One of the most pressing issues in contemporary applied mathematics is the regulation of energy transfer via the application of external forces. The processes of heat transfer are affected by magnetic force, which has many practical uses in industry, engineering, and medicine. This research explores the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) three-dimensional stable axisymmetric boundary layer over a permeable moving plate, which consist of water as a base liquid and binary distinct nanoparticles to generate a hybrid nanofluid. In all of these, flow beyond the boundary layer area might be calculated by a small crosswise velocity. As a result of its high thermal conductivity, a pair of distinct kinds of nanoparticles have been considered, namely alumina and copper, which are integrated into the base water. The mathematical model is built within a boundary of specified geometry and then converted into a set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Resultant ODEs are solved numerically using the technique of three-stage Lobatto IIIa in bvp4c solver in 2017, MATLAB software. Results revealed that two branches exist in certain ranges of moving parameter. Impacts of an increasing physical parameter on profiles of velocities and temperature with skin friction as well as with heat transfer rate are represented in graphs. The effect of viscous dissipation on the temperature profile in the -direction has the same rising results as observed in the -direction. According to the results of the temporal stability analysis, the upper branch is realizable and stable.
Citation: Lund, L.A.; Chandio, A.F.; Vrinceanu, N.; Yashkun, U.; Shah, Z.; Alshehri, A. Darcy-Forchheimer Magnetized Nanofluid flow along with Heating and Dissipation Effects over a Shrinking Exponential Sheet with Stability Analysis. Micromachines 2023, 14, 106. https:// Abstract: Nanoparticles have presented various hurdles to the scientific community during the past decade. The nanoparticles dispersed in diverse base fluids can alter the properties of fluid flow and heat transmission. In the current examination, a mathematical model for the 2D magnetohydro-dynamic (MHD) Darcy-Forchheimer nanofluid flow across an exponentially contracting sheet is presented. In this mathematical model, the effects of viscous dissipation, joule heating, first-order velocity, and thermal slip conditions are also examined. Using similarity transformations, a system of partial differential equations (PDEs) is converted into a set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The problem is quantitatively solved using the three-step Lobatto-three formula. This research studied the effects of the dimensionlessness, magnetic field, ratio of rates, porosity, Eckert number, Prandtl number, and coefficient of inertia characteristics on fluid flow. Multiple solutions were observed. In the first solution, the increased magnetic field, porosity parameter, slip effect, and volume percentage of the copper parameters reduce the velocity field along the η-direction. In the second solution, the magnetic field, porosity parameter, slip effect, and volume percentage of the copper parameters increase the η-direction velocity field. For engineering purposes, the graphs show the impacts of factors on the Nusselt number and skin friction. Finally, the stability analysis was performed to determine which solution was the more stable of the two.
We live in a digitally connected world inspired by state-of-the-art ICT technologies and networks, inasmuch as the use of digital gadgets and apps is exponentially increasing in all domains of life. In parallel, artificial intelligence has evolved as an essential tool in all sorts of applications and systems such as healthcare systems. Healthcare is the key domain where the use of ICT infrastructure, technologies and artificial intelligence are playing a major role in providing connected and personalized digital health experiences. The vision is to provide intelligent and customized digital health solutions and involve the masses in personal health monitoring. This research proposes AiDHealth as an intelligent personal health monitoring framework based on artificial intelligence for healthcare data analytics and connectivity for personal health monitoring. AiDHealth relies on various machine learning and deep learning models for achieving prediction accuracy in healthcare data analytics. The extensive Pima Indian Diabetes (PID) dataset has been used for investigation. The findings of our experiments illustrate the effectiveness and suitability of the suggested MLPD model. AdaBoost classifier performance has the highest accuracy in prediction when calculated to the individual classifiers. The AdaBoost classifier produced the best accuracy i.e., 0.975%. The results reveal improvements to state-of-the-art procedures in the proposed model. Next, we trained the models and produced a 10-fold cross-validation illness risk index for each sample. Our findings suggest a need for greater experiments to compare the above-mentioned machine learning methods. We identified the AdaBoost classifier and Decision Tree classifiers with the best prediction with an average of 0.975% and a work Curve Area (AUC) of 0.994%. Thus, because the design of the AdaBoost classifier is superior, it can forecast the danger of type 2 diabetes more accurately than the existing algorithms and lead to intelligent prevention and control of diabetes.
Nonsimilar equations exist in many fluid flow problems and these equations are difficult to be solved using variation of the physical parameters. The key purpose of this study is to find nonsimilarity solution of nanofluid on an exponentially shrunk sheet in the existence of micropolar nanofluid without considerations of the thermal radiation and viscous dissipation effects. The governing partial differential equations (PDEs) are transformed into nonsimilar equations consisting of both ordinary and PDEs. Numerical results of velocity, microrotation, heat and concentration are presented in graphs. The results reveal that fluid particles’ velocity decreases nearby surface and increases afterward. The skin friction, heat and concentration transfer rate are also plotted to perceive the phenomena with different physical situations. It can be deduced that wall shear force [Formula: see text] is improved by developed effects of micropolar fluid parameter [Formula: see text] and reduced by increasing values of Hartmann number [Formula: see text].
Interspecific hybridization has contributed significantly to land diversity, species evolution, and crops’ domestication, including upland cotton, the cultivated form of Gossypium hirsutum. Being the world’s most important fiber crop species, Gossypium hirsutum belongs to the allotetraploid Gossypium consisting of six additional tetraploid species. The lint fiber evolved once in diploid parent A-genome species in the Gossypium’s history and passed on during hybridization of the A-genome with the D-genome and was maintained in subsequent evolution. The domestication history of G. hirsutum involved the collection and use of lint fibers by indigenous people for the purpose of making strings and other textile products; hence, spinnable lint fibers were likely to have evolved under domestication. Crossing with G. barbadense has resulted in the development of multiple genetic lines in contemporary upland cotton. However, in later-generation hybrids between G. hirsutum and other polyploid species, reproductive barriers such as reduced fertility, segregation distortion, and hybrid breakdown are frequently observed, complicating the task of introgressing new, stably inherited allelic variation from inter-specific hybridization. Recent efforts in molecular genetics research have provided insights into the location and effects of QTLs from wild species that are associated with traits important to cotton production. These and future research efforts will undoubtedly provide the tools that can be utilized by plant breeders to access novel genes from wild and domesticated allotetraploid Gossypium for upland cotton improvement.
The use of nanotechnology in agriculture has become an area of great interest for soil scientists. Therefore, it is important and necessary to investigate the effects of nanoparticles on plant growth and its nutritional interactions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acid modified rice husk (MRH) and nano-Silicon (Si) derived from rice husk on the growth and phosphorus uptake and phosphorus use efficiency in Si accumulator wheat and non-accumulator lettuce plants. MRH and nano-Si were applied at 200 mg kg À1 and P was applied 100 mg kg À1 for wheat and 200 mg kg À1 for lettuce plants. The highest dry weight was obtained with the application of nano Si þ P treatment; while both MRH and nano-Si had no significant effect over the applied 100 mg P kg À1. Phosphorus fertilization significantly reduced Si concentrations in both plants of wheat and lettuce. However, the decrease in Si concentration was partly compensated by nano-Si treatment. When P was applied together with nano-Si, its uptake and phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) significantly increased in wheat plants as compared to other treatments. Nano-Si derived from rice husk is a sustainable waste biomass and is an important alternative Si fertilizer source, which can be a valid strategy for the effective use of P fertilizers. The depletion of available Si in soil can be recovered by applying nano-Si as a fertilizer. The overall results obtained from the current research were promising. ARTICLE HISTORY
The excessive exploitation of herbicides in crops pose lethal effects on the environment that causes several serious health issues in human and severely affects the aquatic life. The herbicide such as isoproturon is an organic compound which is broadly used to kill the weeds and increase crop yield. Beside this, it highly increases risk of toxicity in the environment, thus quantification of isoproturon through a reliable method is of great importance. To tackle out this issue a new electrochemical sensor based on NiO/V2O5/rGO nanocomposite was constructed to determine low level concentration of isoproturon in the vegetable samples. The characterization of NiO/V2O5/rGO nanocomposite was conducted through different advanced tools i.e. XRD, FTIR, AFM, EDX mapping, SEM and TEM. The XRD and FTIR confirmed exceptional crystalline nature and surface functionalities of nanocomposite while AFM evaluated 1.7 nm average size of nanocomposite. The close elemental mapping confirmed the presence of Ni, V, C and O atoms. SEM and TEM analysis successfully examined the morphology and 2D texture of NiO/V2O5/rGO nanocomposite. The electrocatalytic properties and conductive nature of proposed sensor was investigated through Tafel plot and cyclic voltammetry. For the low-level quantification of isoproturon, different parameters were optimized as scan sweep 150 mV/s, PBS electrolyte with pH 4 and potential window from 0.2 to 1.1 V. Under the linear concentration range from 0.009 to 30 µM, the fabricated sensor manifested low limit of detection found as 0.005 µM. The engineered NiO/V2O5/rGO/GCE exhibited anti-interference profile and long-term stability to be used for monitoring of herbicide for several days. The analytical application of developed sensor was tested in different vegetable samples where NiO/V2O5/rGO/GCE showed excellent recovery values.
Background Attraction and oviposition preference of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Steph.) ( Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), in response to prey availability in an ovipositional site was studied. The study aimed to investigate whether an adult attraction of C. carnea to oviposition on the substrate was affected by aphid juice (AJ) of fresh brassica aphid, Brevicoryne brassica. Result In laboratory bioassay, the number of eggs laid by female was significantly higher on AJ-treated area of substrate than control, indicating that oviposition was influenced by the AJ application. Attraction period of AJ lasted for 4 days. In Y-maze olfactometer studies, video tracking software ANY-maze® indicated that C. carnea spent significant more time in the novel arm provided with AJ, showing an attraction. In the greenhouse study, AJ spray attracted a significantly higher number of male and female and considerably increased the number of eggs laid on brassica plant. Conclusion Fresh AJ may be a potential attractant for raising population of this predatory species at a particular location without being involved in rearing and augmentation process. This finding is of special interest and may be of benefit in biological control. As it is likely that the AJ spray could be used to enhance C. carnea population attraction to the desire field.
This thermal case pronounced the stability framework for stagnation point flow of magnetized alumina and copper nanoparticles with due exponentially shrinking permeable surface. The thermal stability and enhancement of water base liquid had been taken into account with uniform impulsion of hybrid nanomaterials. The induced flow results via exponentially shrinking permeable surface. The similarity transformation simplifies the mathematical model where governing formulated system for hybrid nanofluid is altered into the nondimensional form. A numerical solver called bvp4c is employed in MATLAB software to aid in the problem-solving process, and dual branches have been found. The significance of pertaining parameters associated to the flow model is inspected in view of thermal properties. The findings show that there are two branches for suction strength [Formula: see text] and magnetic strength [Formula: see text]. The bifurcation values [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] reduce for the occurrence of dual branches as the solid volume percentages of copper increase. Furthermore, for the upper branch solutions, the skin friction and heat transfer rate rise as [Formula: see text] increases. The temporal stability analysis determines the stability of the dual branches, and it is discovered that only one of them is stable and physically applicable. The presence of suction parameter effectively controls the thermal transportation phenomenon.
The objective of current communication is to study heat transfer phenomenon for slip flow of viscous fluid due to wavy channel with general cosine function boundaries and fixed amplitude. The walls along with slip boundary constraints are kept at different temperatures. The flow is incompressible and Newtonian with AIS as a predicting material being used to check the fluids and thermal properties. The Navier–Stokes expressions with 2D flow regime subject to heat transfer due to convection are used to develop the simulations. A parametric theoretical assumptions analysis is performed for specified range of Reynolds number (100–1000) with upper and lower surface vibration periods of 1 to 6. The results are displayed with graphs, surface and contours plots and first, ever a novel work was done to represent the percentage change in velocity magnitude and local Nusselt number as surface plots and contours, respectively. The results are authentic due to mesh independent study and verification with the experimental correlation. A periodic flow at the lower wall was deducted. The maximum and average rotation rates attain a linear relationship with Reynolds number and their correlation was found. The simulations show the strict relationship of Reynolds number and the geometry of the channel with shear rate. The pressure gradient in [Formula: see text]-direction was found minimum in trough and maximum in the crest region. It has been observed that the boundary friction is reduced due to periodic variation of walls surface.
The aim of this work is to present the magnetized flow of Casson nanomaterials confined due to porous space with stability framework. The slip mechanism for thermal concentration diffusion has been elaborated. The shrinking surface with exponential velocity induced the flow. The new block method is imposed for the simulation process. The resulting systems of ODEs of the third and second orders are solved jointly using the block method, which is appropriate for dealing with the different orders of the system of ODEs. From a physical standpoint, graphs of different profiles for increasing values of the various applied parameters have been drawn and discussed in detail. To satisfy the infinite boundary conditions, we assigned numerical values such that all profiles converge asymptotically at [Formula: see text]. Furthermore, numerical results from the block method show that velocity profile declines with rising Casson and porous parameter values, as expected. It is noted that the heat transfer rate enhanced with the thermal slip parameter. A lower thermal profile due to larger Casson fluid parameter is observed.
Pathological conditions and harmful drugs cause many gastrointestinal diseases in broiler chicken. The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of trace elements zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se) supplementation on histomorphology, immunological role, and functional activity of goblet cells (GCs) of the small intestine. The Alcian blue-periodic acid-Schiff (AB-PAS) was performed to assess the histomorphological changes in GCs, which revealed the regular dispersion with high electron density of GCs throughout the mucosal surface in the supplemented group. However, irregular dispersion with low electron density of GCs was present in the control group. The immunological functional role of GCs within the small intestine was examined by mucicarmine staining, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. The results showed a high mucin glycol protein secretion in the supplemented group, whereas limited mucin glycol protein secretion in the control group. Furthermore, the biological significance showed a high and low immunoreactivity of Muc2 and Muc13 in the supplemented and control groups, respectively. Immunofluorescence was used to confirm the immunosignaling of Muc2. Results revealed high immunosignaling of Muc2 at the apical part of the small intestine in the supplementation group, while low immunosignaling of Muc2 in the control group. Results suggest that trace element supplementation had significant effect on morphology and immunological role of GCs, which might be essential for immune function and health status of broiler chicken.
Aim of study: The Better Cotton Initiative is the largest cotton sustainability programme in the world because of the problems with conventional cotton farming and its impact on the environment. It aims to assist cotton communities in surviving and thriving while protecting and restoring the environment. Pakistan needs to make sure that local farmers are adopting these improved crop management practices in order to increase cotton production over the long term. Therefore, our work was to: (i) identify the cotton pests and disease management practices (CPDM) in Pakistan; (ii) evaluate the BC farmers’ level of adoption of CPDM; (iii) compare the experts’ recommendation on CPDM, and (iv) propose a suitable method to evaluate the adoption level. Area of study: BC farmers from Tando Allahyar district areas (Pakistan) were selected to investigate the adoptability to CPDM practices. Material and methods: The method first identified evaluation criteria based on a literature review and the recommendations of ten experts in crop protection. Then, the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process was used to weigh all the criteria according to two aspects, BC farmers’ adoption level and experts’ recommendations. Main results: Crop rotation, resistant cultivars, planting Bt with non-Bt cotton and border crops, recommended by experts, were all highly adopted by farmers. However, the adoption rate of other technologies (NEFR technology, botanical spray, and pheromone traps) was low. Research highlights: It was found that BC farmers were more likely to adopt CPDM practices recommended by experts. The above modern concepts and technologies must be adopted to promote sustainable cotton production, pest and disease management, and environmental quality.
Mechanical precision corn seed-metering planter has a compact structure, missed and repeated seeding advantages during high-speed operation. In this regard, the current research study focuses on the development of a corn seed planter that features an inclined seed-metering device. The spatial layout of the seed-metering device is optimized to change the seed-filling mode to meet the needs of high-speed operation. Firstly, the mechanical characteristics and seeds in the metering device chamber were analyzed, and then the seed-filling stress model was established. Secondly, a mechanical model for corn seed particles was developed for virtual simulation tests and numerical analysis using the discrete element method (DEM) and EDEM software. Moreover, a quadratic rotating orthogonal center combination test was implemented by setting the inclination angle of seed-metering device θ(A), machine ground speed v(B), and rotation speed of metering disc n(C) as the influence factors, with the missed seeding rate M and the seed-filling stress S as the evaluation indices. The results indicated that the most significant factors affecting the missed seeding rate, seed-filling stress, S, were the rotation speed of the metering disc (n) > machine ground speed (v) > inclination angle of the metering disc (θ) and inclination angle of the metering device (θ) > rotation speed of the metering disc (n) > machine ground speed (v), respectively. However, the field verification test shows that the optimized corn seed-metering planter achieved mean values of M = 4.33, Q(qualified seeding rate) = 92.83%, and R(repeated seeding rate) = 2.84%, with average relative errors of 1.17% compared to the simulation tests and the accuracy and effectiveness of the DEM simulation model was verified. Therefore, the developed corn seed-metering device meets the industry standards and operation requirements for precise corn sowing, and technical support can be given for future studies of similar precision seeding equipment.
This study aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the inactivation of airborne Escherichia coli [(E. coli), a gram-negative bacterium], Bacillus subtilis [(B. subtilis), a gram-positive bacterium], MS2 (a bacteriophage) virus, and Aspergillus versicolor [(A. versicolor), a fungus] with kinetic analysis utilizing microwave irradiation based on absorption material. The capacity of a microwave-absorbing material Fe3O4@SiC ceramic foam (Fe3O4@SiCcf) to inactivate bioaerosols when subjected to microwave (MW) irradiation (2450MHz) for 25 seconds at various output powers (750, 550, 350, and 150W) was determined. The airborne MS2 decreased by 4.5 logs at the microwave (MW) input energy density of 7.2 × 10³ kJ/m³, while that for E. coli was at around 4.4 logs, and that for B. subtilis was at 4.3 logs. The activation energy (Ea) applied was 13.2 kJ/mol (E. coli), 14.6 kJ/mol (B. subtilis), and that for MS2 virus was 9.6 kJ/mol. By contrast, this study has shown that A. versicolor log inactivation efficiency was lower and Ea was higher than others, which were 3.6 logs and 16.7 kJ/mol, respectively. In addition, MW - Fe3O4@SiCcf improved the inactivation efficiency of airborne microorganisms significantly compared with no absorbing material. Through the comparative analysis of energy consumption, the rate of constant airborne inactivation through MW irradiation is higher than UV and Fenton. However, the energy efficacy per MW irradiation order is lower. In summary, Fe3O4@SiCcf ceramic form is an energy-efficient material for inactivating airborne microorganisms under MW irradiation.
As an important class of chemosensory-associated proteins, odorant binding proteins (OBPs) play a key role in the perception of olfactory signals for insects. Parasitoid wasp Microplitis mediator relies on its sensitive olfactory systems to locate host larvae of Noctuidae and Geometridae. In the present study, MmedOBP14, a male-biased OBP in M. mediator, was functionally investigated. In fluorescence competitive binding assays, the recombinant MmedOBP14 showed strong binding abilities to five plant volatiles: β-ionone, 3,4-dimethylacetophenone, 4-ethylacetophenone, acetophenone and ocimene. Homology modeling and molecular docking results indicated that the binding sites of all five ligands are similar and concentrated in the binding pocket of MmedOBP14. Except acetophenone, the remaining four ligands at 1, 10 and 100 μg/μL caused strong antennal electrophysiological responses in adults M. mediator, and males showed more obvious EAG response to most ligands than females. In behavioral trial, males were attracted by low concentrations of MmedOBP14 ligands, whereas high doses of β-ionone and acetophenone had a repellent effect on males. Moreover, 1 μg/μL of 3,4-dimethylacetophenone showed the strongest attractiveness to female wasps. These findings suggest that MmedOBP14 may play a more important role in the perception of plant volatiles for male wasps to locate habitat, supplement nutrition and search partners.
Dry stable aggregates, soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and aggregate‐associated carbon are measured as vital factors for preserving soil quality. Different land use systems strongly impacts the services of the ecosystem to influence soil degradation and loss of carbon. Though, little is known about the dry aggregates stability and SOC stocks in a dry, semi‐arid region of Balochistan, Pakistan to resist land degradation. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of several land‐use systems on SOC stocks, the distribution of soil aggregates, and the carbon management index. The treatments consisted of five land‐use systems, viz. grassland, cropland, fallow land, forests, and vegetation, typically prevail in the area. Three layers of soil were used to sample it (0‐15, 15‐30, 30‐45 cm) and sieved into five aggregate classes (>8, 8‐5, 5‐2, 2‐0.25, and < 0.25 mm). The grasslands had significant higher SOC concentrations (12.83 g kg−1), SOC stocks (19.44 mg ha‐1), liability index (0.89 g kg ‐1), non‐labile C (9.56 g kg‐1), labile C (0.35 g kg‐1), carbon management index (204.6), and EOC (3.27g kg‐1), when compared to fallow land. Moreover, grassland and forestland were comprised of larger macroaggregates (>0.25 mm), although the fallow land‐use system had a higher degree of micro aggregates (<0.25 mm). We found strong relationship of soil SOC with SOC concentration of soil aggregates and other labile fractions of carbon. Therefore, grassland and forestland promotes the aggregate‐associated SOC and carbon management index by enhancing the soil aggregation and is therefore a possible managing option to develop the SOC sequestration potential of eroded dry soils.
Impacts of climate change and human-made interventions have altered the fluvial regime of most rivers. The increasingly uncertain floods would further threaten the flow delivery system in regions such as Pakistan. In this study, an alluvial reach of the Indus River below Kotri barrage was investigated for the geomorphologic effects of sediments deposited over the floodplain as well as the influences on the downstream flood-carrying capacity. The hydrodynamic modeling suite HEC-RAS in combination with ground and remotely sensed data were used to undertake this analysis. Results suggest that the morphology of the river reach has degraded due to depleted flows over a long period and hydrological extremes that have led to excessive sediment deposition over the floodplain and an enhancement in flood water extension possibility over the banks. A deposition of 4.3 billion cubic meters (BCM) of sediment increased the elevation of the channel bed which in turn reduced a 17.75% flood-carrying capacity of the river reach. Moreover, the excessive deposition of sediments and the persistence of low flows have caused a loss of 48.34% bank-full discharges over the past 24 years. Consequently, the river’s active reach has been flattened, with a live threat of left levee failure and the inundation of the populous city of Hyderabad. The study would gain insights into characterizing the impacts associated with a reduction in the flood-carrying capacity of the alluvial channel on account of the inadequate sediment transport capacity after heavy flow regulations
There are more than 1200 species of whiteflies found across the globe. Due to the high level of resistance of whitefly against synthetic insecticides, alternate pest management measures have their significance. Plant essential oils (EOs) affect insect pests in many ways, such as via stimulatory, deterrent, toxic, and hormonal effects. This study was designed to determine the repellency of essential oils, toxicity, and oviposition deterrent activities of Allium ascalonicum, Cinnamomum camphora, and Mentha haplocalyx against adult whiteflies. In repellency determination experiments, a single tomato plant was treated with 10 ml of ethanol-extracted essential oil with 1000 ppm concentration. Results showed that C. camphora essential oil was the most repellent for whitefly compared to M. haplocalyx and A. ascalonicum. The oviposition deterrent experiments revealed that C. camphora has the highest oviposition deterrent effect, followed by M. haplocalyx and A. ascalonicum. A single plant treatment method was used to assess the contact toxicity of three essential oils against whitefly after 12, 24, 48, and 72 h of exposure. The results revealed that C. camphora is more toxic to whitefly than M. haplocalyx and A. ascalonicum. After determining the antagonistic effects of these essential oils, the oils were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify the chemical components. It can be concluded that C. camphora is the most effective oil essential oil in terms of toxicity, repellence, and oviposition deterrence, followed by M. haplocalyx and A. ascalonicum under greenhouse conditions. Our results introduce some new eco-friendly plant essential oils to control whiteflies.
Insect-vectored plant viruses pose a serious threat to sustainable production of economically important crops worldwide. This demands a continuous search for environmentally-friendly, sustainable and efficient approaches based on biological agents to address the mounting challenges of viral disease management. To date, the efficacy of actinomycetes bacteria against DNA plant viruses remains unknown. Here, through comparative analyses, we demonstrate that the RFS-23 strain of Streptomyces cellulase possesses protective activity as it positively regulated the plant growth and development. and diminished the severity, of disease symptoms, together with reduced accumulation of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) DNA. The RFS-23 strain maintained relative chlorophyll contents by promoting the expression of genes (CLH1, HEMA1 and PORA) associated with chlorophyll biogenesis. As compared to another strain, CTF-20, the RSF-23 induced a significantly higher expression of plant defense-related genes (NbCIS and NbNCED) associated with biogenesis and accumulation of salicylic acid and abscisic acid. Additionally, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, POD and MDA) was significantly enhanced by RSF-23 treatment, despite the presence of viral infection. These findings suggest that RSF-23 is a novel biocontrol agent with protective activity, and it could be a potential candidate for the management of plant viral infections.
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faculty of Agricultural Social Sciences , 71000, Tando Jam, Sindh , Pakistan
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Chairman of the Department