Z-source inverters are essential to electrical power systems, renewable energy conversion, and numerous other industrial applications. The efficiency and performance of power systems can be improved by using them. Due to their single-stage buck-boost inversion ability and better immunity to EMI noise, research on Z-source inverters has recently been significantly intensified. As known, the immunity to EMI noise is important since affect circuits and prevent them from working correctly. However, their boost gains are restricted because of higher component-voltage stresses and poor output power quality. A new structure of switched network quasi Z-source inverter (SN-qZSI) is proposed to mitigate these drawbacks. The proposed inverter structure has a very high voltage boost gain at a low shoot through duty ratio and high modulation index to reduce the semiconductor stress. Also provides a better-quality output waveform. Furthermore, the proposed structure applies less voltage across its capacitors. Therefore, the installation cost, and weight can be reduced by using lower rating capacitors. Moreover, this suggested structure can also overcome the problem of starting inrush current. The proposed inverter's operating principle, steady-state analysis, and impedance parameter selections are presented. In addition, the proposed structure of the Z-source inverter is compared with other impedance-source inverters to highlight its features. Both simulation (Matlab/Simulink) and experimental results in a scaled-down prototype successfully validated the proposed theoretical analysis.
Modern power systems face a grand challenge in grid management due to increased electricity demand, imminent disturbances, and uncertainties associated with renewable generation, which can undermine grid security. The security assessment is directly connected to the robustness of the operating condition and is evaluated by analyzing proximity to the Power Flow (PF) solution space’s boundary. Calculating the location of such a boundary is a computationally challenging task, linked to the PF equations’ non-linear nature, presence of technical constraints, and complex network topology. This paper introduces a general framework to characterize points on the PF solution space boundary in terms of auxiliary variables subject to algebraic constraints. Then we develop an adaptive continuation algorithm to trace 1-dimensional sections of boundary curves which exhibits robust performance and computational tractability. Implementation of the algorithm is described in detail, and its performance is validated on different test networks.
Despite the impressive progress, the perovskite solar cells are still under the stage of laboratory research, mainly because of their inferior operational stability. To improve the device lifetime, one of the most important strategies is to eliminate the undesirable side reactions between the functional layers. In this study, we present the thermal oxidation method to yield high-quality pristine and modified indium oxide films applied as efficient electron transport layers (ETLs) for perovskite cells in a planar n-i-p configuration. The cells incorporating In2O3 as ETL material can deliver comparable efficiencies with the reference SnO2-based devices while showing much superior operational stability. We attributed the observed stabilizing effect of indium oxide to its reduced chemical activity at the interface with the perovskite absorber layer. In particular, In2O3 can hardly oxidize I⁻ to molecular iodine on the contrary to SnO2 and TiO2 known for their photocatalytic activity. We believe that this study may provide researchers with general guidelines to develop a large variety of ETL materials for efficient yet stable perovskite cells.
The main protection of distribution networks is based on overcurrent relays (OCRs). Due to the slow operation of these relays, some distributed generations (DGs), e.g. wind parks, may be unable to meet the fault ride through (FRT) requirements, which leads to unnecessary generation loss during faults. This paper proposes a new protection scheme for distribution networks that considers the FRT requirements of DFIG-Based wind parks. This is achieved by considering both the protection coordination constraints and FRT requirements in a single protection scheme. Considering the FRT requirements, the new method determines whether each overcurrent relay operates fast enough. If not, the proposed scheme determines a suitable solution for each relay to facilitate a faster operation. The proposed method is tested on the IEEE 33 bus test network and compared with conventional methods. Its superior impact on improving the FRT requirements and hence preventing unnecessary disconnection of DFIG-Based wind parks during short circuit faults is demonstrated through simulation results, proving by this its applicability and efficacy.
By employing density functional theory calculations, we explore the initial stage of competitive alloying of co-deposited silver and indium atoms into a silicon surface. In particular, we identify respective adsorption positions and activation barriers governing their diffusion on a dimer-reconstructed silicon surface. Furthermore, we develop a growth model that appropriately describes diffusion mechanisms and silicon morphology with the account of silicon dimerization and the presence of C-type defects. Based on the surface kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, we examine the dynamics of bimetallic adsorption and elaborate on the temperature effects on the submonolayer growth of an Ag-In alloy. A close inspection of adatom migration clearly indicates effective nucleation of Ag and In atoms, followed by the formation of orthogonal atomic chains. We show that the epitaxial bimetallic growth might potentially lead to exotic ordering of adatoms in the form of anisotropic two-dimensional lattices via orthogonally oriented single-metal rows. We argue that this scenario becomes favorable provided above room temperature, while our numerical results are shown to be in agreement with the experimental findings.
Fluorescent photoconvertible materials and molecules have been successfully exploited as bioimaging markers and cell trackers. Recently, the novel fluorescent photoconvertible polymer markers have been developed that allow the long-term tracking of individual labeled cells. However, it is still necessary to study the functionality of this type of fluorescent labels for various operating conditions, in particular for commonly used discrete wavelength lasers. In this article, the photoconversion of fluorescent polymer labels with both pulsed and continuous-wave lasers with 532 nm-irradiation wavelength, and under different laser power densities were studied. The photoconversion process was described and its possible mechanism was proposed. The peculiarities of fluorescent polymer capsules performance as an aqueous suspension and as a single capsule were described. We performed the successful non-destructivity marker photoconversion inside RAW 264.7 monocyte/macrophage cells under continuous-wave laser with 532 nm-irradiation wavelength, showing prospects of these fluorescent markers for long-term live cell labeling. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Nowadays phototherapy is widely used for treatment of various diseases. However, efficient application of phototherapy requires an understanding of light interactions with main endogenous chromophores (e.g., hemoglobin, bilirubin, and water) in tissue. In particular, bilirubin is the target chromophore in the treatment of neonatal jaundice, which is the most common disease affecting up to 80% of preterm infants. The most frequently recommended treatment technique for this disease is phototherapy with blue light in combination with conventional drug therapy. To follow threshold total serum bilirubin (TSB) concentration guidelines, it is essential to estimate TSB concentration accurately. The gold standard biochemical analysis is invasive and bulky. Moreover, noninvasive methods do not provide sufficient reproducibility and accuracy. In this research, the fluorescence sensing of bilirubin with human serum albumin complexes was studied. The fluorescence time course during light irradiation (central wavelength: 467 nm and power density: 12.13 mW cm-2) was demonstrated to depend on the initial concentration. Specifically, for the bilirubin concentration C = 18.65 μM, an insignificant fluorescence signal increase was observed during the first 30 minutes of light irradiation, while for bilirubin concentration C = 373 μM, the fluorescence signal did not reach maximum during 2.5 hours of light irradiation. Thus, fluorescence sensing might show increased accuracy when used with other noninvasive bilirubin sensing methods.
Photoluminescent gold nanoclusters are widely seen as a promising candidate for applications in biosensing and bioimaging. Although they have many of the required properties, such as biocompatibility and photostability, the luminescence of near infrared emitting gold nanoclusters is still relatively weak compared to the best available fluorophores. This study contributes to the ongoing debate on the possibilities and limitations of improving the performance of gold nanoclusters by combining them with plasmonic nanostructures. We focus on a detailed description of the emission enhancement and compare it with the excitation enhancement obtained in recent works. We prepared a well-defined series of gold nanoclusters attached to gold nanorods whose plasmonic band is tuned to the emission band of gold nanoclusters. In the resultant single-element hybrid nanostructure, the gold nanorods control the luminescence of gold nanoclusters in terms of its spectral position, polarization and lifetime. We identified a range of parameters which determine the mutual interaction of both particles including the inter-particle distance, plasmon-emission spectral overlap, dimension of gold nanorods and even the specific position of gold nanoclusters attached on their surface. We critically assess the practical and theoretical photoluminescence enhancements achievable using the above strategy. Although the emission enhancement was generally low, the observations and methodology presented in this study can provide a valuable insight into the plasmonic enhancement in general and into the photophysics of gold nanoclusters. We believe that our approach can be largely generalized for other relevant studies on plasmon enhanced luminescence.
The appearance of quantized vortices in the classical “rotating bucket” experiments of liquid helium and ultracold dilute gases provides the means for fundamental and comparative studies of different superfluids. Here, we realize the rotating bucket experiment for optically trapped quantum fluid of light based on exciton-polariton Bose-Einstein condensate in semiconductor microcavity. We use the beating note of two frequency-stabilized single-mode lasers to generate an asymmetric time-periodic rotating, nonresonant excitation profile that both injects and stirs the condensate through its interaction with a background exciton reservoir. The pump-induced external rotation of the condensate results in the appearance of a corotating quantized vortex. We investigate the rotation frequency dependence and reveal the range of stirring frequencies (from 1 to 4 GHz) that favors quantized vortex formation. We describe the phenomenology using the generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Our results enable the study of polariton superfluidity on a par with other superfluids, as well as deterministic, all-optical control over structured nonlinear light.
Importance: No clinically applicable diagnostic test exists for severe mental disorders. Lipids harbor potential as disease markers. Objective: To define a reproducible profile of lipid alterations in the blood plasma of patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) independent of demographic and environmental variables and to investigate its specificity in association with other psychiatric disorders, ie, major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BPD). Design, setting, and participants: This was a multicohort case-control diagnostic analysis involving plasma samples from psychiatric patients and control individuals collected between July 17, 2009, and May 18, 2018. Study participants were recruited as consecutive and volunteer samples at multiple inpatient and outpatient mental health hospitals in Western Europe (Germany and Austria [DE-AT]), China (CN), and Russia (RU). Individuals with DSM-IV or International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision diagnoses of SCZ, MDD, BPD, or a first psychotic episode, as well as age- and sex-matched healthy controls without a mental health-related diagnosis were included in the study. Samples and data were analyzed from January 2018 to September 2020. Main outcomes and measures: Plasma lipidome composition was assessed using liquid chromatography coupled with untargeted mass spectrometry. Results: Blood lipid levels were assessed in 980 individuals (mean [SD] age, 36  years; 510 male individuals [52%]) diagnosed with SCZ, BPD, MDD, or those with a first psychotic episode and in 572 controls (mean [SD] age, 34  years; 323 male individuals [56%]). A total of 77 lipids were found to be significantly altered between those with SCZ (n = 436) and controls (n = 478) in all 3 sample cohorts. Alterations were consistent between cohorts (CN and RU: [Pearson correlation] r = 0.75; DE-AT and CN: r = 0.78; DE-AT and RU: r = 0.82; P < 10-38). A lipid-based predictive model separated patients with SCZ from controls with high diagnostic ability (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.86-0.95). Lipidome alterations in BPD and MDD, assessed in 184 and 256 individuals, respectively, were found to be similar to those of SCZ (BPD: r = 0.89; MDD: r = 0.92; P < 10-79). Assessment of detected alterations in individuals with a first psychotic episode, as well as patients with SCZ not receiving medication, demonstrated only limited association with medication restricted to particular lipids. Conclusions and relevance: In this study, SCZ was accompanied by a reproducible profile of plasma lipidome alterations, not associated with symptom severity, medication, and demographic and environmental variables, and largely shared with BPD and MDD. This lipid alteration signature may represent a trait marker of severe psychiatric disorders, indicating its potential to be transformed into a clinically applicable testing procedure.
The potential energy curves (PECs) for the homonuclear He-He, Ar-Ar, Cu-Cu, and Si-Si dimers, as well as heteronuclear Cu-He, Cu-Ar, Cu-Xe, Si-He, Si-Ar, and Si-Xe dimers, are obtained in quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) calculations. It is shown that the QMC method provides the PECs with an accuracy comparable with that of the state-of-the-art coupled cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples corrections [CCSD(T)] calculations. The QMC data are approximated by the Morse long range (MLR) and (12-6) Lennard-Jones (LJ) potentials. The MLR and LJ potentials are used to calculate the deflection angles in binary collisions of corresponding atom pairs and transport coefficients of Cu and Si vapors and their mixtures with He, Ar, and Xe gases in the range of temperature from 100 K to 10 000 K. It is shown that the use of the LJ potentials introduces significant errors in the transport coefficients of high-temperature vapors and gas mixtures. The mixtures with heavy noble gases demonstrate anomalous behavior when the viscosity and thermal conductivity can be larger than that of the corresponding pure substances. In the mixtures with helium, the thermal diffusion factor is found to be unusually large. The calculated viscosity and diffusivity are used to determine parameters of the variable hard sphere and variable soft sphere molecular models as well as parameters of the power-law approximations for the transport coefficients. The results obtained in the present work include all information required for kinetic or continuum simulations of dilute Cu and Si vapors and their mixtures with He, Ar, and Xe gases.
High-throughput sequencing of adaptive immune receptor repertoires is a valuable tool for receiving insights in adaptive immunity studies. Several powerful TCR/BCR repertoire reconstruction and analysis methods have been developed in the past decade. However, detecting and correcting the discrepancy between real and experimentally observed lymphocyte clone frequencies is still challenging. Here we discovered a hallmark anomaly in the ratio between read count and clone count-based frequencies of non-functional clonotypes in multiplex PCR-based immune repertoires. Calculating this anomaly, we formulated a quantitative measure of V- and J-genes frequency bias driven by multiplex PCR during library preparation called Over Amplification Rate (OAR). Based on the OAR concept, we developed an original software for multiplex PCR-specific bias evaluation and correction named iROAR: Immune Repertoire Over Amplification Removal (https://github.com/smiranast/iROAR). The iROAR algorithm was successfully tested on previously published TCR repertoires obtained using both 5' RACE (Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends)-based and multiplex PCR-based approaches and compared with a biological spike-in-based method for PCR bias evaluation. The developed approach can increase the accuracy and consistency of repertoires reconstructed by different methods making them more applicable for comparative analysis.
We study theoretically the nonlinear interactions of vector breathers propagating on an unstable wavefield background. As a model, we use the two‐component extension of the one‐dimensional focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation—the Manakov system. With the dressing method, we generate the multibreather solutions to the Manakov model. As shown previously in [D. Kraus, G. Biondini, and G. Kovačič, Nonlinearity 28(9), 3101, (2015)], the class of vector breathers is presented by three fundamental types I, II, and III. Their interactions produce a broad family of the two‐component (polarized) nonlinear wave patterns. First, we demonstrate that the type I and the types II and III correspond to two different branches of the dispersion law of the Manakov system in the presence of the unstable background. Then, we investigate the key interaction scenarios, including collisions of standing and moving breathers and resonance breather transformations. Analysis of the two‐breather solution allows us to derive general formulas describing phase and space shifts acquired by breathers in mutual collisions. The found expressions enable us to describe the asymptotic states of the breather interactions and interpret the resonance fusion and decay of breathers as a limiting case of infinite space shift in the case of merging breather eigenvalues. Finally, we demonstrate that only type I breathers participate in the development of modulation instability from small‐amplitude perturbations withing the superregular scenario, while the breathers of types II and III, belonging to the stable branch of the dispersion law, are not involved in this process.
Adipose tissue (AT) optical properties for physiological temperatures and in vivo conditions are still insufficiently studied. The AT is composed mainly of packed cells close to spherical shape. It is a possible reason that AT demonstrates a very complicated spatial structure of reflected or transmitted light. It was shown with a cellular tissue phantom, is split into a fan of narrow tracks, originating from the insertion point and representing filament-like light distribution. The development of suitable approaches for describing light propagation in a AT is urgently needed. A mathematical model of the propagation of light through the layers of fat cells is proposed. It has been shown that the sharp local focusing of optical radiation (light localized near the shadow surface of the cells) and its cleavage by coupling whispering gallery modes depends on the optical thickness of the cell layer. The optical coherence tomography numerical simulation and experimental studies results demonstrate the importance of sharp local focusing in AT for understanding its optical properties for physiological conditions and at AT heating.
The SIRT6 deacetylase has been implicated in DNA repair, telomere maintenance, glucose and lipid metabolism and, importantly, it has critical roles in the brain ranging from its development to neurodegeneration. Here, we combined transcriptomics and metabolomics approaches to characterize the functions of SIRT6 in mouse brains. Our analysis reveals that SIRT6 is a central regulator of mitochondrial activity in the brain. SIRT6 deficiency in the brain leads to mitochondrial deficiency with a global downregulation of mitochondria-related genes and pronounced changes in metabolite content. We suggest that SIRT6 affects mitochondrial functions through its interaction with the transcription factor YY1 that, together, regulate mitochondrial gene expression. Moreover, SIRT6 target genes include SIRT3 and SIRT4, which are significantly downregulated in SIRT6-deficient brains. Our results demonstrate that the lack of SIRT6 leads to decreased mitochondrial gene expression and metabolomic changes of TCA cycle byproducts, including increased ROS production, reduced mitochondrial number, and impaired membrane potential that can be partially rescued by restoring SIRT3 and SIRT4 levels. Importantly, the changes we observed in SIRT6-deficient brains are also occurring in aging human brains and particularly in patients with Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s, and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disease. Overall, our results suggest that the reduced levels of SIRT6 in the aging brain and neurodegeneration initiate mitochondrial dysfunction by altering gene expression, ROS production, and mitochondrial decay.
Correction for 'Modulation of the kinetics of outer-sphere electron transfer at graphene by a metal substrate' by Sergey V. Pavlov et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2022, 24, 25203-25213, https://doi.org/10.1039/D2CP03771H.
The automatic processing of high-dimensional mass spectrometry data is required for the clinical implementation of ambient ionization molecular profiling methods. However, complex algorithms required for the analysis of peak-rich spectra are sensitive to the quality of the input data. Therefore, an objective and quantitative indicator, insensitive to the conditions of the experiment, is currently in high demand for the automated treatment of mass spectrometric data. In this work, we demonstrate the utility of the Shapley value as an indicator of the quality of the individual mass spectrum in the classification task for human brain tumor tissue discrimination. The Shapley values are calculated on the training set of glioblastoma and nontumor pathological tissues spectra and used as feedback to create a random forest regression model to estimate the contributions for all spectra of each specimen. As a result, it is shown that the implementation of Shapley values significantly accelerates the data analysis of negative mode mass spectrometry data alongside simultaneous improving the regression models’ accuracy.
Here, we report the complete mitochondrial genome of sabellid Pseudopotamilla reniformis (Bruguière, 1789) (16,408 bp) and comprised of two ribosomal RNAs, the ubiquitous set of 13 protein-coding sequences, and 22 tRNAs. The order of protein-coding genes is consistent with the proposed conserved pattern, which contradicts recent discovery in other members of the family (Sabella spallanzanii in Daffe et al., 2021 and Bispira melanostigma in Hornfeck et al., 2022).
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