Dithiocarbamates constitute an important class of broad-spectrum antifungal compounds used extensively in agriculture, including in the cultivation of spices. Maximum residue limits for these compounds have been enforced by several importing countries in international food trade. Validation of analytical methods for dithiocarbamates in spices have not been reported previously. A quick and sensitive method for estimation of total dithiocarbamates as carbon disulphide (CS2) using GC-MS in two major spices, viz. small cardamom (Elettaria cardamomom) and black pepper (Piper nigrum) was optimized and validated. Dithiocarbamate residues in these spice matrices were extracted and subjected to acid hydrolysis followed by reduction to CS2, which was then quantitatively absorbed into isooctane and analysed using GC-MS, employing selected ion monitoring and post-run mid-column backflush technique. For fortification levels from 0.1 to 1.0 mg kg− 1, recoveries obtained ranged from 75 to 98% in cardamom and 76–98% in black pepper, with intra-day precision (RSDr) < 12% and inter-day precision (RSDR) < 15% in all cases. Limit of Quantification of 0.05 mg kg− 1 was achieved in both spices. It was found that there was negligible interference in quantitative accuracy due to essential oils present in the two spices studied. Matrix effect was seen to be suppressive in the two spices studied, and sufficiently low to exclude the use of matrix-matched calibration in routine quantitative analysis. The optimized analytical method was found to be suitable for evaluation of compliance of real samples against the Codex maximum residue limits for cardamom and black pepper. Safety evaluation for human consumption, based on the incidence of Dithiocarbamate residues, was performed in real samples of cardamom and black pepper. This method offers the possibility of extending applicability to other spices also.
Environmental pollution is a major problem globally, posing a severe threat to human health and millions of living organisms' wellbeing. Unprecedented pollution in aquatic ecosystems needs eco-friendly sustainable remediation technology. Phytoremediation is a sustainable, cost-effective method that utilizes plants to transform and stabilize various soil and water bodies' contaminants. Aquatic plant species, mostly the diverse group of macrophytes, have long been exploited as indicator species to determine water body health. Aquatic macrophytes can influence the habitat structure and nutrient dynamics in water bodies. Recent studies showed the effective application of macrophytes like Azolla, Eichhornia, Lemna, Potamogeton, Wolfa, and Wolfialla for phytoremediation of toxic heavy metals and different organic/inorganic compounds. This chapter summarizes the advancement in macrophytes' use for bioremediation of different chemical compounds and the management of the aquatic environment.
The man-made activities have contributed towards the contamination of the environment disturbing the ecological balance of the ecosystem. Microbes-assisted phytoremediation (MAP) has gained attention in the past decade and tremendous research has been carried out globally to establish an efficient process for the treatment of various contaminants. MAP can be regarded as a multidimensional approach as it helps in the restoration of land, increases the survival potential of plants, sequestration of carbon dioxide and maintenance of biodiversity. Thus, considering the broad and future perspective of MAP the present chapter was designed wherein it would deal with the potential of MAP in bioremediating various pollutants such as metal, pesticides, and hydrocarbons. The current global scenario of MAP along with the limitations faced in implementing the process at large scale and prospects of the system would be discussed in detail in this chapter.
This field investigation was conducted to assess the implication of the direct and residual effect of the applied differential level of boron on the dynamics of the soil chemical properties, nutrient status in soil and yield of crops under cauliflower–cowpea-okra cropping sequence in an Inceptisol of North East India. The imposed treatments comprise five levels of boron viz., 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 & 2.0 kg ha⁻¹ with four replications. To assess the direct effect of boron fertilization in soil, cauliflower crop was grown as a test crop. While for further assessment of concomitant residual effects of boron fertilization, cowpea and okra were grown as a test crop wherein boron fertilization was phased out in both the crops. The recommended dose of NPK fertilizer along with FYM was uniformly applied to all the crops in the cropping sequence. The experimental findings showed that amongst the applied differential levels of boron, application of 2 kg B ha⁻¹ was realized as the most prominent boron dose responsible for increasing the maximum content of soil chemical properties, nutrient status in soil and yield of crops while the control plots recorded the lowest for all the three crops in the sequence. Principal component analysis executed in respect of soil chemical properties and soil nutrient status in cauliflower-cowpea-okra sequence explained the data variation to the tune of 77.03%, 76.52% and 70.74% of the total variability. Similarly, multiple linear regressions performed to figure out the best fitting model showed that response variable potassium attributed the highest up to 52.05% in augmenting yield of cauliflower while nitrogen accounted for 72.04% in cowpea and zinc contributed 89.55% in okra, respectively. Overall, the present findings indicated thatapplication of 2 kg B ha-1 was found to be the best treatment in improving the soil chemical properties, nutrient status in soil and yield of crops under cauliflower–cowpea- okra cropping sequence.
Background Increased consumer demand for curry leaves free from pesticides demands fast and reliable analytical methods for the analysis of pesticide residues. Objective The optimization of a QuEChERS based sample preparation technique with improved analytical accuracy by removing interfering matrix components for LC-MS/MS analysis of pesticide residues from curry leaves. Methods A modified QuEChERS solid phase extraction method was developed and validated for the analysis of 26 pesticides in fresh and dried curry leaves. The effects of the sample preparation steps and column retention time on the matrix suppression of analyte ions were also evaluated. Results Validation parameters were found within an acceptable range. The matrix effect evaluation studies showed that the QuEChERS sample preparation was able to minimize the ion suppression of analytes due to co-eluting matrix of components and that a d-SPE clean up step had major role in reducing matrix effect. The gradient mobile phase with longer retention time for analytes resulted in comparatively lesser matrix effects than the isocratic mobile phase of non-polar nature. Even after the clean up, a considerable number of compounds had more than 20% reduction in their MS response in the gradient mobile phase. Conclusion This study emphasized the need of proper sample clean up before a LC-MS/MS analysis and the usage of matrix matched standards and mobile phase that ultimately results in an appropriate analyte separation in reasonable retention times.
Cardamom is one of the most important commercial spices grown and exported from India. More than 80% of production in India is from Cardamom Hill Reserve (CHR) of Idukki district in Kerala, India. There has been a demand to study the quality attributes of cardamom produced in CHR of Idukki district comprising of A, B and C zones. Highest essential oil content was recorded in cardamom samples from zone A. Maximum litre weight was recorded from zone C. The percentage of bold capsules (> 7 mm) was maximum in A zone compared to B & C zones. Number of seeds/ capsule from A and C zones were significantly higher when compared to B zone. Seed: Husk ratio and weight of one capsule did not vary significantly among the three zones. Chemical profiling of essential oil from the three zones revealed the highest content of 1,8-cineole(ether) and α-terpinyl acetate(ester) in cardamom from zone A followed by zone B and zone C. The intrinsic quality of cardamom is mainly attributed to these two compounds. The proportion of 1,8-cineole and α-terpinyl acetate did not vary among different zones and the mild spicy flavor attributed to α-terpinyl acetate is prominent in cardamom capsules from Idukki irrespective of zones when compared to camphory odor due to 1,8-cineole. Physical and chemical quality parameters of cardamom from three zones are compared and discussed.
Higher matrix interference makes the multi-residue pesticide analysis in spices more challenging. A simple, sensitive, and robust large-scale multi-residue method was developed for the rapid analysis of 243 pesticides in cardamom matrix by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Prehydration of cardamom in 1:4 sample:water for 30 min improved the homogeneity and extractability. QuEChERS extraction followed by cleanup with 25 mg primary secondary amine, 100 mg C18, and 10 mg graphitized carbon black to 1 ml supernatant was used for sample preparation. Reconstitution of final extract in ethyl acetate reduced matrix co-extract up to 60%. The method was validated according to the SANTE/11,945/2015 guidelines. The limit of quantification was ≤0.01 mg kg(-1), and the recovery was within 70.0-120.0%, with ≤20% RSD for the majority of pesticides. The method was used for screening market samples, and the detected residues were devoid of any risk of acute toxicity related to dietary exposure.
We assess the effect of ultra graphite on red soil collected from Cauvery delta region, Tamil Nadu, India. Soil samples were collected from the top 15 cm depth from the experimental site using conventional soil tillage technology. We provide a detailed comparison of the morpho- and physico-chemical changes of red soil samples with and without ultra graphite. FTIR, SEM, EDAX and soil analysis data support the fact that ultra graphite application significantly influences soil carbon, soil physico-chemical properties and exchange capacity of coarse-textured red soil.
The present research was conducted to isolate and characterize native rhizobium isolates from the root nodules of horse gram [MACROTYLOMA UNIFLORUM [Lam] Verdc.] plants grown under sub-humid to semi-arid regions of Rajasthan in India. These plants were collected from various locations of Rajasthan viz; Banswara, Bhilwara, Pratapgarh and Udaipur districts in India under variable agro-climatic regions. Total nine rhizobial isolates were characterized based on morphological and biochemical analysis. Majority of the isolates showed pH, NaCl concentration and temperature tolerance between 6.0to 8.0, 0.5 to 3.0 per cent and 34 to 40 0C respectively. The horse gram rhizobium isolate R5 showed tolerant towards temperature and NaCl concentration upto 450C and 5% respectively whereas the isolate R3 showed positive growth upto alkaline pH of 10.0. The molecular characterization based on RAPD revealed that rhizobium isolates are closely related to each other as only two major clusters was formed based on Jaccards, s similarity coefficient.
A strain (MPUAT-2), isolated from coconut hull and identified as Aspergillus foetidus MTCC 10559, was used for pectinase production. Optimum pectinase production was obtained at pH 8.0 and temperature 35 degrees C under static conditions in submerged fermentation after 5 days of incubation. Orange peel, a byproduct of fruit industry, was used as a sole carbon source (3% w/v) to produce high pectinase, thus making the process cost effective. The culture filtrate was analyzed for pectin methyl esterase (PME) and endopolygalacturonase (endo-PG) enzymes. The enzymes, PME and endo-PG were purified using ammonium sulphate precipitation and molecular exclusion chromatography (Sephadex G-75) with corresponding recovery of 39.3 and 44.3%. The partially purified enzymes were also characterized for their kinetic properties.
A research experiment was conducted in three types of protected conditions to study the effect of different methods of pollination and time of pollination on berry setting, berry size and other seed yield and quality parameters of cherry tomato variety Pusa Selection-1 during the autumn-winter season of 2011-12 and 2012-13. Among the structures semi-controlled environmental polyhouse recorded significantly highest fruit set of mature berries (40.99%) followed by naturally ventilated polyhouse (40.51%) and insect-proof nethouse (39.25%). Among the methods of pollination, air-blowing recorded more fruit set (41.76%), berry weight (6.070 g), berry width (2.36 cm), berry length (2.22 cm), number of seeds (68.05), 100-seed weight (0.1291 g), seed yield per berry (0.0872 g) and germination (80.71%). The pollination at 11.00 am had given better result under all three conditions. The seed contributing traits were lower under insect proof nethouse (P3) indicating its limitations for cherry tomato seed production.
The adulteration of low grade fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) in cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum L.) were reported in certain instances in India. The present study was undertaken for the detection of adulteration of fennel seeds in cumin seeds with the help of trans-anethole which is reported to be absent in the essential oil of cumin seeds but reported as a major marker compound of the fennel seeds essential oil. trans-Anethole was detected in the samples prepared by mixing fennel seeds in cumin seeds with the help of GC and GC-MS. An adulteration range of 1-50% was studied and the adulteration level upto 5% was detected. The major compounds identified in the essential oil of cumin seeds were γ-terpin-7-al (22.9%), γ-terpinene (22.6%), β-pinene (22.2%) and cuminaldehyde (13.1%) whereas the major compounds identified in the essential oil of fennel seeds were trans- anethole (50.4%), methylchavicol (22.4%), limonene (11.4%) and fenchone (11.1%).
The composition of essential oils obtained from the seeds of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Cuminum cyminum L. were analysed using GC and GC-MS. The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were conducted by disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by agar dilution method. The essential oils of the seeds of F. vulgare showed maximum zone of inhibition 33 mm against S. typhimurium and 28 mm against E. coli respectively, while C. cyminum showed zone of inhibition 22 mm and 17 mm against S. typhimurium and E. coli respectively. MICs of essential oils were tested at concentration ranging from 2.0 to 0.0075 % (v/v). The F. vulgare essential oil showed lowest MIC values 0.031 and 0.062 % (v/v) against S. typhimurium and E. coli respectively, while C. cyminum showed MIC vaules 0.125 and 0.250 % (v/v) against S. typhimurium and E. coli respectively. The results showed that essential oil of F..vulgare is more effective than C. cyminum and S. typhimurium is more susceptible for the tested spices as compared to E.coli .The GC-MS data showed the main component found in F. vulgare Mill essential oil was identified as trans-anethole (50.4 %), methylchavicol (22.4 %), limonene (11.4 %) and fenchone (11.1 %) whereas γ-terpin-7-al (22.9 %), γ-terpinene (22.6 %), β-pinene (22.2 %) and cuminaldehyde (13.1 %) were the major compounds in C. cyminum L.
A field experiment was conducted at research farm of SKN College of Agriculture, Jobner, Rajasthan to assess the effect of fertility and bioinoculants on growth, yield and economics of cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.). The results revealed that application of 75% recommended dose of fertilizer along with Rhizobium inoculation recorded higher growth (plant height, branches/ plant, dry matter accumulation/plant and nodules/plant); yield attributes (pods/plant, seeds/pod and 1000-seed weight) seed and stover yields, gross returns (25.05 × 103 `/ha), net returns (13.63 × 103 `/ha) and B:C ratio (1.19) as compared to control and phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) inoculation and remained at par with all other treatment combination. So, it was concluded that use of 75% RDF along with Rhizobium may be recommended for obtaining the higher yield of Cluster bean in the region.
Carotenoids are increasingly drawing the attention of researchers as a major natural food color due to their inherent nutritional characteristics and the implicated possible role in prevention and protection against degenerative diseases. In this report, we review the role of red pepper as a source for natural carotenoids. The composition of the carotenoids in red pepper and the application of different methodologies for their analysis were discussed in this report. The stability of red pepper carotenoids during post-harvest processing and storage is also reviewed. This review highlights the potential of red pepper carotenoids as a source of natural food colors and also discusses the need for a standardized approach for the analysis and reporting of composition of carotenoids in plant products and designing model systems for stability studies.
Dehydrozingerone, structural half analogue of curcumin, is a phenolic compound isolated from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes. Dehydrozingerone and several of its derivatives such as glucopyranosides and its tetra acetate derivative and 4-O-acetyl and methyl derivatives of dehydrozingerone were synthesized in the present study. Dehydrozingerone, synthesised with improved yield was used for the synthesis of Dehydrozingerone 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (first time report) by modified Koenigs-Knorr-Zemplén method. Structures of all the compounds have been established using spectroscopic methods. These compounds were tested for radical scavenging activity by DPPH and FRAP method as well as for antibacterial and antifungal activities. The parent molecule exhibited better scavenging activity as compared to its derivatives indicating the significance of free phenolic hydroxyl group. Also, Dehydrozingerone and its derivatives exhibited antibacterial as well as antifungal activity due to the conjugation system present, which includes α,β-unsaturated carbonyl (C = O) group. This study gave an insight into structural requirements for dehydrozingerone activity.
Vanilla is a tropical orchid belonging to the family Orchidaceae and it is mainly used in food, perfumery, and pharmaceutical preparations. The quality of the bean depends on the volatile constituent's, viz., the vanillin content, the species of the vine used, and the processing conditions adopted. Hence, proper pollination during flowering and curing by exercising utmost care are the important aspects of vanilla cultivation. There are different methods of curing, and each one is unique and named after the places of its origin like Mexican process and Bourbon process. Recently, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore has developed know-how of improved curing process, where the green vanilla beans are cured immediately after harvest and this process takes only 32 days, which otherwise requires minimum of 150-180 days as reported in traditional curing methods. Vanillin is the most essential component of the 200 and odd such compounds present in vanilla beans. Vanillin as such has not shown any antioxidant properties, it is along with other compounds has got nutraceutical properties and therefore its wide usage. The medicinal future of vanilla may definitely lie in further research on basic science and clinical studies on the constituents and their mechanism of action.
Tamarindus indica L., commonly known as the tamarind tree, is one of the most important leguminous tree species. This chapter describes the origin, classification, chemical composition, production, sources, main uses, health aspects and quality issues associated with this crop. The tamarind tree originates from Madagascar. The most valuable and commonly used part is the fruit. The pulp constitutes 30-50% of the ripe fruit, the shell and fibre account for 11-30% and the seed about 25-40%. Tamarind is commonly used as a health remedy throughout Asia, Africa and the Americas. Tamarind products, leaves, fruits and seeds have been extensively used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine and traditional African medicine. Tamarind is reported to have been adulterated with foreign matter which is both organic and inorganic in nature, due to poor post-harvest management practices including processing.
Mustard is among the oldest recorded spices dating back to around 3000 bc. Three varieties are in popular use - Brassica alba, Brassica juncea and Brassica nigra. This chapter looks first at the history of mustard, before going on to detail the botany of the different varieties. The chemical composition of mustard is described, including the constituents sinalbin and sinigrin, together with the nutritional value. Production and cultivation methods are discussed before the chapter proceeds to look at the main uses of mustard - culinary, therapeutic , industrial and as a fumigant and animal fodder. Finally, functional properties and quality specifications are presented.
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