Shinshu University
  • Matsumoto, Nagano, Japan
Recent publications
In this study, the mechanisms underlying green flower phenotype of a lily cultivar, ‘Doubleen’, was investigated focusing on jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation. ‘Doubleen’ is a mutant lily cultivar derived from ‘Yelloween’ and has unexpanded, non-pigmented green tepals but lacks the stamen and carpel. ‘Doubleen’ was treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) to investigate the subsequent change in floral organ characteristics. As a result, the tepals of MeJA-treated ‘Doubleen’ expanded and had yellow pigmentation, whereas those of the control did not. To estimate the JA synthesis site in the lily flower, the accumulation profiles of JA and jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile) were compared between the floral organs of ‘Yelloween’. The JA-Ile content of carpels was the lowest of the three floral organs at all developmental stages. JA-Ile contents in the inner tepals and stamens were not significantly different in all developmental stages. To determine potential role of JA and JA-Ile in tepal expansion and pigmentation in lily flowers, the accumulation of these two compounds was compared between the tepals of ‘Yelloween’ and those of ‘Doubleen’. At all developmental stages, the tepals of ‘Doubleen’ accumulated JA at concentrations lower than those of ‘Yelloween’. Floral organ removal experiments were also conducted using ‘Yelloween’ to evaluate its effect on tepal expansion. Notably, tepal expansion was not affected by pistil removal, but was strongly suppressed by stamen removal. Overall, these results suggest the loss of JA biosynthesis site in the flowers of ‘Doubleen’ leading to the formation of unexpanded green tepals on their flowers.
The accurate simulation of additional interactions at the ATLAS experiment for the analysis of proton–proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider presents a significant challenge to the computing resources. During the LHC Run 2 (2015–2018), there were up to 70 inelastic interactions per bunch crossing, which need to be accounted for in Monte Carlo (MC) production. In this document, a new method to account for these additional interactions in the simulation chain is described. Instead of sampling the inelastic interactions and adding their energy deposits to a hard-scatter interaction one-by-one, the inelastic interactions are presampled, independent of the hard scatter, and stored as combined events. Consequently, for each hard-scatter interaction, only one such presampled event needs to be added as part of the simulation chain. For the Run 2 simulation chain, with an average of 35 interactions per bunch crossing, this new method provides a substantial reduction in MC production CPU needs of around 20%, while reproducing the properties of the reconstructed quantities relevant for physics analyses with good accuracy.
Background Many types of tumors can arise in the esophagogastric junction (EGJ). Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from the esophageal epithelia, adenocarcinoma arising from the gastric mucosa, or Barrett’s esophageal mucosa are frequently observed in the EGJ. However, adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) has been rarely observed in this area. We herein report a rare case of ASC of the EGJ. Case presentation An 81-year-old man visited our hospital complaining of dysphagia. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy detected an elevated tumor in the gastric cardia. Biopsy specimens taken from the tumor showed SCC. Computed tomography revealed a tumor located in the EGJ and node metastases surrounding the EGJ. The tumor was diagnosed as SCC, overhanging in the stomach, of the EGJ. The patient underwent a proximal gastrectomy with a lower esophagectomy and node dissection for the metastases surrounding the EGJ, and esophagogastrostomy in the lower mediastinum. Histopathologic examination showed the tumor consisted of SCC and adenocarcinoma. The adenocarcinoma consisted of nests scattered in the SCC. We observed adenocarcinoma component in 35% of the tumor and epithelial spread of SCC in the lower esophagus. Thus, we diagnosed the tumor as ASC of the EGJ. Eight metastatic nodes were dissected; both SCC and adenocarcinoma were observed in seven. Conclusions In the present case, SCC may be originated from the squamous epithelia of the lower esophagus and grew into the stomach, and the adenocarcinoma may have differentiated from SCC through the infiltration.
The interface between the active electronic and its osculatory target dominates the sensing response of high-sensitivity sensors. However, the interface properties are difficult to be adjusted and preserved owing to the limited strategies for surface engineering. In this work, inspired by nature frond leaf, a spatial multi-level nanofibrous membrane with grid-like microstructure of uniform distribution was fabricated, in which carboxylated carbon nanotubes (CCNTs)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) was modified onto the surface of grid-like polyurethane (PU) nanofiber via the combination of metal mesh template, in situ polymerization and ultrasonic treatment. Nanofibrous membrane enables a pressure sensor with high sensitivities (5.13 kPa ⁻¹ ), fast response/recovery time (80 ms and 120 ms), and ultralow detection limit of 1 Pa. In addition, as a scalable and integrable platform, we also demonstrate its multifunctional applications for electro-thermal conversion and energy harvesting. All these results indicate the proposed nanofibrous membrane may potentially be applied to next-generation wearable devices.
Background Transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR amyloidosis) is a rare, life-threatening disease caused by the accumulation of variant or wild-type (ATTRwt amyloidosis) transthyretin amyloid fibrils in the heart, peripheral nerves, and other tissues and organs. Methods Established in 2007, the Transthyretin Amyloidosis Outcomes Survey (THAOS) is the largest ongoing, global, longitudinal observational study of patients with ATTR amyloidosis, including both inherited and wild-type disease, and asymptomatic carriers of pathogenic TTR mutations. This descriptive analysis examines baseline characteristics of symptomatic patients and asymptomatic gene carriers enrolled in THAOS since its inception in 2007 (data cutoff: August 1, 2021). Results This analysis included 3779 symptomatic patients and 1830 asymptomatic gene carriers. Symptomatic patients were predominantly male (71.4%) and had a mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of symptom onset of 56.3 (17.8) years. Val30Met was the most common genotype in symptomatic patients in South America (80.9%), Europe (55.4%), and Asia (50.5%), and more patients had early- versus late-onset disease in these regions. The majority of symptomatic patients in North America (58.8%) had ATTRwt amyloidosis. The overall distribution of phenotypes in symptomatic patients was predominantly cardiac (40.7%), predominantly neurologic (40.1%), mixed (16.6%), and no phenotype (2.5%). In asymptomatic gene carriers, mean (SD) age at enrollment was 42.4 (15.7) years, 42.4% were male, and 73.2% carried the Val30Met mutation. Conclusions This 14-year global overview of THAOS in over 5000 patients represents the largest analysis of ATTR amyloidosis to date and highlights the genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity of the disease. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier : NCT00628745.
Background With the increasing incidence of asymptomatic carriers or milder symptoms, children and adolescents are likely to become a silent source of infection. In view of the efficacy and safety of vaccines in the treatment of novel Coronavirus pneumonia, population-wide vaccination will be an inevitable trend to control the spread of COVID-19. However, there is no survey on the attitudes of Chinese parents of children and adolescents towards their children’s COVID-19 vaccination. Methods We used online questionnaires to find out the attitudes of Chinese parents toward their children’s immunization against COVID-19. Logistic regression was used to explore the influencing factors. Results A total of 2019 parents participated in the survey. Overall, 74.38% parents said they would actively get vaccinated, 8.90% refused to get vaccinated, 4.60% said they would delay vaccination and 12.12% were still undecided. Conclusions In general, Chinese parents have a high desire to be vaccinated against COVID-19, and most parents have a positive attitude towards their children’s vaccination. However, many people still hesitate or even refuse to be vaccinated. Education background, attitudes towards children’s vaccination, children’s age, recent illness and other factors have a certain impact on Chinese parents of children and adolescents towards their children’s COVID-19 vaccination.
Autobiographical memory specificity (AMS) refers to the tendency to recall events that occurred at a particular time and place. We examined the hypothesis that AMS is associated with pattern separation, which is an essential component of episodic memory that may allow us to encode and retain the unique aspects of events. In Study 1 (N = 94) and Study 2 (preregistered; N = 99), participants completed the Autobiographical Memory Test, which measures AMS, and the Mnemonic Similarity Task measuring pattern separation. We coded Autobiographical Memory Test responses conventionally and then further classified the categoric memory responses (i) that contained words indicating repetitions or regularity (e.g., always, often) and (ii) did not contain these words. The pattern separation ability correlated positively with specific memories and correlated negatively with categoric memories lacking those words. We propose to distinguish these two types of categoric memory and discuss the integrative model of autobiographical memory structure.
Chili peppers (Capsicum spp.) are a popular horticultural crop; the characteristic hot taste of chili peppers is the result of a class of compounds called capsaicinoids. In the horticultural production of such peppers, fluctuations in pungency (changes in capsaicinoid content) are an important issue, given that this fluctuation can cause confusion in the distribution or deterioration of pepper quality. Here, we sought to clarify the mechanism of this variation in pungency, specifically by investigating this variation at the transcriptome level. In the present study, we used the pungency-variable sweet chili pepper ‘Shishito’ (C. annuum) and created high-pungency seedless fruits by parthenocarpic treatment. RNA-sequencing analysis then was used to comprehensively compare gene expression in these fruits with that in less-pungent seeded fruits. We firstly profiled differentially expressed genes (DEGs) contributing to metabolic pathways involved with capsaicinoid biosynthesis. Subsequently, we employed clustering analysis (using previously published RNA-sequencing data) to explore changes in the expression of genes encoding putative transcription factors that might serve as regulators of the capsaicinoid biosynthesis genes (CABGs). Specifically, we screened nine DEGs (CaMYB31, WRKY9, TF62308, TF60920, TF62062, TF75838, ACOT9, TF62804, and TF64623) that have gene ontology related to the regulation of transcription, and found that the expression patterns of these DEGs were similar to those of several CABGs. We also employed quantitative reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction to investigate the expression (in the pungency-varied fruits) of these DEGs with putative roles in transcription. Accordingly, we observed that the transcript levels in most of these DEGs correlated positively with the amount of capsaicinoid in the placental septum. Therefore, we postulate that these DEGs with putative transcriptional regulatory roles are involved in capsaicinoid biosynthesis, such that the transcript levels of these DEGs may contribute to the fluctuation of pepper pungency.
Nanoscale advanced carbons, including carbon nanotube, graphene, carbon nanosphere, porous carbon, and their derivatives, are represented as distinct types of material generate in various forms, structure dimensions, and properties. They feature a large specific surface area, excellent conductivity, high mechanical properties, tunable chemical functionality, and a broad potential window, which essentially require for lithium-ion battery systems. The nanoscale advanced carbons have been intensively researched and developed as a negative electrode component to improve battery performance. This review deliberately discusses structures, main properties, and synthesis methods that are directly related to the physical properties and chemical behaviors of the nanoscale advanced carbons. Moreover, currently good candidates for anode material for lithium-ion batteries were summarized. The importance of the primary function and the synergistic effect of nanoscale advanced carbons with active electrode species is emphasized. The systematic information from this review provides a promising tool that represents an essential reference for selecting anode electrode materials and designing the next generation of advanced lithium-ion batteries.
We consider the large time behavior of the solutions to the Cauchy problem for the BBM–Burgers equation. We prove that the solution to this problem goes to the self-similar solution to the Burgers equation called the nonlinear diffusion wave. Moreover, we construct the appropriate second asymptotic profiles of the solutions depending on the initial data. Based on that discussion, we investigate the effect of the initial data on the large time behavior of the solution, and derive the optimal asymptotic rate to the nonlinear diffusion wave. Especially, the important point of this study is that the second asymptotic profiles of the solutions with slowly decaying data, whose case has not been studied, are obtained.
In the present study, the tensile properties of a single ramie fiber and the adhesion of ramie and a resin were compared at 170, 180, 190, 200, 210 and 220 °C. The results revealed that the most suitable temperature for the formation of a unidirectional composite is 190 °C. The tensile properties of the non-woven ramie fiber fabric, woven ramie fiber fabric, ramie fiber yarns, or sliver reinforced composites were tested and compared, and their structures were analyzed by X-ray computed tomography. The results revealed that sliver was the most suitable reinforcing material for unidirectional composites. We also know that the tensile strength and tensile modulus increased as the fiber volume content increased, and the relationships between them were linear.
English has what is called ‘the to think that construction’, in which the subordinate clause (the to-infinitive clause) is used as if it were an independent clause (e.g., To think that she could be so ruthless!). This paper shows that the to think that construction can be divided into two types depending on the contents of the that clauses: one is the “recall” type, in which the that clauses represent a speaker’s knowledge (i.e., his/her past event or experience); and the other is the “surprise” type, in which the that clauses describe an event at the speech time which the speaker regards as unbelievable. This paper further shows that the “surprise” type of the to think that construction corresponds to the Japanese exclamatory sentence, or the towa/nante construction such as Kodomo-ni anna koto-o iw-are-ru {towa/nante}! ‘(Lit.) That my child should say such a thing!’.
The effect of blade profile on the efficiency of a waterfall cross-flow hydro turbine was investigated numerically using the non-uniform, thin, and standard blades. Each efficiency of the blade profile was evaluated by varying the tip-speed ratio (=0.3–0.9) and off-axis distance (=0.26–0.48), which are the influential parameters for characterizing the performance of the cross-flow turbine. Although a minor improvement was observed in the peak efficiency 62–63 % by the blade-profile effect, the off-peak efficiency was highly improved up to 8 % on the non-uniform blade and 11 % on the thin blade. The examination of the local and average torque distribution in reference to the flow fields showed that an increased torque on the non-uniform blade was observed at small blade angles due to the increased waterfall impingement, while that on the thin blade was observed at large blade angles caused by increased rebounding flow. This suggests the different torque enhancement mechanism of the cross-flow turbine on the non-uniform and thin blades in comparison with the standard blade.
Harvesting water from fog as well as the ocean provides an efficient and sustainable solution for producing clean drinking water. Till now, many different water harvesting materials have been widely reported, however these materials are often only applicable to a single scenario. Inspired by nature, here a novel hierarchical multi-biomimetic membrane is introduced. The mesh-like membrane is composed of polyurethane nanofibers with hydrophilic carbon nanospheres and carbon nanotubes anchored on the surface. It can not only be used to collect fog in the fog flow, but also can be used for photothermal evaporation under the driving of sunlight to collect water. The water harvesting efficiency of this membrane can reach 1666.2 mg cm⁻² h⁻¹, the evaporation rate of natural seawater can reach 1.05 kg m⁻² h⁻¹ under 1 sun, moreover it is reusable to realize long lasting efficient water harvesting. At present, there are few reports about the structural characteristics of biomimetic termites and fungi and the combination of carbon nanomaterials and polymer nanofibers for the construction of multi macro-micro-nanostructures for water harvesting. Therefore, this research can broaden the way of making biomimetic water harvesting materials in the future and provide new inspiration for the sustainable production of clean water.
Robot surfaces can design the space they cover by deforming and can be used in laparoscopic surgery to secure a surgical field space. In medical applications, a coordinate transformation is crucial to cooperate with other robots. However, allowing shear in the robot surfaces' deformations makes accurate coordinate transformations difficult. Robotic S-isothermic surfaces, given their mathematics, are only slightly deform in shear. In a system that combines this robot with rigid-body robots, each coordinate system can be entirely unified in the orthogonal coordinate system, simplifying the control. However, it has not been thoroughly investigated whether the deformed robot's local coordinate system is Cartesian or not. In this study, we use a rubber-like resin robotic S-isothermic surface and demonstrate that its deformation in a plane is conformal. We also show that when the deformation to the desired shape is small, there are conformal parameters close to the shape even during the deformation.
Background The posterior tibial slope angle (PTS) is crucial for sagittal alignment after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This study aimed to determine which PTS based on the lateral view of standard knee radiographs (LSKRs; 36 × 43 cm) reflects the PTS based on a full-length lateral tibial radiograph (FLTR). Methods A total of 290 patients (355 knees) who underwent primary TKA were retrospectively recruited. Cross-sectional views from the 3-dimensional digital model of the tibial prosthesis and bone complex in the sagittal plane were used as FLTRs and LSKRs. Considering the region 21.5 cm proximal to the site of FLTR as the spot for LSKR to determine the 5 tibial diaphyseal axes, the axis that simulates the PTS as determined by the tibial mechanical axis between the center of the tibial component and the ankle plafond in LSKR was determined and compared. Results PTS (α5) defined by the line connecting the midpoints of tibial width between the region 10-cm distal to the knee joint and the distal end of the tibia based on LSKR revealed the least mean difference (0.13° ± 1.00°) and the strongest correlation (P < .001, r = 0.948) with PTS based on FLTR (α0). The number of knees in α5, indicating a difference of <2° from α0, was 333 of 355 (93.8%). The equivalence test results indicated that α0 and α5 were statistically equivalent within a difference of 2° (P < .001). Conclusions PTS (α5) can be used as a clinically reliable substitution of the true PTS on an FLTR for evaluating sagittal alignment after TKA.
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1,574 members
Fuyuki Ito
  • Department of Chemistry
Koichi Hirabayashi
  • Department of Pediatrics
Kiyoshi Tanaka
  • Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Akiko Horiuchi
  • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Akimitsu Morisako
  • Spin Device Technology Center
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Matsumoto, Nagano, Japan
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http://www.shinshu-u.ac.jp