There is an increasing need in eyewitness identification research to identify factors that not only influence identification accuracy but may also impact the confidence–accuracy (CA) relationship. One such variable that has a notable impact on memory for faces is viewing distance, with faces encoded from a shorter distance remembered better than faces encoded at longer differences. In four pre-registered experiments, using both laboratory and online samples, we compared faces viewed at a simulated viewing distance at two different levels (medium and far) to faces that were viewed at a very near-simulated distance. Distance was simulated using a Gaussian blur function with higher levels of blur corresponding to greater simulated distance. We found that both medium and far simulated distances impaired memory performance overall relative to no simulated distance, with increased distance resulting in poorer memory. However, only far simulated distances impaired the CA relationship. In a fourth experiment, we found that a pre-test warning did not ameliorate this impairment of the CA relationship for faces viewed at a far simulated distance. These findings suggest that even high-confidence identifications made for faces viewed from long distances should be disregarded, and that estimator variables that impact memory may degrade the CA relationship when memory is reduced to critical levels.
It has been a hard-fought battle to secure Black Girlhood Studies as an essential college course that examines Black experiences of American childhood. To ensure its survivability, I argue that scholars must establish many homes for Black Girlhood Studies beyond Gender Studies and Black Studies departments. Further, given the illegibility of Black girls as youthful or innocent children, scholars must advocate for Black Girlhood Studies as a college course in academic departments or programs in which Black girls are potentially subjects of faculty or student research. I draw on my experiences teaching Black Girlhood Studies as a Black woman professor and ground my analysis in Black feminist conversations that emerged during the twentieth century to solidify Black Women’s Studies in the academy.
Background: Teaching students about race and racism is critical to and relevant in psychology classrooms. Objective: We explored whether direct instruction dismantling ideas that race is genetic affects students' race essentialist and other related beliefs. Method: Undergraduate students enrolled in four social psychology courses completed measures of race essentialism and other related beliefs before and after engaging in course-directed activities designed to reduce endorsement of biological essentialist beliefs about race. Results: After class activities, students reported lower levels of general racial essentialist beliefs and estimated that more progress is needed to reduce racial inequality. However, attitudes towards racially minoritized groups or perceived need for anti-racist actions did not shift, and colorblind ideology may have increased. Conclusion: These data provide evidence that essentialism shifts can be accomplished in the psychology classroom, but shifting related beliefs may require additional instruction. Teaching Implications: The class activities described in this research provide a way for instructors to introduce students to a new concept (race essentialism) and change students’ beliefs in the genetic underpinning of race.
Firefighters’ face life threatening situations and are frequently exposed to numerous physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic and psychosocial hazards. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the feasibility of conducting a large-scale study on cardiovascular and musculoskeletal health, physical fitness and occupational performance of firefighters. We conducted a cross-sectional pilot study by recruiting 36 firefighters. A researcher-generated questionnaire and physical measures were used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal health, physical fitness and occupational performance using a physical ability test (PAT). We documented a high equipment and intra-assessor reliability (r > 0.9). The potential logistic and/or administrative obstacles in the context of a larger study were discerned. Data were successfully retrieved using available equipment and survey instruments. Hypertension (30.6%) dyslipidaemia (33.3%), obesity (36.1%) and physical inactivity (66.7%) were the most prevalent cardiovascular disease risk factors. A significant difference between genders in total PAT completion time was also seen (p < 0.001). Cardiorespiratory fitness, lean body mass, grip strength and leg strength were significantly associated with occupational performance (p < 0.001). The pilot study supports the larger study feasibility and verified equipment and assessors’ reliability for research. Cardiovascular health, musculoskeletal health and physical fitness may be related to PAT performance.
The loading of copper (Cu) into cytochrome c oxidase (COX) in mitochondria is essential for energy production in cells. Extensive studies have been performed to characterize mitochondrial cuproenzymes that contribute to the metallation of COX, such as Sco1, Sco2, and Cox17. However, limited information is available on the upstream mechanism of Cu transport and delivery to mitochondria, especially through Cu-impermeable membranes, in mammalian cells. The mitochondrial phosphate transporter SLC25A3, also known as PiC2, binds Cu ⁺ and transports the ion through these membranes in eukaryotic cells, ultimately aiding in the metallation of COX. We used the well-established differentiation model of primary myoblasts derived from mouse satellite cells, wherein Cu availability is necessary for growth and maturation, and showed that PiC2 is a target of MTF1, and its expression is both induced during myogenesis and favored by Cu supplementation. PiC2 deletion using CRISPR/Cas9 showed that the transporter is required for proliferation and differentiation of primary myoblasts, as both processes are delayed upon PiC2 knock-out. The effects of PiC2 deletion were rescued by the addition of Cu to the growth medium, implying the deleterious effects of PiC2 knockout in myoblasts may be in part due to a failure to deliver sufficient Cu to the mitochondria, which can be compensated by other mitochondrial cuproproteins. Co-localization and co-immunoprecipitation of PiC2 and COX also suggest that PiC2 may participate upstream in the copper delivery chain into COX, as verified by in vitro Cu ⁺ -transfer experiments. These data indicate an important role for PiC2 in both the delivery of Cu to the mitochondria and COX, favoring the differentiation of primary myoblasts.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues as the most important cause of mortality. Better risk screening and prediction are needed to reduce the cardiovascular disease burden. The aim of the study was to assess the role of serum biomarkers in the prediction of CVD among asymptomatic middle-aged adults with no prior CVD history. A systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out using literature from PubMed and following PRISMA reporting guidelines. Twenty-five studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review. The most commonly studied biomarker was high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) (10 studies), which showed that higher hs-CRP levels are associated with an increased risk of subsequent CVD events and mortality. In addition, several less-studied biomarkers (N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), fibrinogen, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and others) also showed significant associations with greater future risk of CVD. A meta-analysis was possible to perform for hs-CRP and NT-proBNP, which showed statistically significant results for the ability of hs-CRP (hazard ratio (HR) 1.19, (95% CI: 1.09–1.30), p < 0.05) and NT-proBNP (HR 1.22, (1.13–1.32), p < 0.05) to predict incident CVD among middle-aged adults without a prior CVD history or symptoms. Several serum biomarkers, particularly hs-CRP and NT-proBNP, have the potential to improve primary CVD risk prevention among asymptomatic middle-aged adults.
Philosophers have described the human perspective on climate change as a perfect moral storm. I take a new angle on that storm: I argue that our relevant desires feature a particularly problematic case of seemingly consistent but genuinely inconsistent desires. We have, first, non‐indexical desires such as a desire to (make the sacrifices necessary to) stop polluting our environment at some point. We have, second, indexical desires such as a desire not to (make the sacrifices necessary to) stop polluting our environment this year. Our indexical and non‐indexical desires are inconsistent. Such inconsistency is obvious in most short‐term, individual cases such as when we need to make a dentist appointment. But when it comes to climate change, that inconsistency is masked by factors such as longevity and bitter divisions. This is, unfortunately, why humanity may continue putting off the collective action required to address climate change.
Adapting is noteworthy not only for discussing a Chinese philosophy of action in the sense of efficacious action and freedom from constraint, but also for doing so via excavated manuscripts and lesser-known works such as military guides and divination texts as well as the familiar pre-Han masters texts. It presents a number of valuable close readings of the text, making a number of important distinctions clearly. However, it spends far too little time on the larger picture, historical and philosophical, and does not make clear the relationship between the apparently less demanding but clearly efficacious manifestations of adapting discussed in earlier chapters, and the notion discussed later, which seems to require us to surrender all of our goals when required by fate. This unclarity impairs its ability to clearly adumbrate the nature of adapting. The book begins with very brief observations concerning Chinese notions of the self and agency that resemble claims made, for example, by those who read Chinese ethics as role ethics, in which the self is largely constituted by the relationships in which it stands. At the broadest level, adapting requires particularized responses to each unique circumstance we find ourselves in, since fixed standards are not appropriate in a world that is constantly changing, both through the cosmic and calendrical cycles, and by virtue of the distinct individuals that inhabit each new situation. Indeed, many Chinese thinkers focus on what is needed in our ever-changing set of circumstances, whether this focus is conceived as ethical or practical, more so than thinkers in Western ethical traditions. One wonders whether Valmisa omits discussion of the early Chinese consequentialists, the Mohists, because they were not partisans of adapting, or for some other reason. Adapting, as developed in the later chapters, incorporates a strong notion of the relationality of agency, which incorporates the idea that all is one; as Valmisa describes the relationality of adapting, it resembles later developments in Chinese Buddhism. The concept of agency that Valmisa develops later in the book is one in which the outer, as it is commonly conceived, becomes a part of the self and participates in joint activity. The weaker notion simply incorporates ideas of the interconnectedness and interdependence of agents and their environment.
When selecting fillers to include in a police lineup, one must consider the level of similarity between the suspect and potential fillers. In order to reduce misidentifications, an innocent suspect should not stand out. Therefore, it is important that the fillers share some degree of similarity. Importantly, increasing suspect-filler similarity too much will render the task too difficult reducing correct identifications of a guilty suspect. Determining how much similarity yields optimal identification performance is the focus of the proposed study. Extant research on lineup construction has provided somewhat mixed results. In part, this is likely because similarity is often defined in relative terms due to the subjective nature of similarity. In the current study, we propose an experiment in which we manipulate suspect-filler similarity via a multidimensional scaling model constructed using objective facial measurements. In doing so, we test the “propitious heterogeneity” and the diagnostic-feature-detection hypotheses which predict an advantage of lineups with low similarity fillers in terms of discriminability.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients present with symptoms such as impairment of insulin signaling, chronic inflammation, and oxidative stress. Furthermore, there are comorbidities associated with AD progression. For example, osteoporosis is common with AD wherein patients exhibit reduced mineralization, and a risk for fragility fractures. However, there is a lack of understanding on the effects of AD on bone beyond loss of bone density. To this end, we investigated the effects AD on bone quality using the 5XFAD transgenic mouse model in which twelve-month-old 5XFAD mice showed accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ42) compared to wild-type littermates (N=10/group; 50% Female, 50% Male). Here, we observed changes in cortical bone but not in cancellous bone quality. Both bone mass and bone quality, measured in femoral samples using imaging (μCT, confocal Raman spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction), mechanical (fracture tests) and chemical analyses (biochemical assays), were altered in the 5XFAD mice compared to WT. MicroCT results showed 5XFAD mice had lower volumetric BMD, and increased endocortical bone loss. XRD results showed decreased mineralization with smaller mineral crystals. Bone matrix compositional properties, from Raman, showed decreased crystallinity along with higher accumulation of glycoxidation products and glycation products, measured biochemically. 5XFAD mice also demonstrated loss of initiation and maximum toughness. We observed that CML and mineralization correlated with initiation toughness while crystal size and PEN correlated with maximum toughness suggesting bone matrix changes predominated by AGEs and altered/poor mineral quality explained loss of fracture toughness. Our findings highlight two pathways to skeletal fragility in AD through alteration of bone quality: (1) accumulation of AGEs; and (2) loss of crystallinity, decreased crystal size and loss of mineralization. We observed that the accumulation of amyloidosis in brain correlated with an increase in several AGEs, consistent with a mechanistic link between elevated Aβ42 levels in the brain and AGE accumulation in bone.
The potential role of proteinase activated receptor 2 (PAR2) in the development of age-related obesity and insulin resistance is not well-understood. To address the hypothesis that deletion of PAR2 might ameliorate age-related obesity and impaired glucose homeostasis, we assessed body composition and insulin action in 18-month-old male PAR2 knockout (PAR2KO-AG), age-matched (AG) and young C57BL6 (YG, 6-month-old) mice. Body composition was measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and insulin action was assessed by glucose tolerance (GT), insulin tolerance (IT) and AICAR tolerance (AT) testing. AG mice weighed significantly more than YG mice (p = 0.0001) demonstrating age-related obesity. However, PAR2KO-AG mice weighed significantly more than AG mice (p = 0.042), indicating that PAR2 may prevent a portion of age-related obesity. PAR2KO-AG and AG mice had greater fat mass and body fat percentage than YG mice. Similar to body weight, fat mass was greater in PAR2KO-AG mice compared to AG mice (p = 0.045); however, only a trend for greater body fat percentage in PAR2KO-AG compared to AG mice was observed (p = 0.09). No differences existed in lean body mass among the PAR2KO-AG, AG, and YG mice (p = 0.58). With regard to insulin action, the area under the curve (AUC) for GT was lower in PAR2KO-AG compared to AG mice (p = 0.0003) and YG mice (p = 0.001); however, no differences existed for the AUC for IT or AT. Our findings indicate that age-related obesity is not dependent on PAR2 expression.
The glucan phosphatase Starch EXcess4 (SEX4) plays an essential role in regulating starch degradation through reversible phosphorylation. However, starch granule properties and phosphorylation levels vary widely between different organisms. We biochemically characterized SEX4 from agronomically relevant plants and found that SEX4 orthologs display differential glucan phosphatase activity. SEX4 from cereal crops displayed higher dephosphorylation rates than SEX4 from storage tubers. Intriguingly, these rates were found to be inversely related to glucan substrate binding. To determine the effects of this difference, the ability of SEX4 orthologs to enhance in vitro starch degradation by the β-amylase BAM3 was measured. An inverse relationship was observed between SEX4 ortholog starch binding affinity and its ability to enhance BAM3-mediated glucan degradation. Collectively, our findings reveal a direct correlation between the dephosphorylation rates of SEX4 orthologs and their ability to enhance in vitro starch degradation. These data provide significant insights into the differential activity of SEX4 from different organisms, corresponding to their distinct biological roles and providing the basis for utilizing their specific properties for industrial and biotechnological applications.
Nutritional interventions are a promising therapeutic option for addressing obesity and cardiometabolic dysfunction. One such option, intermittent fasting (IF), has emerged as a viable alternative to daily caloric restriction and may beneficially modulate body weight regulation and alter the gut microbiome (GM) and plasma metabolome. This secondary analysis of a larger, registered trial (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT04327141) examined the effect of a four-week intervention comparing one vs. two-consecutive days of IF in combination with protein pacing (IF-P; 4-5 meals/day, >30% protein/day) on the GM, the plasma metabolome, and associated clinical outcomes in overweight and obese adults. Participants (n = 20) were randomly assigned to either a diet consisting of one fasting day (total of 36 h) and six low-calorie P days per week (IF1-P, n = 10) or two fasting days (60 h total) and five low-calorie P days per week (IF2-P, n = 10). The fecal microbiome, clinical outcomes, and plasma metabolome were analyzed at baseline (week 0) and after four weeks. There were no significant time or interaction effects for alpha diversity; however, baseline alpha diversity was negatively correlated with percent body fat change after the four-week intervention (p = 0.030). In addition, beta-diversity for both IF groups was altered significantly by time (p = 0.001), with no significant differences between groups. The IF1-P group had a significant increase in abundance of Ruminococcaceae Incertae Sedis and Eubacterium fissicatena group (q ≤ 0.007), while the IF2-P group had a significant increase in abundance of Ruminococcaceae Incertae Sedis and a decrease in Eubacterium ventriosum group (q ≤ 0.005). The plasma metabolite profile of IF2-P participants displayed significant increases in serine, trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), levulinic acid, 3-aminobutyric acid, citrate, isocitrate, and glucuronic acid (q ≤ 0.049) compared to IF1-P. Fecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations did not differ significantly by time or between groups (p ≥ 0.126). Interestingly, gastrointestinal symptoms were significantly reduced for the IF2-P group but not for the IF1-P group. Our results demonstrate that short-term IF modestly influenced the GM community structure and the plasma metabolome, suggesting these protocols could be viable for certain nutritional intervention strategies.
No PDF available ABSTRACT Atom Music was introduced in 2019 as a way to create unique audible tones for each atomic element that are direct translations of that element’s spectral lines. Each atomic element produces a unique spectral line pattern that can be recognized as the fingerprint of that element. Sonification is the process of translating non-audible data into audible signals as a way to gain an understanding of the original data. In this paper, sonification is applied to atomic spectra, using technology primarily from music production. These were applied to atomic spectra using additive synthesis methods and analyzed using digital audio workstations. Interest in the audible tones has primarily been in element identification through each tone, as well as those interested in musical interpretation. We investigate what insights can be made by observing the digital waveforms and spectra of each element tone. We consider whether there are patterns within the different element waveforms; if there is any correlation between the elements producing similar beat patterns; and if there are any harmonic relations between electron states that are represented by the spectra itself. Results indicate that this method could be a useful tool in investigating atomic structure.
This contribution revisits Walter Eucken’s views and policy advice concerning currency matters and central banking. It explores his famous ‘currency primacy postulate’, his specific ideas for sound currency arrangements, and the role of central bank independence as an institutional safeguard of price stability. The chapter highlights that there seems to be little correspondence between the principle of central bank independence as established in West Germany after the second war (and as later bequeathed to Europe under the euro) and Eucken’s favoured (perfectly) competitive economic order and the envisioned monetary order which he believed deserved primacy in such an order. Independent central bankers setting interest rates, that is, intervening in market processes, while telling democratically elected politicians what economic policies they should follow, do not provide any ‘inbuilt automatic monetary stabiliser’—nor do they constitute ‘Ordnungspolitik’ at all.
Since the financial crisis of 2008, Ordoliberalism emerged from relative obscurity to become one of the crucial terms of analysis across a wide range of academic literatures and public discussion. In fact, it became the main reference for a number of issues, including assessments of the attempted resolution of the Eurozone crisis, arguments about German hegemony in Europe, debates over the future of economic liberalism and controversies about authoritarian liberalism. What is striking about Ordoliberalism is its pronounced ambiguity, as some view it as a more refined and potentially progressive variant of neoliberalism, while others cast it as a blueprint for a regime of austerity reigning over a society of competition with only rudimentary democratic institutions. And while Ordoliberalism is often portrayed as a quintessentially German tradition, its impact has not been confined to the German context. In short, Ordoliberalism is a phenomenon of arguably considerable influence that remains poorly understood, as it is mystified by its proponents and vilified by its critics. In this book the editors have compiled a selection of chapters, written by an international cast of experts on Ordoliberalism, that aim to elucidate and analyse the latter in all of its many facets. From the intellectual origins and prime exemplars to its main theoretical themes and practical applications up to the most recent debates taking place across a range of disciplines, this volume offers the first comprehensive account of Ordoliberalism for the English-speaking world.
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