The rapid adoption of glyphosate-resistant crops at the end of the 20th century caused a simplification of weed management that relied heavily on glyphosate for weed control. However, the effectiveness of glyphosate has diminished. A greater understanding of trends related to glyphosate use will shed new light on weed adaptation to a product that transformed global agriculture. Objectives were to (1) quantify the change in weed control efficacy from postemergence (POST) glyphosate use on troublesome weeds in corn and soybean and (2) determine the extent to which glyphosate preceded by a preemergence (PRE) improved the efficacy and consistency of weed control compared to glyphosate alone. Herbicide evaluation trials from 24 institutions across the United States of America and Canada from 1996 to 2021 were compiled into a single database. Two subsets were created; one with glyphosate applied POST, and the other with a PRE herbicide followed by glyphosate applied POST. Within each subset, mean and variance of control ratings for seven problem weed species were regressed over time for nine US states and one Canadian province. Mean control with POST glyphosate alone decreased over time while variability in control increased. Glyphosate preceded by a labeled PRE herbicide showed little change in mean control or variability in control over time. These results illustrate the rapid adaptation of agronomically important weed species to the paradigm-shifting product glyphosate. Including more diversity in weed management systems is essential to slowing weed adaptation and prolonging the usefulness of existing and future technologies.
Infection over time by endophytic fungi in soybean seed and pods was documented in Iowa and Wisconsin in 2018. Three reproductive stages were sampled from six cultivars, with maturity groups (MG) ranging from 1.1 to 4.7, and included 216 blemish-free pods and 1,836 healthy seeds that were heavily disinfested to remove epiphytes. Thirty-five species and 11 genera were identified from 1,799 isolates using morphological and molecular evidence. Alternaria, Diaporthe, and Fusarium were dominant. The timing of endophyte infection was documented relative to MG. The lowest number of fungi were recovered from seed at R6, and infection sharply increased at R7. The abundance of Diaporthe and Fusarium isolates differed across MG and reproductive stage; shorter MGs had more Diaporthe isolates at earlier reproductive stages than longer MGs. Fusarium counts differed across MG but did not show consistent trends with seed maturity. Alternaria counts declined as seed matured but were not affected by MG. We used nonmetric multidimensional scaling to elucidate the phenology of seed infection within the endophyte community. This method helps represent the data in a lower dimension by measuring the similarity or dissimilarity between data points, making it a useful tool for grouping similar endophyte communities. The nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination analysis of fungal taxa within endophyte communities revealed that the dominant genera in filled green pods were highly similar. However, this similarity was not observed among different stages of seed development, indicating that each taxon had distinct modes of infecting the seeds. [Formula: see text] Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license .
Annealing is a physical modification of starch through heat treatment in the presence of water with controlled time. The heating temperature is below the gelatinization temperature and above the glass transition temperature. It only uses water and heat energy without any chemical reagents; thus annealing is an eco-friendly and cost-effective process. Unlike other starch modification technologies, such as chemical and enzyme modification, annealing induces relatively mild property changes. Thus, annealed starches maintain intact granule architecture but with changes in physicochemical properties such as crystallinity, gelatinization, swelling factor, solubility, viscosity, and hydrolysis rate. In addition to heating time, temperature, and moisture, intrinsic starch properties (e.g., source, amylose content) influence the annealing properties. Overall, annealing is a cost-effective, simple, and viable technique to modify starch functionality to develop value-added food products.
Recolonization of predators to their former ranges is becoming increasingly prevalent. Such recolonization places predators among their prey once again; the latter having lived without predation (from such predators) for a considerable time. This renewed coexistence creates opportunities to explore predation ecology at both fundamental and applied levels. We used a paired experimental design to investigate white-tailed deer risk allocation in the Upper and Lower Peninsulas (UP and LP) in Michigan, USA. Wolves are functionally absent in the LP, while deer in the UP coexist with a re-established wolf population. We treated 15 sites each in UP and LP with wolf olfac-tory cues and observed deer vigilance, activity, and visitation rates at the interface of habitat covariates using remote cameras. Such a paired design across wolf versus no-wolf areas allowed us to examine indirect predation effects while accounting for confounding parameters such as the presence of other predators and human activity. While wolf urine had no effect across most metrics in both UP and LP, we observed differences in deer activity in areas with versus without wolves. Sites treated with wolf urine in the UP showed a reduction in crepuscular deer activity, compared to control/novel-scent treated sites. Furthermore, we observed a strong positive effect of vegetation cover on deer vigilance in these sites. This indicates that simulated predator cues likely affect deer vigilance more acutely in denser habitats, which presumably facilitates predation success. Such responses were however absent among deer in the LP that are presumably naïve toward wolf predation. Where human and non-human predators hunt shared prey, such as in Michigan, predators may constrain human hunting success by increasing deer vigilance. Hunters may avoid such exploita-tive competition by choosing hunting/bait sites located in open areas. Our results pertaining to fundamental predation ecology have strong applied implications that can promote human-predator coexistence. K E Y W O R D S behavioral manipulation, human-wildlife conflict, olfactory cues, optimal foraging, predator recolonization, predator reintroduction, predator-prey interactions
Aims: Tillage and mulching are two agricultural practices that play a crucial role in improving crop growth. Tillage involves mechanical manipulation of the soil, which helps improve soil aeration, drainage, and root penetration. By loosening the compacted soil, tillage allows plant roots access to nutrients and ensures adequate drainage, which is essential for both healthy root development and optimal crop growth. However, their combined influence on soil enzymatic activities along with maize growth still needs further investigation. Methods: That's why current study was conducted with two factors (different tillage techniques and mulching levels) and four replications. No tillage, conventional tillage and deep tillage practices was done with and without wheat straw mulching (8 kg/ ha). Results: Results showed that deep tillage with mulching caused significant improvement in days to emergence (9.98%), emergence/m 2 (12.18%), plant height (8.97%), leaf area/plant (17.33%), grains/ear (6.91%), 1000 grains weight (4.72%), grains yield (1.88%) and biological yield (13.29%) over no tillage and no mulching. It also significantly improved total soluble sugar, total protein, free proline, total carbohydrates, urease activity,alkaline phosphatase activity, invertase and catalase activity (D) compared to no tillage and no mulching. Conclusion: In conclusion, deep tillage with mulching is a better technology than conventional tillage and no tillage with mulching to improve maize growth and quality attributes. It can also regulate the soil enzymes and health in positive manner. More investigations are suggested at field level using different cereal crops for declaration of deep tillage with straw mulching as best treatment for enhancement of their production.
Pharma-logical treatments are typically not a stand-alone remedy for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Physical activity (PA) participation may be a non-pharmalogical strategy available for individuals with ADHD to manage their symptoms. This chapter discusses various PA modalities regarding their research-supported effect on ADHD symptoms: aerobic physical activity, anaerobic physical activity, martial arts, and yoga. Both acute and chronic ADHD symptom improvements can be achieved as a result of participation in the PA modalities described in this chapter.
Marine phytoplankton are primary producers in ocean ecosystems and emit dimethyl sulfide (DMS) into the atmosphere. DMS emissions are the largest biological source of atmospheric sulfur and are one of the largest uncertainties in global climate modeling. DMS is oxidized to methanesulfonic acid (MSA), sulfur dioxide, and hydroperoxymethyl thioformate, all of which can be oxidized to sulfate. Ice core records of MSA are used to investigate past DMS emissions but rely on the implicit assumption that the relative yield of oxidation products from DMS remains constant. However, this assumption is uncertain because there are no long-term records that compare MSA to other DMS oxidation products. Here, we share the first long-term record of both MSA and DMS-derived biogenic sulfate concentration in Greenland ice core samples from 1200 to 2006 CE. While MSA declines on average by 0.2 µg S kg –1 over the industrial era, biogenic sulfate from DMS increases by 0.8 µg S kg –1 . This increasing biogenic sulfate contradicts previous assertions of declining North Atlantic primary productivity inferred from decreasing MSA concentrations in Greenland ice cores over the industrial era. The changing ratio of MSA to biogenic sulfate suggests that trends in MSA could be caused by time-varying atmospheric chemistry and that MSA concentrations alone should not be used to infer past primary productivity.
Half-metallic Heusler compounds have been extensively studied in the recent years, both experimentally and theoretically, for potential applications in spin-based electronics. Here, we present the results of a combined theoretical and experimental study of the quaternary Heusler compound NiFeMnAl. Our calculations indicate that this material is half-metallic in the ground state and maintains its half-metallic electronic structure under a considerable range of external hydrostatic pressure and biaxial strain. NiFeMnAl crystallizes in the regular cubic Heusler structure, and exhibits ferromagnetic alignment. The practical feasibility of the proposed system is confirmed in the experimental section of this work. More specifically, a bulk ingot of NiFeMnAl was synthesized in A2 type disordered cubic structure using arc melting. It shows a high Curie temperature of about 468 K and a saturation magnetization of 2.3 μ_B⁄(f.u). The measured magnetization value is smaller than the one calculated for the ordered structure. This discrepancy is likely due to the A2 type atomic disorder, as demonstrated by our calculations. We hope that the presented results may be useful for researchers working on practical applications of spin-based electronics.
Cyanobacteria, which are photosynthetic prokaryotes, have gained attention in recent years for their potential health benefits. One notable property of cyanobacteria is their high antioxidant capacity, which has been attributed to various beneficial properties. Antioxidants are crucial in the human body as they help scavenge free radicals that can cause cellular damage and lead to diseases. The fermentation of food using cyanobacteria and other microorganisms has been a traditional practice for centuries and has been found to enhance the antioxidant capacity of food. This review paper aims to explore the potential of cyanobacteria in unlocking the antioxidant potential of fermented foods and food microorganisms. At the same time, the mechanisms of action of cyanobacteria-derived antioxidants and the potential health benefits of consuming fermented foods containing cyanobacteria are discussed.
The increasing demand for sustainable hydrogen production is driven by the rapid expansion of global energy consumption. Electrocatalytic H 2 production is one of the preferred methods for future energy technology. The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) has attracted extensive attention as an important half-reaction for traditional water electrolysis. However, cost-effective and efficient electrode materials for HER are scarce. Biomass-derived carbon-based materials could offer a promising solution by utilizing biomass waste through rational engineering design, which can address biomass pollution but also enable the synthesis of effective electrocatalytic materials, aligning with the principles of green chemistry. This study provides a comprehensive review of multiple synthetic methods for producing carbon-based materials from biomass, such as pyrolysis, hydrothermal carbonization, ionothermal carbonization, and molten salt carbonization. The diverse applications of these materials in H 2 production are explored. Effective treatment strategies and valuable insights for future biomass-derived carbon-based material design in H 2 production are also presented. This progress contributes to a better understanding of these materials and offers valuable insights for future explorations.
Following the outbreak of COVID-19, the federal government in the United States required some population groups to be vaccinated. Other countries imposed even more comprehensive vaccination requirements. We conducted a preregistered randomized survey experiment that evaluated whether emphasizing the societal or economic benefits could shift popular support for a COVID-19 vaccine mandate for all adults. The experiment was embedded in a survey conducted in May 2022 on a sample of 1,199 registered voters in South Dakota. Participants were randomly assigned into a control group (n = 394), communitarian frame group (n = 403), or economic frame group (n = 379). Results of difference-of-means tests and multivariate regression analyses showed that neither of the experimental treatments had a statistically significant impact on support for mandatory COVID-19 vaccination. We found that these attitudes were primarily driven by partisan self-identification. Our results underscored the political nature of attitudes toward the COVID-19 pandemic and particularly mandatory COVID-19 vaccination.
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), one of the most extensively grown forage crops, is sensitive to saline soils. We measured the breeding efficiency for increased salt tolerance in alfalfa by comparing lines selected from BC79S, CS, and SII populations with their unselected parental means for forage mass and associated changes in stem length, leaf-to-stem ratio (LSR), number of nodes per stem, crude protein (CP) content, and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content. The overall forage mass in the non-salt-stressed test (9562 kg ha−1) was greater (p < 0.001) than under salt stress (5783 kg ha−1), with a 40% production advantage. In the non-salt-stressed test, the BC79S and CS lines averaged at a 4% lower production than their parents, while SII lines had on average a 9% greater production. Conversely, in the salt-stressed test, all lines showed a 20% overall greater seasonal production than their parents. Some selected lines produced more forage mass in both the non-stressed and salt-stressed tests than their parents. The stem length, LSR, node number, CP content, and NDF content of the selected lines varied with respect to non-stressed vs. stressed, but they tended not to differ greatly from their respective parental means under either non- or salt-stressed conditions. The selection protocol provided a universal increase in forage mass under salt-stressed field conditions of the selected lines. Furthermore, we identified lines with forage mass values greater than their parental means under non- and salt-stressed field conditions.
A series of epoxy vitrimers (EVs) with enhanced glass transition temperatures (Tgs) were synthesized by curing epoxy resin E51 with different ratios of phthalic anhydride and sebacic acid as curing agents, and 1,5,7-triazabicyclic [4.4.0] dece-5-ene as a transesterification catalyst, and their curing dynamics, rheological properties, mechanical properties, and thermal stability were comprehensively investigated. By adjusting the molar ratio of the anhydride to the carboxylic acid in the curing agent, the Tgs of the EVs increased from 79 to 143 °C with the increase in the anhydride content. In particular, the material EV-5.5 with a high usable Tg of 98 °C could undergo stress relaxation through the transesterification reaction when exposed to high temperatures (160 to 200 °C), and the correlation between the relaxation time and temperature follows the Arrhenius equation. Moreover, EV-5.5 exhibited elastomeric behavior, where brittle fractures occurred before yielding, which demonstrated a tensile strength of 52 MPa. EV-5.5 also exhibited good thermal stability with a decomposition temperature (Td5) of 322 °C. This study introduces new possibilities for practical applications of thermoset epoxy resins under special environmental conditions.
Maternal nutrition is critical during pregnancy as the fetus relies on the nutrients from the dam. Fetal organogenesis starts during the first trimester. Thus, an appropriate supply of nutrients, including vitamins and minerals, is indispensable. In the field of fetal developmental programming, there is still a lack of knowledge based on appropriate livestock models to explain the role of regulatory factors in translating the effect of maternal minerals and vitamins on fetal development and metabolic function. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effect of maternal vitamin and mineral supplementation (VTM -d 71 periconceptual to d 83 of pregnancy) on fetal liver expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and their potential regulatory metabolic pathways. Angus crossbred beef heifers (n = 16) were supplemented (VTM, n = 8) or not (NoVTM, n = 8) with 113 g· heifer-1· day-1 of mineral premix (Purina Wind & Rain Storm All-Season 7.5 Complete) and all heifers were bred with female sexed semen from a single sire. Transcriptomic profiles were determined with RNA-Seq in fetal livers collected on d 83 ± 0.27 of gestation. After data quality control and read mapping, lncRNAs were predicted using the FEELnc pipeline. Using the DESeq2 software, we identified 50 differentially expressed novel lncRNAs (expression of 32 lncRNAs was upregulated and 18 were downregulated; FDR < 0.05) located either downstream, upstream, or in exonic, or intronic regions of 51 genes (including PFKP, SLC30A10, KCNH8, ZNF451, MINPP1, BCL9, PAH, ITPR2, AHCY, and ABCG8), potentially regulating their expression. These genes could affect pathways (FDR < 0.1) such as PI3K signaling, mineral storage and transport, and amino acids biosynthetic pathways (i.e., cysteine and methionine biosynthesis). Collectively, these results suggest that periconceptual maternal vitamin and mineral supplementation affects the expression of lncRNAs and potentially regulates the expression of genes involved in fetal liver development and function.
Batten disease is a group of mostly pediatric neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorders caused by mutations in the CLN1–14 genes. We have recently shown that acidified drinking water attenuated neuropathological changes and improved motor function in the Cln1R151X and Cln3−/− mouse models of infantile CLN1 and juvenile CLN3 diseases. Here we tested if acidified drinking water has beneficial effects in Cln2R207X mice, a nonsense mutant model of late infantile CLN2 disease. Cln2R207X mice have motor deficits, muscle weakness, develop tremors, and die prematurely between 4 and 6 months of age. Acidified water administered to Cln2R207X male mice from postnatal day 21 significantly improved motor function, restored muscle strength and prevented tremors as measured at 3 months of age. Acidified drinking water also changed disease trajectory, slightly delaying the death of Cln2R207X males and females. The gut microbiota compositions of Cln2R207X and wild-type male mice were markedly different and acidified drinking water significantly altered the gut microbiota of Cln2R207X mice. This suggests that gut bacteria might contribute to the beneficial effects of acidified drinking water. Our study demonstrates that drinking water is a major environmental factor that can alter disease phenotypes and disease progression in rodent disease models.
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