Sofia University "St. Kliment Ohridski"
Recent publications
The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider has a broad physics programme ranging from precision measurements to direct searches for new particles and new interactions, requiring ever larger and ever more accurate datasets of simulated Monte Carlo events. Detector simulation with Geant4 is accurate but requires significant CPU resources. Over the past decade, ATLAS has developed and utilized tools that replace the most CPU-intensive component of the simulation—the calorimeter shower simulation—with faster simulation methods. Here, AtlFast3, the next generation of high-accuracy fast simulation in ATLAS, is introduced. AtlFast3 combines parameterized approaches with machine-learning techniques and is deployed to meet current and future computing challenges, and simulation needs of the ATLAS experiment. With highly accurate performance and significantly improved modelling of substructure within jets, AtlFast3 can simulate large numbers of events for a wide range of physics processes.
The present study aims to analyze the effect of apricot kernels’ extract (AKE) and amygdalin (AMY) on bleomycin-induced genetic alternations. Five endpoints were analyzed: cell survival, Ty1 retrotransposition, mitotic gene conversion in the trp-5 locus, reverse point mutations in ilv1-92 allele, and mitotic crossing-over in the ade2 locus. The present work provides the first experimental evidence that bleomycin induces Ty1 retrotransposition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. New data is obtained that the degree of DNA protection of AMY and AKE depends on the studied genetic event. AKE has been found to provide significant protection against bleomycin-induced Ty1 retrotransposition due to better-expressed antioxidant potential. On the other side, AMY better-expressed protection against bleomycin-induced mitotic gene conversion and reverse mutations may be attributed to the activation of the repair enzymes.
The aim of this study was to examine cross-cultural differences, as operationalized by Schwartz's refined theory of basic values, in burnout levels among psychotherapists from 12 European countries during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. We focused on the multilevel approach to investigate if individual- and country-aggregated level values could explain differences in burnout intensity after controlling for sociodemographic, work-related characteristics and COVID-19-related distress among participants. 2915 psychotherapists from 12 countries (Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Finland, Great Britain, Serbia, Spain, Norway, Poland, Romania, Sweden, and Switzerland) participated in this study. The participants completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey, the revised version of the Portrait Values Questionnaire, and a survey questionnaire on sociodemographic, work-related factors and the COVID-19 related distress. In general, the lowest mean level of burnout was noted for Romania, whereas the highest mean burnout intensity was reported for Cyprus. Multilevel analysis revealed that burnout at the individual level was negatively related to self-transcendence and openness-to-change but positively related to self-enhancement and conservation values. However, no significant effects on any values were observed at the country level. Male sex, younger age, being single, and reporting higher COVID-19-related distress were significant burnout correlates. Burnout among psychotherapists may be a transcultural phenomenon, where individual differences among psychotherapists are likely to be more important than differences between the countries of their practice. This finding enriches the discussion on training in psychotherapy in an international context and draws attention to the neglected issue of mental health among psychotherapists in the context of their professional functioning.
The tundra and tundra barrens of the maritime Antarctica represent a unique type of terrestrial ecosystem, geographically confined to the region of the Antarctic Peninsula and a number of surrounding archipelagos. Antarctic soils are underestimated in the quantity of organic matter (OM) pools, organic remnant humification/mineralization rates, and biogenic-abiogenic interactions. The structure of reserves for humic substances within the permafrost zone, as well as the role of the molecular composition of organic substances, are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigate humic acids of selected sub-Antarctic soils in terms of elemental and structural composition to evaluate OM stabilization degree and to assess carbon distributions in the molecules by solid-state CP/MAS 13C NMR and ESR spectroscopy. The results obtained show that the studied humic acids consist mainly of aliphatic structural fragments. According to ESR spectroscopy, it was noted that the most stable molecules by the data of ESR spectroscopy are formed in postornithogenic soils. In contrast, the average portion of the aromatic compounds is about 30% in humic acids, extracted from soils with evident ornithogenic effect.
A Mg65Ni20Cu5Y10 metallic glass was produced by melt spinning and was mixed with a 5 wt.% multiwall carbon nanotube additive in a high-energy ball mill. Subsequently, the composite mixture was exposed to high-pressure torsion deformation with different torsion numbers. Complimentary XRD and DSC experiments confirmed the exceptional structural and thermal stability of the amorphous phase against severe plastic deformation. Combined high-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations and fast Fourier transform analysis revealed deformation-induced Mg2Ni nanocrystals, together with the structural and morphological stability of the nanotubes. The electrochemical hydrogen discharge capacity of the severely deformed pure metallic glass was substantially lower than that of samples with the nanotube additive for several cycles. It was also established that the most deformed sample containing nanotubes exhibited a drastic breakdown in the electrochemical capacity after eight cycles.
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is an established atmospheric monitoring technique delivering water vapour data in near-real time with a latency of 90 min for operational Numerical Weather Prediction in Europe within the GNSS water vapour service (E-GVAP). The advancement of GNSS processing made the quality of real-time GNSS tropospheric products comparable to near-real-time solutions. In addition, they can be provided with a temporal resolution of 5 min and latency of 10 min, suitable for severe weather nowcasting. This paper exploits the added value of sub-hourly real-time GNSS tropospheric products for the nowcasting of convective storms in Bulgaria. A convective Storm Demonstrator (Storm Demo) is build using real-time GNSS tropospheric products and Instability Indices to derive site-specific threshold values in support of public weather and hail suppression services. The Storm Demo targets the development of service featuring GNSS products for two regions with hail suppression operations in Bulgaria, where thunderstorms and hail events occur between May and September, with a peak in July. The Storm Demo real-time Precise Point Positioning processing is conducted with the G-Nut software with a temporal resolution of 15 min for 12 ground-based GNSS stations in Bulgaria. Real-time data evaluation is done using reprocessed products and the achieved precision is below 9 mm, which is within the nowcasting requirements of the World Meteorologic Organisation. For the period May–September 2021, the seasonal classification function for thunderstorm nowcasting is computed and evaluated. The probability of thunderstorm detection is 83%, with a false alarm ration of 38%. The added value of the high temporal resolution of the GNSS tropospheric gradients is investigated for a storm case on 24–30 August 2021. Real-time tropospheric products and classification functions are integrated and updated in real-time on a publicly accessible geoportal.
The downstream migration of young-of-the-year (YoY) of four sturgeon species (Acipenser ruthenus, A. stellatus, A. gueldenstaedtii and Huso huso) was monitored in the Danube at river km 396 in 8 continuous years (2014–2021). A total of 713 YoY specimens were registered for the whole period. The most frequent migrant on an annual basis was A. ruthenus, observed in 6 out of 8 years. The most abundant young sturgeons during the first downstream migration were A. ruthenus with 599 specimens, followed by A. stellatus. For the species H. huso, only 7 specimens were registered for the entire period. The natural hybrids A. ruthenus × A. stellatus were quite frequent. One YoY specimen of A. gueldenstaedtii was registered after 10 years with no detections in the Lower Danube River. The catch per unit effort (CPUE/10 ha) was 0.346 for the whole period for all sturgeon species. This paper suggests a method for calculating the CPUE taking into account the studied area, with the goal of ensuring comparability of monitoring data between the countries of the Lower Danube. Recommendations are also made for better protection of the identified nursery site.
Objectives The assessment of physical function is fundamental in the management of patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs). We aimed to investigate the physical function of patients with IIMs compared with those with non-IIM autoimmune rheumatic diseases (AIRDs) utilizing Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function (PF) data obtained in the COVAD study, an international self-reported e-survey assessing the safety of COVID-19 vaccines in AIRDs. Methods Demographics, AIRD diagnosis, disease activity, and PROMIS PF short form-10a data were extracted from the COVAD database. PROMIS PF-10a scores were compared between disease categories and stratified by disease activity. Factors affecting PROMIS PF-10a scores other than disease activity were identified by multivariable regression analysis in patients with inactive disease. Results 1057 IIM patients, 3635 non-IIM AIRD patients, and 3981 healthy controls (HCs) responded to the COVAD e-survey from April to August 2021. Using a binomial regression model, the predicted mean of PROMIS PF-10a scores was significantly lower in IIM patients compared with non-IIM AIRD patients or HCs (36.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 35.5–37.1] vs 41.3 [95%CI 40.2–42.5] vs 46.2 [95%CI 45.8–46.6], P < 0.001), irrespective of disease activity. The independent factors for lower PROMIS PF-10a scores in patients with inactive disease were older age, female, longer disease duration, and a diagnosis of inclusion body myositis or polymyositis. Conclusion Physical function is significantly impaired in IIMs compared with non-IIM AIRDs or HCs, even in patients with inactive disease. Our study highlights a critical need for better strategies to minimize functional disability in patients with IIMs.
Рассматриваются вещественные гамильтоновы формы двумерных теорий поля Тоды, связанных с исключительными простыми алгебрами Ли, и спектральная теория соответствующих операторов Лакса. Эти вещественные гамильтоновы формы представляют собой особый тип "редукций" гамильтоновых систем и аналогичны вещественным формам полупростых алгебр Ли. Рассмотрены примеры вещественных гамильтоновых форм аффинных теорий поля Тоды, связанных с исключительными комплексными нескрученными аффинными алгебрами Каца-Муди. Наряду с представлениями Лакса сформулированы соответствующие задачи Римана-Гильберта и найдены минимальные наборы данных рассеяния, которые однозначно определяют матрицы рассеяния и потенциалы операторов Лакса.
Our study is focused on REE and yttrium (REY) geochemistry of pore waters from core-box sediments. The samples were collected from the 0–5 cm, 10–15 cm, 25–30 cm, and 35–40 cm depth intervals of four stations of the eastern part of block H_22 of IOM license area of the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone, NE Pacific. The REE studies in marine pore fluids were limited by analytical challenges. The pore water analysis we applied is based on a modern, improved analytical technique (ICP-MS, Perkin-Elmer SCIEX Elan DRC-e) with a cross-flow nebulizer and a spectrometer optimized (RF, gas flow, lens voltage) using a quadrupole cell in a DRC (Dynamic Reaction Cell) mode that allowed us to define the whole suite of REE. The ƩREY values of the samples vary from 4.05 μg/l to 106.34 μg/l. The REE content is at least one order of magnitude higher than the oceanic water. We followed the natural variations of La, Lu, Ce, and Y in absolute concentrations for station 3607. Cerium and Y are slightly enriched around the water-sediment interface, while La and Lu are enriched in the deeper layers. PAAS normalized REY patterns show a pronounced negative Ce/Ce* ratio together with a little MREE and HREY enrichment. The relatively “flat” REE patterns are typical for the shallow open ocean and characterize REE released from the organic matter degradation. We assume that the decomposition of and adsorption on organic matter and oxidation conditions are the main factors for REE fractionation in the pore water. The reason for some scatter in our REY data might be linked to bioturbation that has affected the sediment profiles.
Objective The aim of this study to examine the amount of the total variance of the subjective well-being (SWB) of psychotherapists from 12 European countries explained by between-country vs. between-person differences regarding its cognitive (life satisfaction) and affective components (positive affect [PA] and negative affect [NA]). Second, we explored a link between the SWB and their personal (self-efficacy) and social resources (social support) after controlling for sociodemographics, work characteristics, and COVID-19-related distress. Methods In total, 2915 psychotherapists from 12 countries (Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Finland, Great Britain, Serbia, Spain, Norway, Poland, Romania, Sweden, and Switzerland) participated in this study. The participants completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the International Positive and Negative Affect Schedule Short Form (I-PANAS-SF), the General Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Results Cognitive well-being (CWB; satisfaction with life) was a more country-dependent component of SWB than affective well-being (AWB). Consequently, at the individual level, significant correlates were found only for AWB but not for CWB. Higher AWB was linked to being female, older age, higher weekly workload, and lower COVID-19-related distress. Self-efficacy and social support explained AWB only, including their main effects and the moderating effect of self-efficacy. Conclusions The results highlight more individual characteristics of AWB compared to CWB, with a more critical role of low self-efficacy for the link between social support and PA rather than NA. This finding suggests the need for greater self-care among psychotherapists with regard to their AWB and the more complex conditions underlying their CWB.
Some new N- and C-modified biomolecular peptide analogues of both VV-hemorphin-5 and VV-hemorphin-7 with varied amino acids (Cys, Glu, His), 1-adamantanecarboxylic acid, and niacin (nicotinic acid) were synthesized by solid-phase peptide synthesis—Fmoc (9-fluorenylmethoxy-carbonyl) chemistry and were characterized in water solutions with different pH using spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques. Basic physicochemical properties related to the elucidation of the peptide structure at physiological pH have been also studied. The results showed that the interaction of peptide compounds with light and electricity preserves the structural and conformational integrity of the compounds in the solutions. Moreover, textile cotton fibers were modified with the new compounds and the binding of the peptides to the surface of the material was proved by FTIR and SEM analysis. Washing the material with an alkaline soap solution did not show a violation of the modified structure of the cotton. Antiviral activity against the human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV-S2) and human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAdV-5), the antimicrobial activity against B. cereus and P. aeruginosa used as model bacterial strains and cytotoxic effect of the peptide derivatives and modified cotton textile material has been evaluated. Antimicrobial tests showed promising activity of the newly synthesized compounds against the used Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The compounds C-V, H-V, AC-V, and AH-V were found slightly more active than NH7C and NCH7. The activity has been retained after the deposition of the compounds on cotton fibers.
The study aimed to evaluate the prooxidant, antioxidant and biological activities of newly synthesized nanocomposites of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and its combinations with silver and copper by luminescent and microbiological assays. The antimicrobial activity was tested in a liquid medium during 24 h against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The Gram-positive bacteria were more resistant than the Gram-negative. Strongest antibacterial effect was demonstrated by the graphene nanocomposite decorated with silver and copper. The cubic silver nanoclusters size 30 nm showed better bacteriostatic effect than the spherical nanoparticles on reduced graphene sheets with 43 nm diameter. The eukaryotic cell cytotoxicity effect was evaluated with two cell lines—MDCK kidney epithelium noncancerous cells and A549 lung cancerous epithelium cells, tested in cell culture medium for 24 h. Our results showed that RGO Ag:Cu had stronger cytotoxic effect on eukaryotic cells. We have discovered that the cancerous A549 cells show stronger sensitivity to the nanomaterials than the noncancerous MDCK-cells. The pro- and antioxidant activity of all nanomaterials was studied according to the free-radical oxidation reactions (pH 7.4 and pH 8.5) in the following chemiluminescent model systems: (1) chemical, with Fenton`s reagent (H2O2-FeSO4), for the generation of hydroxyl radicals (.OH), (2) chemical, with oxidant hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), (3) chemical (NAD.H-PhMS), for the generation of superoxide radicals (O2.−). All tested nanomaterials presented definitive antioxidant activity in both tested media at neutral and alkaline pH. The only exception was RGO Ag nanoparticles, sized 30 nm, that exhibited less than 10% prooxidant activity in the Fenton`s system, at pH 8.5. Those results support the idea to use such nanomaterials in body implants.
Data from the World Health Organization indicate that Bulgaria has the second-highest COVID-19 mortality rate in the world and the lowest vaccination rate in the European Union. In this context, to find the crucial epidemiological parameters that characterize the ongoing pandemic in Bulgaria, we introduce an extended SEIRS model with time-dependent coefficients. In addition to this, vaccination and vital dynamics are included in the model. We construct an appropriate Cauchy problem for a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations and prove that its unique solution possesses some biologically reasonable features. Furthermore, we propose a numerical scheme and give an algorithm for the parameters identification in the obtained discrete problem. We show that the found values are close to the parameters values in the original differential problem. Based on the presented analysis, we develop a strategy for short-term prediction of the spread of the pandemic among the host population. The proposed model, as well as the methods and algorithms for parameters identification and forecasting, could be applied to COVID-19 data in every single country in the world. .................................................................................................................................................. Full-text is available online:
The aim of this study was to assess the status of aquatic invasive alien species (IAS) in the shoreline zone of the Bulgarian sector of the Danube River, Danube tributaries, and adjacent standing water bodies in the frame of the Joint Danube Survey 4 (JDS4). Seven benthic macroinvertebrates and seven fish IAS were identified. The crayfish Faxonius limosus was frequently found and abundant in the tributaries. The mussels Corbicula fluminea, Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, and Sinanodonta woodiana dominated in the Danube River and the middle and lower reaches of the tributaries, while the fish Carassius gibelio, Perccottus glenii, and Lepomis gibbosus were most abundant in the standing water bodies. The integrated biocontamination estimated by taxonomic groups (crayfish, molluscs, and fish), sampling methods, and type of water bodies ranged from moderate in the shoreline zone of the Danube River, through moderate to high in the canals and lakes, to severe in the Danube tributaries and the reservoirs. The results demonstrate the importance of IAS in the assessment of the ecological status/potential of the water bodies in the DRB. The comprehensive evaluation of the aquatic IAS pressure will provide valuable information and support for the implementation of the national and EU IAS and water policies in the DRB.
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3,946 members
Kolyo Dankov
  • Department of Biophysics, and Radiology, Faculty of Biology
Kamen N. Nedev
  • Department of Condensed Matter Physics with Associated Depatment Physics of Semiconductors
Albena Antonova
  • Department of Information Technologies
Tanya Topouzova
  • Department of Cell and Developmental Biology
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