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ABSTRACT: Syndecan-4 (SDC4) is a cell-surface proteoglycan associated with cell adhesion, motility, and intracellular signaling. Here, we present that SDC4 functions as a positive regulator of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) via Snail in lung adenocarcinoma, A549 cells. TGF-β1 up-regulated the expression of SDC4, accompanied by the induction of EMT. Wound-healing and transwell chemotaxis assay revealed that SDC4 promoted cell migration and invasion. SDC4 knockdown recovered the E-cadherin and decreased vimentin and Snail expression in EMT-induced A549 cells. However, depletion of SDC4 resulted in little change of the Slug protein expression and mesenchymal cell morphology induced by TGF-β1. The double knockdown of SDC-4 and Slug was required for reversal of epithelial morphology; it did not occur from the SDC4 single knockdown. These findings suggest that Snail is a transcriptional factor downstream of SDC4, and SDC4 regulates TGF-β1-induced EMT by cooperating with Slug. Our data provide a novel insight into cellular mechanisms, whereby the cell-surface proteoglycan modulated TGF-β1-induced EMT in lung adenocarcinoma, A549 cells.
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ABSTRACT: Venous malformations of the zygoma are rare. Historically, venous malformations have been misrepresented as "hemangiomas". The International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomaly (ISSVA) classification is a reasonable classification that leads to appropriate clinical diagnosis and treatment strategies. Collaboration between surgeons, radiologists, and pathologists is necessary for accurate diagnosis and management. We present here a case of an IOVM in a 59-year-old woman who was treated with a multidisciplinary approach. Superselective arteriography and embolization were effective for diagnosis as well as for prevention of large hemorrhage during surgery. En-bloc resection of the zygoma was performed within hours after embolization and autologous calvarial bone graft was used for primary reconstruction. We performed a literature review consisting of reviewing 52 cases of IOVM of the zygoma discussing optimal material for reconstruction of the defect for intraosseous venous malformation of the zygoma nationally and internationally. The combination of surgery and preoperative angiography makes it possible to prevent high risk of hemorrhage. For primary reconstruction of the zygoma, use of autologous calvarial bone can maintain the volume and reconstruct the natural malar contour. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
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