preserve viral structural proteins compared to formalin inactivation. Thus, a stronger immunity could be induced after the inoculation of the irradiated virus. In this study, γ-irradiated low-pathogenic avian influenza virus-H9N2 (LPAIV-H9N2) was used to immunize the broiler chicken in two formulations, including γ-irradiated LPAIV-H9N2 with 20% Trehalose intranasally (IVT.IN) or γ-irradiated LPAIV-H9N2 plus Montanide oil adjuvant ISA70 subcutaneously (IV+ISA.SC) in comparison with formalin-inactivated LPAIV-H9N2 vaccine intranasally (FV.IN) or formalin-inactivated LPAIV-H9N2 plus ISA70 subcutaneously (FV+ISA.SC). Two vaccination regimes were employed; the first one was primed on day 1 and boosted on day 15 (early regime), and the second one was primed on day 11 and boosted on day 25 (late regime). A challenge test was performed with a live homologous subtype virus. Virus shedding was monitored by quantifying the viral load via RT-qPCR on tracheal and cloacal swabs. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titration and stimulation index (SI) of the splenic lymphocyte proliferation were measured, respectively, by HI test and Cell Proliferation assay. Cytokine assay was conducted by the RT-qPCR on antigen-stimulated spleen cells. The results of the HI test showed significant increases in antibody titer in all vaccinated groups, but it was more evident in the IVT late vaccination regime, reaching 5.33 log 2 . The proliferation of stimulated spleen lymphocytes was upregulated more in the IVT.IN vaccine compared to other vaccines. The mRNA transcription levels of T-helper type 1 cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) were upregulated in all vaccinated groups at the late regime. Moreover, IL-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine was upregulated as well. However, upregulation was more noticeable in the early vaccination than the late vaccination (p < 0.05) . After the challenge, the monitoring of virus shedding for the H9 gene represented an extremely low viral load. The body weight loss was not significant ( p > 0.05 ) among the vaccinated groups. In addition, the viral load of <10 0.5 TCID 50 /ml in the vaccinated chicken indicated the protective response for all the vaccines. Accordingly, the IVT vaccine is a good candidate for the immunization of broiler chicken via the intranasal route at late regime.
Particulate matter and airborne microorganisms are two of the most severe indoor air problems due to their significant risks to human health. Comprehensive research on air filtration with good filtration performance for fine particles and antibacterial function is essential. In this study, after some experimentations and optimization of conditions, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) 10–1% silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) membranes with suitable morphology and uniform diameter distribution are fabricated by an electrospinning method. These electrospun mats exhibited antibacterial activity toward Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacteria) and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacteria). With its small pore size, high porosity, the high specific surface area of 42 m²/g, and robust mechanical strength of 7.14 MPa properties, the resultant PAN10%-1%Ag membranes exhibit high filtration efficiency of 99.27%, the low pressure drop of 33 Pa, and higher quality factor compared to the two standard commercial masks including, the three-ply surgical mask and the respirator face mask. After 24 h of the filtration process in a simulated living environment, the obtained air filter still displayed a high filtration efficiency and a less pressure drop variation. In addition, the R² value was 0.99, which indicates that the calculation results are in good agreement with the measured results. The fabrication of PAN-Ag membranes will have broad applications, including face masks, indoor air filtration and clean room.
Purpose The Ohio State University Scale of Intra-Gross Motor Assessment (OSU-SIGMA) is a criterion-referenced test for assessing fundamental movement skills (FMS) among children aged 2.5–14 years. The OSU-SIGMA was developed as performance-based curriculum tool. The purpose of this study was to translate the English version of the OSU-SIGMA into Persian and assess the psychometric properties. Methods Two Persian-English speakers translated the OSU-SIGMA instrument and manual from English to Persian. Six experts in children’s motor development independently assessed the content validity (relevance of meaning and appropriateness) of the translated version. Children aged 2.5–14 years (n = 220; 50% girls) were video recorded while performing each of the 11 the FMS. The same children participated in a two-week test–retest. Eleven trained assessors viewed the videos and their scores used to assess internal consistency, inter- and intrarater reliability, and test–retest reliability. Results The translated version was rated ‘exactly relevant’ >90% for four of the seven locomotor skills and > 80% for the remaining locomotor skills and all object control skills. Coefficients for content validity range from 0.53 (running) to 0.77 (skipping and striking), with little difference between boys and girls. Coefficients for intra- and interrater were ≥ 0.90 and for internal consistency ≥ 0.90 for all skills. The correlations for the two-week test–retest ranged from 0.74 (running) to 0.96 (stair climbing). Conclusions The Persian translation of the OSU-SIGMA was found to be reliable and valid for the assessment of FMS among Iranian children aged 2.5–13 years. The OSU-SIGMA was designed using a curriculum-based approach. The translation provides teachers in Persian countries with a pedological approach to develop age-appropriate FMS activities that can be used for programming, screening, and the prescription of children’s FMS.
Background The purpose of this study is to investigate the Bottom–Up Rise Strength Transfer (BURST) induced by massed vs. distributed-rehabilitative exercise training. Methods Participants were randomly allocated to one of the 12 weeks massed (MRT) vs. distributed-(DRT) rehabilitative exercise training (performing lower limb proprioceptive, balance, agility, and resistance exercise) group or no-intervention group (Control). The upper and lower limb strength assessment was recorded at baseline (pre), 8 weeks (mid), and 12 weeks (post). Results The net right hand MVC force increased after 12 weeks of DRT (58.3%). The net left hand MVC force increased after 12 weeks of both DRT and MRT (44.0% & 33.9% respectively). The BURST effect induced by DRT was significantly larger than MRT (in right hand: 45.1% & in left hand 33.4%). Conclusions This is the first study investigating in a between-subject design the BURST effect of massed vs. distributed-rehabilitative training. The result showed middle-aged women can develop their upper limbs strength by performing both the DRT and MRT in their lower limbs. Lower body distributed resistance training, however, can provide a significantly greater stimulus for increasing the BURST in middle-aged women.
A comprehensive effort was made to characterize potential inter- and intra-population genetic variation governing on the saffron ecotypes originating from 18 distinct geographical regions of Iran (90 accessions) using “allelic phenotypes” of 16 microsatellite markers. The 11 SSR loci (69%) that were polymorphic across the 90 saffron genotypes produced 30 alleles, of which ABRII/CS2 was the most informative locus. Both PCoA and UPGMA phylogenetic tree, alongside Bayesian model-based clustering grouped the 18 ecotypes into three major groups, with similar classification patterns, and highly consistent with geographical distribution. The assignment test accurately assigned 83 out of 90 saffron accessions (92.22%) to the corresponding populations, while the remainder were placed in adjacent populations. The AMOVA results revealed a high level of genetic variation within saffron populations (>80%), with a small fraction among populations (<20%). For the entire 90 accessions, significant correlation was detected between genetic and geographical distances (Mantel test, r = 0.173; P = 0.038). The results, overall, indicated the efficacy of allelic phenotypes-assisted DNA fingerprinting approach in making discrimination and unraveling potential genetic diversity among various Iranian saffron ecotypes, and possibly other autopolyploid crops.
Banana and plantains are among the most valuable agricultural commodities in the world. Banana Fusarium wilt, caused by the soil-borne Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is one of the most devastating diseases of banana globally. In the 1990s a new strain of Fusarium oxysporum called tropical race 4 (TR4) emerged in Southeast Asia that affected commercial Cavendish plantations. The development of resistant cultivars is an effective strategy for management of the disease. Field-based screening to identify Foc-resistant plants is time-consuming, expensive and is often challenged by variable environmental conditions. Here we present an early selection protocol enabling evaluation of the disease under in vitro conditions. This method provides a preliminary screening and allows evaluation of a large number of in vitro plantlets. Using this method, within a short time and in a small laboratory, breeders can evaluate thousands of banana plantlets, produced via irradiation. Subsequently, putative, disease-resistant mutant lines can be identified and evaluated in the field.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during brachytherapy may alter the dose distribution of radioactive sources implanted in the tumor. This study investigates the impact of a magnetic field of 1.5 T, 3 T, and 7 T strengths on the dose distribution of high dose rate Co-60, Ir-192, and Yb-169, and low dose rate I-125 sources, using Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit. After validating the simulation results by calculating the AAPM-TG43 dosimetric parameters, seven sources of each radioisotope were simulated in a water phantom, and their dose distributions were compared under the influence of a magnetic field. The simulation results indicate that using Co-60 brachytherapy under the MRI guidance is not recommended. Furthermore, the impact of a magnetic field of up to 7 T strength on the dose distribution of Ir-192, Yb-169, and I-125 sources is negligible, provided that there is no air pocket near brachytherapy sources.
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