Southern Agricultural Research Institute (SARI)
  • Hawassa, Southern Nation Nationality People Regional State, Ethiopia
Recent publications
Even though the Gamo zone is a prevalent mango producing area in Ethiopia, the lack of comprehensive post-harvest loss research along the mango value chain prevents respective stakeholders from recognizing the socioeconomic, nutritional and environmental significance of the post-harvest loss problem. Improving the post-harvesting handling practice not only increases the production by reduction of post-harvest loss but also increases food access at the market level with prices adjustment. Therefore, this study was intended to assess the post-harvest loss along the mango value chain and the challenges that actors and stakeholders face in the process. To do this, 120 mango producers were selected following a multistage sampling procedure. The analysis result shows that the main reasons for the low productivity of mango are the use of the local variety, disease and insect pests and lack of improved harvesting technologies. The result also shows about 41% of mango loss in the study area was due to a lack of improved harvesting mechanism and infection by disease and pests and poor transportation mechanisms. From this loss, the harvesting stage shares the largest share (18%) along the mango value chain. In addition, lack of improved mango varieties, lack of cooperative and wholesale marketing and lack of value addition practice are the major identified problems in the study area. There is also a huge loss of mango production in the study area that needs immediate intervention from respective stakeholders. Thus, dissemination of improved varieties through the distribution of seedlings, modifying the existing harvesting materials and introduction of improved harvesting technologies, strengthening the cooperative marketing and supporting alternative products development through processing was suggested.
Intercropping improves total productivity of food and feed crops through efficient utilization of land resource and farming inputs. The objective of undersowing lablab (Lablab purpureus L.) in maize (Zea mays) field was to evaluate biological yield and parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) control during 2018– 2020 at research substation of ArbaMinch on a sandy-loam soil and rainfall of 1103 mm. The treatments: sole-maize(M0), sole-lablab(L0), similar day planting (ML0), planting lablab ten days after maize(ML10), twenty days(ML20), thirty days (ML30) and forty days(ML40) were laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Growth, yield and yield components, biological competition of intercrops and weed invasion of the plots were assessed for intercrop combinations of maize and lablab. Higher(P < 0.01) plant height and branch number of lablab were recorded at ML10, leaf to stem ratio of lablab was higher at L0 while all parameters value was lower at ML0. Higher biomass yield (46.89 t/ha) was recorded at ML10, grain yield (7.73 t/ha) at M0 and dry matter yield (14.56 t/ha) at L0. Land equivalent ratio (LER) showed 80.1% efficient at ML10 followed by ML20 (79.2%) while lower at ML40 (35.7%) and the highest monetary advantage value (MVI) was 12,084.00ETB at ML10 followed by ML20. Lablab demonstrated the highest suppressing ability over weed density at ML0. Planting lablab 10–20 days after maize proves efficient land use and profitability. Forage quality analysis of intercrops has to be considered in the future studies.
This study aims to estimate genetic parameters and genetic trends for early growth and reproductive traits ofDoyogena sheep. Data used in the study were collected over 6 years (2013–2018). Studied traits were birth weight(BWT), weaning weight (WWT), 6-month weight (SMWT), average daily gains from birth to weaning (ADG0-3),average daily gains from weaning to 6-month age (ADG3-6), average daily gain from birth to 6-month age (ADG0-6), litter size (LS), lambing interval (LI), age at first lambing (AFL), and annual reproductive rate (ARR). (Co)variance components and genetic parameters were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood (REML). Theanalyses were carried out using WOMBAT program. Univariate analysis was applied to estimate genetic param-eters. Six different animal models were fitted by including or excluding maternal effects. The direct heritabilityestimates for BWT, WWT, SMWT, ADG0-3, ADG3-6 and ADG0-6 were 0.33 � 0.06, 0.31 � 0.06, 0.14 � 0.06, 0.13� 0.04, 0.11 � 0.07, and 0.02 � 0.05 respectively. Direct heritability for LS, LI, and AFL were 0.28 � 0.12, 0.20 �0.5, and 0.001 � 0.3, respectively. The maternal heritability estimates for BWT, WWT, and LS were 0.24 � 0.12,0.60 � 0.07, and 0.24 � 0.08, respectively. The genetic correlation between BWT with WWT and BWT withSMWT were 0.21 � 0.07 and 0.21 � 0.09, respectively. Genetic progress for most of the studied traits has shownpromising improvements. Thus, continuation of selection, therefore, suggested for more improvements in theperformance of Doyogena sheep. Direct heritability estimates decrease as lamb age increases and selection basedon earlier body weight will be more efficient
A comprehensive physical and cup quality assessment of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) has not yet been conducted on Kafa Biosphere Reserve coffees. Hence, the influence of location, production systems, and processing methods on coffee bean physical and sensorial qualities were studied to identify the inherent qualities and suitable preparation methods for the improvement of bean physical and organoleptic qualities. In a three-stage nested design, factors such as location (Gimbo, Gawata, and Decha districts), coffee production system (forest, semiforest, and garden), and processing method (wet, semiwet, and dry) were considered. Preliminary coffee quality assessment data were gathered from bean physical and cup quality analyses of coffee obtained from the combination of the three factors. An ANOVA was conducted on preliminary coffee quality data. The result of the ANOVA showed that location and production system effects were significant only on bean moisture content (P < .01) and acidity (P < .05), respectively. The processing effect had a significant effect on bean moisture (P < .01), odor (P < .001), raw (P < .01), and preliminary grade (P < .05). Better coffee quality was maintained in the dry coffee processing method within the recommended moisture content. Forest and semiforest coffees respond poorly in odor and overall raw coffee quality when treated with wet and semiwet processing methods. Hence, to attain a better quality of coffee, rather than proper harvesting procedures, more emphasis should be given to choosing proper processing methods. Further investigation that includes the effects of elevation gradient is recommended.
Feed supply, in terms of energy and protein, has been not sufficient to feed the Ethiopian livestock population. On farm trials of repeated cuttings assessing growth and dry matter yield of Desho (Pennisetum glaucifoilum) varieties was undertaken in trials run in different agro-ecologies of Southwestern Ethiopia during 2019 and 2020. Field trials of three varieties (Areka-DZF#590, Kulumsa-DZF#592, and Kindokoisha-DZF #589) established at six planting sites with an altitude variation of 832–1797 m above sea level were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Four cuttings were taken, in June, August, October and December 2020, after an establishment period of 16 months. Plant height, leaf morphology (leaf length, leaf width, leaf number per plant), and tiller number per plant, leaf to stem ratio, dry matter yield and farmers perception were measured to identify the best adapted and yielding Desho variety. There was significant variation (P < 0.01) in dry matter yield and plant height recorded due to variety, harvesting frequency, agro-ecological zone and management variation, and their interaction in the trial. Leaf morphology varied across agro-ecological zones and farms in the trial. The variety Kulumsa-DZF#592 performed the best across both agro-ecological zones and farms. The highest dry matter yield recorded at the interaction between variety, harvesting frequency, agro-ecological zone and trial farm, was 39.70 t/ha, with a mean value of 22.56 t/ha. Scaling up of the varieties in the experimental area and similar agro-ecologies is recommended for the forages contribution to filling the energy feed gap in farming system of Southwestern Ethiopia. Assessing the productivity of the varieties under irrigation after each cut and under intensive management could be warranted for the future.
Even though agriculture has ample potential to absorb a large number of people, youths tend to stand away from the subsector. As a result, rural job creation works were started in southern Ethiopia by participating youth in different agricultural enterprises in the form of groups and cooperatives. However, as compared to sector potential, youths are not participating in agricultural job creation works in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was intended to assess factors affecting youth participation in agricultural enterprises in selected districts of Southern Ethiopia. A multistage sampling procedure was followed to select 160 sample youths. The collected data from sampled youths were analyzed by both descriptive statistics and a probit econometric model. Among the agricultural enterprises, the majority of the youths (63.3%) preferred livestock enterprises indicating livestock sector job creation capacity in Ethiopia. The seasonal nature of agricultural income, fear of agricultural risk, and lack of initial capital were the top three factors hindering youth participation in the agricultural enterprise as rural job creation works. The probit model result shows that, among the hypothesized variables, education level, credit getting bureaucracy, lack of initial capital, fear of the group, risk and uncertainty, and lack of working place determine significantly youth participation in agriculture enterprises. Hence, respective bodies must group youths based on their preferred interest and evaluate their business plan critical before credit disbursement, while solving credit providing terms problems on the microfinance side and the introduction of agricultural insurance through these youth agricultural enterprises for agricultural risk fear needs stakeholders’ interventions. Overall, initial savings, interest rate, and payback period of credit need special policy adjustments to increase youth participation in an agricultural enterprise.
The genotype by environmental interaction (GEI) significantly affects the success of breeding strategies in a versatile crop such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Twenty cowpea genotypes were tested in a randomized complete block design with three replicates in Gofa, Kucha and Humbo in Meher seasons 2016 and 2017 (E1 to E6) and Belg seasons 2017 and 2018 (E7 to E12) to quantify and to assess effects of genotypes, environments and their interactions on grain yield of cowpea genotypes and to identify stable and/or high-yielding genotypes. The environmental, genotype, and GEI effects were highly significant (p<0.001), contributing 42.3%, 23.0%, and 34.7% to TSS, respectively. Additive main effect and multiplicative interaction (AMMI), genotype main effects plus genotype-environment interaction (GGE), ASV (AMMI stability value), and Genotype stability index (GSI) were used to identify stable genotypes. The GGE-biplot model showed that the twelve environments used for the study were clustered under three mega-environments. Our results showed that IT96D-604(G12), IT-89KD (G16), IT93K-293-2-2 (G14), 93K-619-1(G13), IT97K-569-9(G20), and IT99K-1060(G15) achieved the highest grain yield (1.67, 1.62, 1.55, 1.51, 1.51, and 1.45 t ha⁻¹ respectively) over environments. AMMI and GGE biplots analyzes identified G16 (IT-89KD) and G14 (IT93K-293-2-2) as stable and high-yielding genotypes across environments and can be further tested in variety verification and later released as varieties and can also be used for different breeding purposes in all cowpea-growing areas of southern Ethiopia. The four high-yielding genotypes IT96D-604, 93K-619-1, IT97K-569-9 and IT99K-1060 could be recommended for inclusion in breeding or variety verification trials for release. Furthermore, our results demonstrated the effectiveness of AMMI and GGE biplot techniques for selecting stable genotypes, high yielding, and responsiveness.
This study was initiated to identify market chain actors and their function in the market, investigate the structure conduct and performance of goat marketing in south omo zones of SNNPR, Ethiopia during the year 2018. Primary data were collected from sampled pastoralists and agro pastoralists, traders and brokers. Before the household survey, key informant interview and focus group discussions were conducted with producers, traders and brokers. Descriptive Statistics and qualitative data analysis techniques were employed to analyze the goat market structure, conduct and performance. The results show that producers, brokers, traders and consumers were the major goat market actors. Regarding the market structure, cattle market is known to be dominated by few traders. Although the degree of competition varies, goat market structure in the study area has an oligopolistic nature. This shows that only few traders have the majority of market share and earn abnormal profit. Besides, goat market is characterized by entry barriers, distant market point, high trucking cost, seasonality of marketing, information asymmetries and unfriendly relation between actors. As the pastoralists and agro pastoralists mainly depend on goat for their livelihoods and other cultural values, traders take advantage of the asymmetric market information towards them. The larger share of the market gains remains with end traders thereby limiting the pastoralists and agro pastoralists chance to realize the economic gains in goat production. Thus, linking producers to market and its benefits, establishing cooperatives and development of infrastructure could play a significant role for optimization of the sector. Int. J. Agril. Res. Innov. Tech. 11(2): 52-60, Dec 2021
Depletion of soil fertility, depletion of macro- and micro-nutrients and soil organic matter and inappropriate and imbalanced fertilizer application are among the most important factors that reduces the food barley production in Ethiopia. Therefore, the experiment was conducted to evaluate NPSB blended fertilizer rate effect on improving production of food barley in Semen Ari District, Southwestern Ethiopia during main cropping season. Control, (142 NPS + 159 Urea) kg ha-1, (150 NPSB + 41 Urea) kg ha-1, (200 NPSB + 72 Urea) kg ha-1, (250 NPSB + 102 Urea) kg ha-1 and (100 NPSB + 161 Urea) kg ha-1 treatments were used for the experiment which laid out in RCBD following three replication with spacing of 20 cm between rows; and HB 1307 improved food barley seeds were drilled on prepared rows. Full dose of blended and potassium fertilizers were applied at planting time and urea was applied in two split. The result revealed that food barley responded well to application of N, P, S and B than the unfertilized one. Application of 100 kg ha-1 NPSB + 161 kg ha-1 Urea resulted in highest grain yield of 3806.3 kg ha-1, while the lowest grain yield of 1939.2 kg ha-1 was recorded from the nil. Moreover, the highest net benefit of 32124.56 ETB ha-1 and economic returns of 942.2% was recorded in response to application of 100 kg ha-1 NPSB + 161 kg ha-1 Urea. Application of 100 kg ha-1 NPSB + 161 kg ha-1 Urea gave 49.05% yield increment and 40.24% increment in economic return over the control. Therefore, we recommend application of 100 kg ha-1 NPSB + 161 kg ha-1 Urea for farmers and investor’s in study area and similar agro-ecologies as it was optimum for improving food barley production. Further studies and investigation should be done on plant nutrient uptake, nutrient use efficiency and over location. Int. J. Agril. Res. Innov. Tech. 11(2): 10-17, Dec 2021
Purpose: Mastitis is a disease known to cause a great deal of loss of production and has a major economic impact. In the study area, there is little current information on bovine mastitis. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the overall prevalence of bovine mastitis and its associated risk factors and isolate the major pathogenic bacteria. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2020 to September 2020 in selected dairy farms of Gamo Zone, southern Ethiopia. A total of 422 lactating cows were diagnosed for mastitis using the California mastitis test, clinical examination, and bacteriological methods. Results: The overall prevalence of bovine mastitis determined in the area was 17.1% (72 of 422), of which 1.9% (eight of 422) was clinical and 15.2% (64 of 422) subclinical. Of 1,662 quarters examined, 7.94% (132) were positive. Bacteriological methods were also used to isolate the major pathogenic bacterial species associated with bovine mastitis. From 72 composite milk samples, growth of six different groups of bacteria was recorded in 64 (88.9%) samples. The most predominant bacterial pathogens isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (42.6%), ahead of Streptococcus spp. (26.2%), non-aureus staphylococci (14.8%), and Escherichia coli (11.5%). Salmonella spp. (3.3%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (1.6%) were the least isolated bacterial pathogens. Among risk factors, breed, parity, udder depth, and tick infestation of the udder showed statistically significant differences (P<0.05) regarding the occurrence of mastitis. Conclusion: The current study revealed that mastitis is one of the health problems affecting dairy cows in Gamo. Enhancing the awareness of dairy farmers, regular screening, and improving hygienic conditions are critically important to control and prevent bovine mastitis in the study area.
Field experiment was carried out during the 2017-18 cropping season at Kako, Bena-Ttsemay woreda, South Omo zone, Southern Ethiopia to determine the effect of intercropping of maize and cowpea on the yield, land use efficiency and profitability of both crops. The experiment consisted of 4 treatments (sole maize, sole cowpea, one row maize to one row cowpea and one row maize to two-row cowpea) and laid in RCBD in four replications. Intercropping of one row maize to one row cowpea and one row maize to two-row cowpea, resulted in 55.8% and 27.9% greater land use efficiency than for either crop grown alone. The highest MAI was obtained by growing one row of maize to one row of cowpea (11563.17) followed by one row maize to two-rows of cowpea (6783.50).Based on the present finding, intercropping of one row maize and one row cowpea more economic advantage than the other crop combination or grown alone. Therefore, intercropping of one row maize to one row cowpea is an advantageous to farmers in the study area since it would provide additional crop yield with the same piece of land and more profitable related to cost benefit. Int. J. Agril. Res. Innov. Tech. 11(2): 147-150, Dec 2021
This study mainly aimed at analyzing market chain analysis of coffee in the Debub Ari District. The descriptive and S-C-P model was used. Both primary and secondary data were collected from the study area. The multi-stage sampling technique employed for this study. A total of 194 coffee producer household heads have been randomly selected and interviewed with the help of pre-tested structured questionnaire. The focus group discussion and key informants interviews were conducted to supplement the formal data. The results of S-C-P model indicated that the four firms concentration ratio (CR4) result in the study area was found to be tight oligopolistic for both red and dry coffee which accounts 89.2 and 80.0%, respectively. About 72% of price setting was done by buyers, 27% negotiation and 1% by the producers. There are seven market channels, which have been identified in the study area. The computed marketing margin among different actors and channels indicated that the total gross marketing margin (TGMM) of coffee is high in channel I, II, III whereas the producers marketing margin (GMMp) was highest in channel VII. Therefore, the intervention is needed to improve coffee marketing chain through promoting cooperatives, infrastructural development and timely market information for efficient marketing system in the study area. Int. J. Agril. Res. Innov. Tech. 11(2): 61-68, Dec 2021
The study investigated the socioeconomic impacts of irrigated agriculture and factors affecting the decision of agro-pastoralists to participate in irrigation during 2017-2018. The result depends on cross-sectional data collected from a sample of 120 households of which 90 irrigation users and 30 non-users using a combination of purposive and random sampling. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression to assess factors that affect participation in irrigation. The logistic regression model revealed that age, credit access, extension contact, distance to water, and labor force significantly affected the decision of given agro-pastoralists to participate in irrigation practices at less than 5% probability levels. This indicates that the explanatory variables included in the model influence the decision of agro-pastoralists to participate in irrigation practices. Therefore, the provision of credit service to allow rapid progress in introducing technologies like tractors for farming practices and frequent extension contact with irrigation users could enhance the productivity in the area. Int. J. Agril. Res. Innov. Tech. 11(2): 139-146, Dec 2021
Scarcity of water is the most severe constraint for sustainable development of agriculture in arid and semi-arid areas. Hence, novel irrigation water application systems need to be developed so that high crop yield and water productivity per unit of land can be increased. Thus, the field experiment was conducted with the objective of determining the effect of different soil moisture depletion levels on yield and water use efficiency of sorghum crop in Benna-Tsemay woreda at Enchete kebele, Southern Ethiopia. The experiment was conducted for two consecutive years (2019-2020). It was arranged in RCBD with three replications and treatment was rated for five levels of available soil moisture depletion (ASMD), where T1 = 60%, T2 = 80%, T3 = 100%, T4 = 120%, and T5 = 140% of ASMD. Analysis of variance has shown that yield and water use efficiency of sorghum crop was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by irrigation scheduling. As observed in this study, the most economically attractive and environmentally accepted for small scale farmers with tolerable cost of production and higher net benefit was obtained by application of T3 (100% ASMD) under conventional furrow irrigation system. Therefore, for this particular sorghum crop (teshale variety), it could be concluded that increased water saving and water productivity through irrigation at 100% ASMD under conventional furrow irrigation system can solve the problem of water shortage and would ensure the opportunity of further irrigation development in the study area and similar agro-ecology. Int. J. Agril. Res. Innov. Tech. 11(2): 95-102, Dec 2021
The experiment was conducted to evaluate the adaptability of newly released papaya varieties at Chano Mille research site of Arba Minch Agricultural Research Center during 2019-2020 cropping seasons. The three hermaphrodite papaya varieties namely; Braz-HS1, Koka-HM1 and Meki-HL1 were used for the study and laid-out in a Randomized Complete Block Design in three replications. Data on yield and yield components were collected and analyzed by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) through Statistical Analytics System software. The ANOVA results revealed that there were significant variations among papaya varieties for the studied parameters. Significantly, the highest number of fruits plant-1, number of leaves and fruit yield were obtained from Braz-HS1 papaya variety. The fruit yield of Braz-HS1 variety was 46% higher than that of Koka-HM1. In general, Braz-HS1 papaya variety performed (in terms of number of fruits and fruit yield) better than the rest two varieties. Thus, Braz-HS1 papaya variety could be recommended for the papaya growers in the study area and vicinity with similar agro-ecology. Int. J. Agril. Res. Innov. Tech. 11(2): 69-71, Dec 2021
Fusarium head blight (Fusarium graminearum Schwabe), FHB, is considered among the economically significant and destructive diseases of wheat. Thus, the study was worked out at seven sites in southern Ethiopia during the 2019 main cropping year to decide the effects of host resistance and chemical seed treatment on the progress of FHB epidemics and to decide grain yield benefit and yield losses derived from the use of wheat cultivars integrated with chemical seed treatments. The field study was worked out with the integration of two wheat cultivars, including Shorima as well as Hidase, and five chemical seed treatments, including Carboxin, Thiram + Carbofuran, Imidalm, Proceed Plus, and Thiram Granuflo. Twelve experimental treatments were arrayed in factorial arrangement with randomized complete block design. Each experimental treatment was replicated three times and delegated at random to experimental plots within a block. Significant (P < 0.01) variations were observed among the evaluated treatment combinations for rates of disease progress, incidence, severity, the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC), and yield-related parameters across the locations. Results showed that the lowest incidence was registered on Shorima treated with Thiram + Carbofuran fungicide (27.40%). The lowest mean disease severity was recorded from Shorima integrated with Imidalm (21.23%) and Shorima treated with Thiram + Carbofuran (21.78%). The AUDPC was as low as 211.27, 226.39, and 236.46%-days were recorded on Shorima treated with Imidalm, Thiram + Carbofuran, and Proceed Plus, respectively. The highest disease severity of 57.91% (Hidase) and 27.22% (Shorima), and AUDPC of 552.71%-days (Hidase) and 313.04%-days (Shorima) were recorded from untreated control plots of the two cultivars. Paramount grain yield was found from Shorima treated with Imidalm and Thiram + Carbofuran fungicides, each of which was noted with GY of 4.40 and 4.05 t ha−1, respectively. Results also showed the highest yield losses (21.89 and 23.23%) were computed on untreated control plots of the cultivars Hidase and Shorima, respectively, compared with maximum protected experimental treatment for both cultivars. Moreover, cost-benefit analysis confirmed that Shorima treated with Imidalm exhibited the most prominent net benefit (NB) ($67,381.26 ha-1) and benefit-cost ratio (BCR) (4.43), followed by Shorima treated with Thiram + Carbofuran (NB of $60,837.76 ha-1 and BCR of 3.98). Based on the lowest yield loss and highest economic advantage, the use of Shorima treated with either Imidalm or Thiram + Carbofuran could be suggested to the farmers in the study areas and elsewhere having analogous agro-ecological conditions to manage the disease. However, sole use of chemical seed treatment is not as effective as post-anthesis aerial application up to maturity of the crop. For this reason, post-anthesis aerial application should be considered besides chemical seed treatment for effective management of FHB.
Enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) is economically a useful crop that provides forage for animals, construction materials, fuel and traditionally it is used as a medicine. The production and productivity of enset is mainly affected by many diseases and pests which causes serious devastating cultivar diversity and finally a yield lose of the crop. Moreover, its production sustainability is also threatened by many factors like wild animal pests, enset root pests, high population pressure and the shift of the producers to cash-oriented crop production. The assessment on enset production, its challenges and controlling methods was carried out in Debub Ari district of South Omo Zone, in southern Ethiopia from November 2021 to January 2021 in four randomly selected representative Kebeles. Simple random sampling method were employed to select a representative sample of the study (n = 138). Qualitative and quantitative data were collected through structured questionnaire, focus group discussions, individual interview and personal observations. The collected data were analyzed by using appropriate simple descriptive statistics. The land under enset production is declining from time to time, as well as its production also declines due to social, bio-physical and environmental factors such as land fragmentation, enset bacterial welt, insects and pests and environmental variability factors. To overcome these factors farmers practicing many controlling methods such as by burying the infected plants, restricting the movement of infected plant materials, sterilizing production tools and raising awareness about how to protect disease like enset bacterial welt and use of aluminum phosphate for pests like mole rate.
Background Bonga sheep is a mutton type breed with a long-fat-tail and better body weight at maturity. The breed is especially located in the Southwestern mid and highland land areas of Ethiopia. Currently, the breed was well known in Ethiopia and also its price is higher as compared to other sheep breeds in the country. However, empirical evidence is lacking on price determinants of the breed in Ethiopia. Therefore, this research aims at identifying sheep attributes and other factors that determine the market prices of Bonga sheep in Southwestern Ethiopia. Methodology Data from 300 traded sheep and sheep marketers were collected from five major sheep marketing centers in the Kaffa zone. A hedonic price model adjusted for heteroscedasticity was employed to analyze the observed price data. Results The model result showed that the attributes of the sheep are important guiding criteria in price formulation. Among the attributes age, sex (male), colour (red), body condition (good), tail type (very fat) and absence of horn significantly and positively determine the sheep price. As well, market place (Gojebi and Bonga) near to big cities and season (holiday) and purpose of purchase are also significant determinants of bong sheep price out of the sheep attributes in Southwestern Ethiopia. Conclusion Targeting in systematic improvement of the significant attributes which are demanded by the market and establishment of a breeding program to make sheep improvement in a sustainable way. Besides, effort should be geared to transform the system into a market-oriented system using a value chain framework by improving access to market information.
Objective: This study was conducted to generate data on the prevalence, species composition, and factors associated with small ruminant nematode infection in the South Omo zone, in South-western Ethiopia. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study through fecal nematode parasite examination was conducted. Simple floatation test and coproculture, followed by Baermann technique, were used for nematode egg and third-stage larvae (L3) separation and identification. The McMaster method was used to calculate the egg per gram of feces (EPG). Results: From a total of 242 sheep and goats examined, 72.34% were infested with single or mixed nematode parasites. District, “Kebele”, species, body condition score, and age were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with nematode infestation. Simple logistic regression analysis indicated that nematode infestation in Bena-Tsemay district (78.33%) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher by a factor of 0.54 (OR 95% CI: 0.30–0.96) than Hamer district (66.39%). Among the species, caprine (79.43%) was significantly (p < 0.05) infested than ovine (62.37%) by a factor of 0.45 (OR 95% CI: 0.25–0.81). Moreover, infestation on poor (79.12%) and medium (70.96%) body conditioned animals was higher by a factor of 2.94 (OR 95% CI: 1.41–6.26) and 1.76 (OR 95% CI: 0.88–3.53) than on good body conditioned animals (63.79%). Likewise, infestation in age groups of 1–3 years (78.66%) and >3 years (84.40%) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher by a factor of 4.83 (OR 95% CI: 2.31–10.46) and 8.23 (OR 95% CI: 3.98–17.75) than younger age groups (41.37%), respectively. A moderate parasitic burden was observed on 52.90% of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN)-infested animals with significantly (p < 0.05) higher EPG in females than males. Furthermore, mixed infestation of Trichostrongylus axei and Eimeria (6.19%), Haemonchus contortus and Eimeria (5.78%), and Trichostrongylus vitrines and Eimeria (5.78%) were dominantly identified. On the contrary, T. axei (15.70%), Eimeria (8.67%), H. contortus (7.43%), and Trichostrongylus colubriformis (7.02%) were dominant single infestations. Conclusion: The current study revealed the highest prevalence of GIN in the study area, which needs strategic control, needs to enhance community awareness toward GIN control and prevention, and to implement further investigation into anthelminthic efficacy to solve the problem. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2021; 8(4.000): 597-605]
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85 members
Zerihun Yemataw
  • Plant Breeding and Genetics
Getachew Gudero Mengesha
  • Department of Pathology
Misgana Mitiku
  • National Enset Research Program Plant Protection Department
Deribe G Talore
  • Department of Animal Science
Information
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P.O.Box 06, Hawassa, Southern Nation Nationality People Regional State, Ethiopia
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http://www.sari.gov.et
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+251-462206575
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