A new species of Heligmosomoides Hall, 1916 is proposed for nematodes collected from deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus, in western Canada. The unequivocal diagnostic character for this species is the presence of two internal bursal membranes. Only four species, Heligmosomoides bullosus, Heligmosomoides douglasi, Heligmosomoides montanus and Heligmosomoides vandegrifti, are characterized as possessing a single internal bursal membrane. The genetic distance between Heligmosomoides bibullosus sp. nov., and its putative sister clade Heligmosomoides vandegrifti is congruent with their geographic separation by the mountain range of the Rockies and 4000 km; both morphological difference as well as geography and genetic distance suggest isolation among the two species. Further, H. bibullosus sp. nov. infects deer mice (P. maniculatus) whereas H. vandegrifti is frequently collected in white-footed mice (P. leucopus). Finally, this study supports the taxonomic importance of the monodelphic/didelphic condition as a diagnostic trait within the family, the paraphyly of Heligmosomoides, and reveals undocumented diversity of Heligmosomoides in Nearctic rodents of the Neotominae. The present taxon is the third species in members of this subfamily of rodents.
Background Drug overdose rates in the United States have been steadily increasing, particularly in rural areas. The COVID-19 pandemic and associated mitigation strategies may have increased overdose risk for people who use drugs by impacting social, community, and structural factors. Methods The study included a quantitative survey focused on COVID-19 administered to 50 people who use drugs and semi-structured qualitative interviews with 17 people who use drugs, 12 of whom also participated in the quantitative survey. Descriptive statistics were run for the quantitative data. Qualitative coding was line-by-line then grouped thematically. Quantitative and qualitative data were integrated during analysis. Results Findings demonstrate how COVID-19 disruptions at the structural and community level affected outcomes related to mental health and drug use at the individual level. Themes that emerged from the qualitative interviews were (1) lack of employment opportunities, (2) food and housing insecurity, (3) community stigma impacting health service use, (4) mental health strains, and (5) drug market disruptions. Structural and community changes increased anxiety, depression, and loneliness on the individual level, as well as changes in drug use patterns, all of which are likely to increase overdose risk. Conclusion The COVID-19 pandemic, and mitigation strategies aimed at curbing infection, disrupted communities and lives of people who use drugs. These disruptions altered individual drug use and mental health outcomes, which could increase risk for overdose. We recommend addressing structural and community factors, including developing multi-level interventions, to combat overdose. Trial registration Clinicaltrails.gov: NCT04427202. Registered June 11, 2020: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04427202?term=pho+mai&draw=2&rank=3
Intensive clear-cutting of natural forests and conversion to monoculture plantations are ongoing worldwide, leading to the degradation of soil quality and microbial functions. Here, we compared soil quality index (SQI) and fungal communities in a natural forest (Forest) and four 5-year-old monoculture plantations, including Camellia oleifera (Oil), Amygdalus persica (Peach), Myrica rubra (Berry) and Cunninghamia lanceolate (Fir) in a subtropical region of China. After conversion, soil pH in the plantations rose up to 0.31, but organic carbon and total nitrogen contents, sucrase, acid protease, glutaminase, acid and alkaline phosphatase activities decreased by 83%, 59%, 40%, 64%, 66%, 94% and 59%, respectively. Correspondingly, the SQI dropped by 65%. High-throughput sequencing of the ITS1 region demonstrated an increase in α-diversity and a striking difference in β-diversity of fungi following conversion. Changes in the dominant fungal taxa following forest conversion to plantations were interpreted by r- and K-selection of life strategies. Conversion increased the fungal groups with r-strategies, such as Ascomycota and Zygomycota, but decreased the fungal groups with K-strategies, such as Basidiomycota. Genera affiliated to those phyla including Pseudophialophora, Rhytisma increased, but Russula decreased. Redundancy analysis and structural equation modeling indicated that the diversity and composition of fungal communities changed with soil degradation, which was mainly driven by increased pH and total phosphorus content, but decreased C/N ratio and C and N related enzymes activities. Overall, the conversion of forest to monoculture plantations decreased soil quality and the abundance of K-strategists, retarded the decomposition of persistent organic matter, but boosted the prevalence of r-strategists in a more diverse fungal community.
This paper investigates the implications for international trade of a country’s dependence on renewable energy consumption in total energy use. We use data for 152 countries over the period 1990–2014. We estimate a gravity equation of bilateral trade to assess the role of renewable energy consumption on international trade. We find, inter alia, that a 1% increase in the use of renewable energy as a proportion of total energy leads to, on an average, a 1.026% decrease in exports, and a 0.39% increase in imports, suggesting that renewable energy use makes trade less competitive. This outcome is due in part to cost implications of using renewable energy sources. However, we also find some heterogeneity in this respect. Whereas Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries export more with increased use of renewable energy, for non-OECD countries renewable energy use reduces exports.
The ideal benefit of parallelizing/multithreading a program is diminished in practice by several factors such as hardware scaling, memory bandwidth, power constraints, and synchronization due to critical sections. Several models have been proposed in the past to estimate the resulting performance and extend the traditional Amdahls law. In this work, we focus on the effect of synchronization, and develop a model for the execution time estimation of multithreaded programs under the presence of critical sections. The proposed model is applicable to multiple different critical sections and generalizes and improves previously proposed models. Experimental results on simulated, synthetic and benchmark examples show that the proposed model provides accurate approximations.
This study explores the phenomenon of sexting among college students through a qualitative research design. Participants took part in online synchronous focus groups where they were asked twelve open-ended questions about their experiences with sexting. Overall, 49 Croatian and Bosnia and Herzegovinian students partici�pated in fve focus groups. Participants defned sexting as an exchange of sexually explicit content underpinned by a range of motives. Relational motive was seen as the most prevalent reason for sending ones’ own sexts, while the ‘harm motive’ was identifed for posting/sharing sexts of other people without their permission. Young persons expressed positive views toward sending their own sexts, particularly if sexting was voluntary and with a trusted person. Posting and/or sharing someone sextswithout the permission of the person depicted in that material or blackmailing someone with posting and/or sharing their sexts were often perceived negatively. Participants noted a number of advantages related to sexting in terms of increas�ing relationship satisfaction, but also disadvantages related to the risk of distributing sexts to others, or feelings of guilt associated with distributing other people’s sexts. In conclusion, this study contributes to the extant research on sexting by provid�ing perspectives of young persons from Croatian and Bosnian and Herzegovinian regions.
Understanding heat transfer between a quantum system and its environment is of undisputed importance if reliable quantum devices are to be constructed. Here, we investigate the heat transfer between system and bath in non-Markovian open systems in the process of adiabatic speedup. Using the quantum state diffusion equation method, the heat current, energy current, and power are calculated during free evolution and under external control of the system. While the heat current increases with increasing system–bath coupling strength and bath temperature, it can be restricted by the non-Markovian nature of the bath. Without pulse control, the heat current is nearly equal to the energy current. On the other hand, with pulse control, the energy current turns out to be nearly equal to the power. In this scenario, we show that non-Markovianity is a useful tool to drive the system through an approximate adiabatic dynamics, with pulse control acting in the conversion between heat current and power throughout the evolution.
We developed a spatially explicit agent-based model (ABM), DeerLandscapeDisease (DLD), to investigate the effects of landscape structure, disease transmission, and management alternatives on dynamics of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We fitted biased random walk models to data from GPS-collared deer to simulate movements of individual deer and deer groups in an agricultural landscape with fragmented forest patches and a forest-dominated landscape. We estimated behavioral and demographic parameters from field data and published literature of deer ecology. We considered both direct and indirect transmission routes and assumed that bioavailability of infectious pathogens deposited in the environment decreased exponentially over time. We tuned transmission parameters to match observed trajectories of CWD prevalence in Wisconsin, and assumed that infection probability during an encounter was equal for all age classes. Thus, infection prevalence varied with sex- and age-specific behavior. DLD simulations demonstrated significant effects of landscape structure, social behavior and transmission mode on temporal changes in prevalence. Prevalence rose faster and reached higher levels in fragmented forest landscapes due to aggregation of deer within small forest patches. Furthermore, simulation results suggested that CWD might be driven through a mix of frequency- and density-dependent processes, potentially facilitating coexistence of CWD and deer populations. These results demonstrate the utility of ABMs and the importance of including spatial and behavioral heterogeneity when modeling disease transmission.
α-Ketoglutarate is a key biomolecule involved in a number of metabolic pathways─most notably the TCA cycle. Abnormal α-ketoglutarate metabolism has also been linked with cancer. Here, isotopic labeling was employed to synthesize [1-13C,5-12C,D4]α-ketoglutarate with the future goal of utilizing its [1-13C]-hyperpolarized state for real-time metabolic imaging of α-ketoglutarate analytes and its downstream metabolites in vivo. The signal amplification by reversible exchange in shield enables alignment transfer to heteronuclei (SABRE-SHEATH) hyperpolarization technique was used to create 9.7% [1-13C] polarization in 1 minute in this isotopologue. The efficient 13C hyperpolarization, which utilizes parahydrogen as the source of nuclear spin order, is also supported by favorable relaxation dynamics at 0.4 μT field (the optimal polarization transfer field): the exponential 13C polarization buildup constant Tb is 11.0 ± 0.4 s whereas the 13C polarization decay constant T1 is 18.5 ± 0.7 s. An even higher 13C polarization value of 17.3% was achieved using natural-abundance α-ketoglutarate disodium salt, with overall similar relaxation dynamics at 0.4 μT field, indicating that substrate deuteration leads only to a slight increase (∼1.2-fold) in the relaxation rates for 13C nuclei separated by three chemical bonds. Instead, the gain in polarization (natural abundance versus [1-13C]-labeled) is rationalized through the smaller heat capacity of the "spin bath" comprising available 13C spins that must be hyperpolarized by the same number of parahydrogen present in each sample, in line with previous 15N SABRE-SHEATH studies. Remarkably, the C-2 carbon was not hyperpolarized in both α-ketoglutarate isotopologues studied; this observation is in sharp contrast with previously reported SABRE-SHEATH pyruvate studies, indicating that the catalyst-binding dynamics of C-2 in α-ketoglutarate differ from that in pyruvate. We also demonstrate that 13C spectroscopic characterization of α-ketoglutarate and pyruvate analytes can be performed at natural 13C abundance with an estimated detection limit of 80 micromolar concentration × *%P13C. All in all, the fundamental studies reported here enable a wide range of research communities with a new hyperpolarized contrast agent potentially useful for metabolic imaging of brain function, cancer, and other metabolically challenging diseases.
National surveys show that criminal justice organizations must devote considerable energy to recruiting qualified personnel and, in some cases, they struggle to attract sufficient applicant pools. To address these problems, organizations may use salary as a means of attracting candidates. From a contingency theory perspective, pay should be higher when the demands of the work and the nature of the organizational environment serve as detractors to successful recruitment. Using data from national surveys of prosecutor offices, this study explores the relationship between salary, the environment, and the organization. Results suggest that prosecutor pay is consistently related to county cost of living and, in different analytical models, caseload, government form, community conservatism, and rurality. The implications for theory and policy are discussed.
U.S. per capita seafood consumption is historically high due to population and income growth and consumer preference shifts toward healthy protein options. Despite this expansion, U.S. fisheries, especially those in the Great Lakes region, no longer fulfill domestic demand due to pressure on fish stocks and regulatory constraints. Instead, aquaculture and imports fill the gap. Rainbow trout, yellow perch, and walleye—three species historically produced in the North Central Region (NCR)—exemplify such trends. To expand marketing opportunities for NCR aquaculture producers, this study estimates willingness to pay (WTP) for these species and several search and credence fish attributes. We designed and distributed a survey instrument to collect hypothetical choice experiment responses from U.S. seafood consumers. Using a random utility framework, we estimate mean total WTP for trout, yellow perch, and walleye of $19.99/lb., $15.89/lb., and $17.37/lb., respectively. Further, we identify average price premia of $1.64/lb., $1.97/lb., and $0.84/lb. for NCR-sourced, wild-caught, and fresh fillet attributes. Our analysis also captures regional preferences. Mean WTP estimates for yellow perch and walleye, which are native to the Great Lakes, are significantly higher inside the NCR. Further, trout commands a higher premium outside the NCR than within, suggesting potential market segmentation for the analyzed species.
A growing literature posits attention as a core component of working memory (Baddeley, European Psychologist, 7(2), 85-97, 2002), yet research exploring this relationship is scarce in the temporal attention domain. The present research provided further evidence that the magnitude of the attentional blink (AB) can be influenced by working memory load (WML; Akyürek et al., Memory & Cognition 35, 621–627, 2007). Additionally, we behaviorally tested Akyürek and colleagues’ (Psychophysiology, 47(6), 1134-1141, 2010) conclusion that working memory influences attention at an early stage by systematically manipulating the timing of the first target in relation to the stimuli preceding and following it. In two experiments, we demonstrated that the AB effect increases as the temporal interval between the first target and the stimulus following it decreases. Importantly, this effect was observed only when WML was low, indicating that WM influences attending to a second target at an early stage of attentional processing.
A Wald type test with the wrong dispersion matrix is used when the dispersion matrix is not a consistent estimator of the asymptotic covariance matrix of the test statistic. One class of such tests occurs when there are p groups and it is assumed that the population covariance matrices from the p groups are equal, but the common covariance matrix assumption does not hold. The pooled t test, one-way ANOVA F test, and one-way MANOVA F test are examples of this class. Another class of such tests is used for weighted least squares. Two bootstrap confidence regions are modified to obtain large sample Wald type tests with the wrong dispersion matrix.
Since Stern first started his work in 1938, the field has recognized several empirically supported models of the etiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Two such models are the Tripartite Model of the Development of BPD and the Biosocial De- velopment Model of BPD. The Tripartite Model of the Development of BPD suggests that it is a combination of a hyperbolic temperament, traumatic childhood experiences, and an event or series of events that trigger the onset of BPD. Whereas the Biosocial Development Model of BPD elaborates on the work of Linehan’s Biosocial Theory. This model suggests a combination of an emotionally vulnerable temperament and an invalidating environment cause BPD. Over 70 years of research support these models. This article covers a detailed description of each of these models, the decades of research supporting these models, similarities, differences, treatment implications, the latest research, and future directions.
PurposeLaparoscopic skills improve with simulation-based training. However, training remains inaccessible in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In response, we developed a low-cost simulator and an assessment tool to support learning, practice, and assessment of laparoscopic salpingostomy skills.Methods We conducted this study in June–August 2021 at United States, Cameroon, and Ethiopia sites. Participants (n = 18) viewed an annotated video of an expert performing the procedure before uploading their own performance. Participants (n = 12) then reviewed and rated a subset of videos (n = 10) using a novel verification of proficiency (VOP) assessment. The VOP had 3 components: a checklist for completion of key tasks and avoidance of critical errors, a modified Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (m-OSATS), and an overall competency rating. We performed statistical analyses to evaluate the discrimination between novice and expert performances, the inter-rater agreement of novice and expert raters, and the correlation between the checklist and m-OSATS components’ summed scores.ResultsThe checklist (P = 0.001) and m-OSATS (P = 0.01) summed scores discriminated novice from expert performance, regardless of the rater’s level of expertise. Inter-rater agreement across novice and expert raters was high (ICC = |0.88, 0.95|, CI = |0.79, 0.97|). Findings indicated a strong positive correlation between the checklist and m-OSATS scores (r = 0.53, P = 0.0001) and the overall rating (r = 0.76, P = 0.0001).Conclusions Preliminary evidence supports use of the simulator and VOP in laparoscopic salpingostomy skills training and assessment and highlights the capacity of a global network of peers to assist in learners’ performance assessment to allow scaling in the LMIC setting.
This article outlines the current research on the treatment of family conflict, structural family theory (SFT), and the application of SFT in the treatment of family conflict. Family therapy is rarely conducted with violent families because of state-mandated programs that focus on the individual perpetrator. Yet, structural family therapy has much potential for addressing power, boundaries, and transactions associated with family violence. The review of utilizing SFT with families experiencing conflict makes the case that early intervention may reduce the rates of violence.
Catalytic conversion of CO2 to CO via reverse water gas shift (RWGS) and CH4 via methanation are competing reactions that simultaneously happen on Ni-based catalysts, and selective control of the reactions is of great importance to subsequent applications. Herein, conversion of CO2 on Mo3O5/Ni(111) with varying MoOx coverages was investigated using a combination of density functional theory (DFT) calculation and microkinetic modeling. The overall reaction proceeds through sequential RWGS to CO and CO methanation. The coordinatively unsaturated Mo (Moov) site at the interface of Mo3O5/Ni(111) enhances CO2 adsorption and facilitates C–O cleavage over the bare Ni(111), leading to more favorable CO2 direct dissociation to CO formation than the carboxyl and formate pathways. The oxophilic Moov also facilitates hydrogenation of CO to HCO and decomposition of CHO to CH and O. On Mo3O5/4 × 4 Ni(111), the enhanced hydrogenation and C–O breakage activity resulted in CH4 as the selective product. On Mo3O5/3 × 3 Ni(111), in contrast, the reduced size of the surface Ni ensembles caused the d-band center of surface Ni sites to shift downward, weakened CO adsorption, and reduced the hydrogenation activity, resulting in CO as the dominant product. Microkinetics analysis revealed that direct CO2 dissociation was the dominant path on Mo3O5/4 × 4 Ni(111) and the interfacial sites of Mo3O5/4 × 4 Ni(111) were primarily covered by O and OH. The rate-limiting step on Mo3O5/Ni(111) was the regeneration of Mo3O5. Consistent with the experimental results, the microkinetics also predicts that CH4 is selectively produced on Mo3O5/4 × 4 Ni(111) whereas CO is the primary product on Mo3O5/3 × 3 Ni(111).
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