Green innovation is a key solution to resource depletion and natural environment deterioration. It is advancing the march toward marrying business with sustainability worldwide. Embodying green elements in core innovative activities naturally becomes the critical information for the external assessments of organizations. To identify this information channel effect, the current study is intended for shedding light on the effects of financial analysts, a prominent and professional stakeholder group, on corporate green innovation. Combining the comprehensive incoPat database with the data of Chinese publicly listed manufacturing firms over the period from 2003 to 2017, the empirical results show that analyst coverage could significantly improve firms' green innovation performance. It is also observed both institutional ownership and stock liquidity significantly enhance the positive relationship between analyst coverage and corporate green innovation. The information-based mechanisms are further identified by the split sample analysis based on the quality of financial information, when either the choice of audit company or the disclosure quality rank is applied. These findings provide beneficial supports for the idea that leaning on the monitoring from the financial analysts, managers could be encouraged to promote green investment with its long-time horizon and correct the myopia that overly focuses on short-term performance.
The escalating prevalence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in sports necessitates innovative strategies for ACL reconstruction. In this study, we propose a multiphasic bone-ligament-bone (BLB) integrated scaffold as a potential solution. The BLB scaffold comprised two polylactic acid (PLA)/deferoxamine (DFO)@mesoporous hydroxyapatite (MHA) thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) scaffolds bridged by silk fibroin (SF)/connective tissue growth factor (CTGF)@Poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) nanofiber yarn braided scaffold. This combination mimics the native architecture of the ACL tissue. The mechanical properties of the BLB scaffolds were determined to be compatible with the human ACL. In vitro experiments demonstrated that CTGF induced the expression of ligament-related genes, while TIPS scaffolds loaded with MHA and DFO enhanced the osteogenic-related gene expression of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) and promoted the migration and tubular formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In rabbit models, the BLB scaffold efficiently facilitated ligamentization and graft-bone integration processes by providing bioactive substances. The double delivery of DFO and calcium ions by the BLB scaffold synergistically promoted bone regeneration, while CTGF improved collagen formation and ligament healing. Collectively, the findings indicate that the BLB scaffold exhibits substantial promise for ACL reconstruction. Additional investigation and advancement of this scaffold may yield enhanced results in the management of ACL injuries.
Electrical bioadhesive interfaces (EBIs) are standing out in various applications, including medical diagnostics, prosthetic devices, rehabilitation, and human-machine interactions. Nonetheless, crafting a reliable and advanced EBI with comprehensive properties spanning electrochemical, electrical, mechanical, and self-healing capabilities remains a formidable challenge. Herein, we develop a self-healing EBI by thoughtfully integrating conducting polymer nanofibers and a typical bioadhesive within a robust hydrogel matrix. The accomplished EBI demonstrates extraordinary adhesion (lap shear strength of 197 kPa), exceptional electrical conductivity (2.18 S * Corresponding author at: Jiangxi Key 640 m − 1), and outstanding self-healing performance. Taking advantage of these attributes, we integrated the EBI into flexible skin electrodes for surface electromyography (sEMG) signal recording from forearm muscles. The engineered skin electrodes exhibit robust adhesion to the skin even when sweating, rapid self-healing from damage, and seamless real-time signal recording with a higher signal-to-noise ratio (39 dB). Our EBI, along with its skin electrodes, offers a promising platform for tissue-device integration, health monitoring, and an array of bioelectronic applications.
Optical sampling is seen as one of the potential means to solve the challenges of digitizing high frequency broadband microwave signals. However, in optical sampling link, high power-induced nonlinearity has greatly hindered the progress of system performance. Specifically, the nonlinearity of the modulator decreases the precision of the sampling phase, and that of the photodetector deteriorates the accuracy of the holding phase. Conventional microwave photonic links only consider modulator nonlinearity, or photodetection nonlinearity. Usually, a small fraction of frequency components are cancelled from each other with the constructed symmetric coefficients in the frequency domain, and linearization over the entire frequency band could not be achieved. To resolve this problem, an end-to-end digital postprocessing linearization method is proposed to conduct a full link nonlinearity correction within the entire operation bandwidth, involving the modulator and photodetector nonlinearity process. Through the tracing & fitting procedure, the precise correction functions of the modulator and photodetector are established respectively, and combined to linearize the sampling results in the digital domain. An experimental optical sampling link is set up to verify the proposed end-to-end linearization method. To induce a certain level of nonlinearity, the photodetector operates at saturation region where the unmodulated optical pulses is converted to a constant voltage of 0.26 V, and a single tone signal of 50% modulation index is applied on quadraturely biased MZM. The harmonics are effectively suppressed from 22.8 dB to 59.7 dB. For a bandwidth limited signal reception, the nonlinearity condition for the optical sampling link remains unchanged. The error vector magnitude (EVM) of a 64 QAM signal distorted in the optical sampling system is improved from 15.23% to 1.79%. The performance of the optical sampling link with the end-to-end linearization in terms of the operating point are also discussed.
In recent years, multiple optical fibers are installed on each optical link to deal with the surge of Internet traffic, which calls for large-scale reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers (ROADMs). However, the scalability of the standard optical cross-connect (OXC), the key component of ROADM, is limited by the port count of commercial wavelength selective switches (WSSs). The theory of Clos network could be used to design a scalable OXC, but it will lead to a large insertion loss (∼30 dB). To address this issue, we propose a three-phase approach to construct a modular OXC network. Starting from a classical OXC, phase 1 decomposes each WSS in the input and output stages into a two-stage cascaded structure of WSSs, based on which phase 2 factorizes the shuffle network between the inputs and the outputs of the original OXC into the interconnection of small-size shuffle networks. Phase 3 combines the small-size shuffle networks together with the small-size WSSs to form small-size OXC modules. As a result, we obtain a modular OXC network, which is an interconnection of small-size OXCs. The modular OXC network is a strictly nonblocking and flex-grid optical switching fabric and has ∼20-dB insertion loss. At last, we experimentally evaluate the transmission performance of modular OXC network and discuss the related issues when it is deployed in a ROADM.
Amorphous oxide semiconductor transistors have been a mature technology in display panels for upwards of a decade, and have recently been considered as promising back‐end‐of‐line (BEOL) compatible channel materials for monolithic 3D applications. However, achieving high‐mobility amorphous semiconductor materials with comparable performance to traditional crystalline semiconductors has been a long‐standing problem. Recently it has been found that greatly reducing the thickness of indium oxide, enabled by an atomic layer deposition (ALD) process, can tune its material properties to achieve high mobility, high drive current, high on/off ratio, and enhancement‐mode operation at the same time, beyond the capabilities of conventional oxide semiconductor materials. In this work, we review the history leading to the re‐emergence of indium oxide, its fundamental material properties, growth techniques with a focus on ALD, state‐of‐the‐art indium oxide device research, and the bias stability of the devices. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Hypoxia‐associated radioresistance in rectal cancer (RC) has severely hampered the response to radioimmunotherapy (iRT), necessitating innovative strategies to enhance RC radiosensitivity and improve iRT efficacy. Here, a catalytic radiosensitizer, DMPtNPS, and a STING agonist, cGAMP, are integrated to overcome RC radioresistance and enhance iRT. DMPtNPS promotes efficient X‐ray energy transfer to generate reactive oxygen species, while alleviating hypoxia within tumors, thereby increasing radiosensitivity. Mechanistically, the transcriptomic and immunoassay analysis reveal that the combination of DMPtNPS and RT provokes bidirectional regulatory effects on the immune response, which may potentially reduce the antitumor efficacy. To mitigate this, cGAMP is loaded into DMPtNPS to reverse the negative impact of DMPtNPS and RT on the tumor immune microenvironment (TiME) through the type I interferon‐dependent pathway, which promotes cancer immunotherapy. In a bilateral tumor model, the combination treatment of RT, DMPtNPS@cGAMP, and αPD‐1 demonstrates a durable complete response at the primary site and enhanced abscopal effect at the distant site. This study highlights the critical role of incorporating catalytic radiosensitizers and STING agonists into the iRT approach for RC.
Osmotic energy generation with reverse electrodialysis through membranes provides a worldwide free energy resource. Photo-driven proton transport in photosynthesis supplies basal energy for plants and living organisms on the planet. Here, we utilized aramid nanofiber (ANF) semiconductor-based membranes to enable light-driven proton transport for osmotic energy generation. Under unilateral illumination, the light-driven proton transport system converted light energy into electrical energy and showed wavelength- and intensity-dependent transmembrane potentials and currents. Interestingly, the synergistic effects of simultaneous illumination and pressure provided a five-fold increase in the voltage and a three-fold increase in the current relative to pressure alone. Density functional theory calculations and spectroscopic measurements demonstrated that the ANF and photoinduced electrons enabled proton transport during illumination and generated a transmembrane potential and current. The light-driven proton transport system supports the development of devices with flexible and stable ANF membranes.
Hypertrophic scar (HS), which results from prolonged inflammation and excessive fibrosis in re‐epithelialized wounds, is one of the most common clinical challenges. Consequently, sophisticated transdermal transfersome nanogels (TA/Fu‐TS) are prepared to control HS formation by synergistically inhibiting inflammation and suppressing fibrosis. TA/Fu‐TSs have unique structures comprising hydrophobic triamcinolone acetonide (TA) in lipid multilayers and hydrophilic 5‐fluorouracil in aqueous cores, and perform satisfactorily with regard to transdermal co‐delivery to macrophages and HS fibroblasts in emerging HS tissues. According to the in vitro/vivo results, TA/Fu‐TSs not only promote macrophage phenotype‐switching to inhibit inflammation by interleukin‐related pathways, but also suppress fibrosis to remodel extracellular matrix by collagen‐related pathways. Therefore, TA/Fu‐TSs overcome prolonged inflammation and excessive fibrosis in emerging HS tissues, and provide an effective therapeutic strategy for controlling HS formation via their synergy of macrophage phenotype‐switching and anti‐fibrosis effect.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease featuring an abnormal immune microenvironment and resultant accumulation of hydrogen ions (H⁺) produced by activated osteoclasts (OCs). Currently, clinic RA therapy can hardly achieve sustained or efficient therapeutic outcomes due to the failures in generating sufficient immune modulation and manipulating the accumulation of H⁺ that deteriorates bone damage. Herein, a highly effective immune modulatory nanocatalytic platform, nanoceria‐loaded magnesium aluminum layered double hydroxide (LDH‐CeO2), is proposed for enhanced immune modulation based on acid neutralization and metal ion inherent bioactivity. Specifically, the mild alkaline LDH initiates significant M2 repolarization of macrophages triggered by the elevated antioxidation effect of CeO2 via neutralizing excessive H⁺ in RA microenvironment, thus resulting in the efficient recruitment of regulatory T cell (Treg) and suppressions on T helper 17 cell (Th 17) and plasma cells. Moreover, the osteogenic activity is stimulated by the Mg ion released from LDH, thereby promoting the damaged bone healing. The encouraging therapeutic outcomes in adjuvant‐induced RA model mice demonstrate the high feasibility of such a therapeutic concept, which provides a novel and efficient RA therapeutic modality by the immune modulatory and bone‐repairing effects of inorganic nanocatalytic material.
Aqueous zinc (Zn) ion batteries (AZIBs) have not yet fulfilled their talent of high safety and low cost since the anode/electrolyte interface (AEI) has long been impeded by hydrogen evolution, surface corrosion, dendritic growth, and by‐product accumulation. Here, the hydrolysis of solid buffers is elaborately proposed to comprehensively and enduringly handle these issues. Take 2D layered black phosphorus (BP) as a hydrolytic subject. It is reported that the phosphoric acid generated by hydrolysis in an aqueous electrolyte produces a zinc phosphate (ZPO) rich solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer, which largely inhibits the dendrite growth, surface corrosion, and hydrogen evolution. Meanwhile, the hydrolytic phosphoric acid stabilizes the pH value near AEI, avoiding the accumulation of alkaline by‐products. Notably, compared with the disposable ZPO engineerings of anodic SEI pre‐construction and electrolyte additive, the hydrolysis strategy of BP can realize a dramatically prolonged protective effect. As a result, these multiple merits endow BP modified separator to achieve improved stripping/plating stability toward Zn anode with more than ten times lifespan enhancement in Zn||Zn symmetrical cell. More encouragingly, when coupled with a V2O5·nH2O cathode with ultra‐high loadings (34.1 and 28.7 mg cm⁻²), the cumulative capacities are remarkably promoted for both coin and pouch cells.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading global cause of respiratory infections and is responsible for about 3 million hospitalizations and more than 100,000 deaths annually in children younger than 5 years, representing a major global healthcare burden. There is a great unmet need for new agents and universal strategies to prevent RSV infections in early life. A multidisciplinary consensus development group comprising experts in epidemiology, infectious diseases, respiratory medicine, and methodology aims to develop the current consensus to address clinical issues of RSV infections in children. The evidence searches and reviews were conducted using electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library, using variations in terms for “respiratory syncytial virus”, “RSV”, “lower respiratory tract infection”, “bronchiolitis”, “acute”, “viral pneumonia”, “neonatal”, “infant” “children”, and “pediatric”. Evidence-based recommendations regarding diagnosis, treatment, and prevention were proposed with a high degree of consensus. Although supportive care remains the cornerstone for the management of RSV infections, new monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, drug therapies, and viral surveillance techniques are being rolled out. This consensus, based on international and national scientific evidence, reinforces the current recommendations and integrates the recent advances for optimal care and prevention of RSV infections. Further improvements in the management of RSV infections will require generating the highest quality of evidence through rigorously designed studies that possess little bias and sufficient capacity to identify clinically meaningful end points. Video Abstract (MP4 142103 KB)
Cancer therapeutic vaccines are powerful tools for immune system activation and eliciting protective responses against tumors. However, their efficacy has often been hindered by weak and slow immune responses. Here, the authors introduce an immunization strategy employing senescent erythrocytes to facilitate the accumulation of immunomodulatory zinc‐Alum/ovalbumin (ZAlum/OVA) nanovaccines within both the spleen and solid tumors by temporarily saturating liver macrophages. This approach sets the stage for boosted cancer metalloimmunotherapy through a cascade immune activation. The accumulation of ZAlum/OVA nanovaccines in the spleen substantially enhances autophagy‐dependent antigen presentation in dendritic cells, rapidly initiating OVA‐specific T‐cell responses against solid tumors. Concurrently, ZAlum/OVA nanovaccines accumulated in the tumor microenvironment trigger immunogenic cell death, leading to the induction of individualized tumor‐associated antigen‐specific T cell responses and increased T cell infiltration. This erythrocyte‐assisted cascade immune activation using ZAlum/OVA nanovaccines results in rapid and robust antitumor immunity induction, holding great potential for clinical cancer metalloimmunotherapy.
Low temperature rechargeable batteries are important to life in cold climates, polar/deep‐sea expeditions and space explorations. Here, we report 3.5 – 4 V rechargeable lithium/chlorine (Li/Cl 2 ) batteries operating down to ‐80°C, employing Li metal negative electrode, a novel CO 2 activated porous carbon (KJCO 2 ) as the positive electrode, and a high ionic conductivity (∼ 5 to 20 mS cm ⁻¹ from ‐80°C to room‐temperature) electrolyte comprised of aluminum chloride (AlCl 3 ), lithium chloride (LiCl), and lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) in low‐melting‐point (‐104.5 °C) thionyl chloride (SOCl 2 ). Between room‐temperature and ‐80°C, the Li/Cl 2 battery delivered up to ∼ 29,100 – 4,500 mAh g ⁻¹ first discharge capacity (based on carbon mass) and a 1,200 – 5,000 mAh g ⁻¹ reversible capacity over up to 130 charge‐discharge cycles. Mass spectrometry and X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy probed Cl 2 trapped in the porous carbon upon LiCl electro‐oxidation during charging. At ‐80°C, Cl 2 /SCl 2 /S 2 Cl 2 generated by electro‐oxidation in the charging step were trapped in porous KJCO 2 carbon, allowing for reversible reduction to afford a high discharge voltage plateau near ∼ 4 V with up to ∼ 1000 mAh g ⁻¹ capacity for SCl 2 /S 2 Cl 2 reduction and up to ∼ 4000 mAh g ⁻¹ capacity at ∼ 3.1 V plateau for Cl 2 reduction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
To match the increasing miniaturization and integration of electronic devices, higher requirements are put on the dielectric and thermal properties of the dielectrics to overcome the problems of delayed signal transmission and heat accumulation. Here, a 3D thermal conductivity network has been successfully constructed inside the PI matrix by the combination of ionic liquids (IL) and calcium fluoride (CaF 2 ) nanofillers, motivated by the bubble‐hole forming orientation force. Benefiting from the 3D thermal network formed by IL as a porogenic template and “crystal‐like phase” structures induced by CaF 2 ‐ polyamide acid charge transfer, IL‐10 vol% CaF 2 /PI porous film exhibits a low permittivity of 2.14 and a thermal conductivity of 7.22 W∙m ⁻¹ ∙K ⁻¹ . This design strategy breaks the bottleneck that low permittivity and high thermal conductivity in microelectronic systems are difficult to be jointly controlled, and provides a feasible solution for the development of intelligent microelectronics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Selective and targeted removal of individual species or strains of bacteria from complex communities can be desirable over traditional and broadly acting antibiotics in several conditions. However, strategies that could detect and ablate bacteria with high specificity are emerging in recent years. Herein, we report a platform that uses bacteria as a template to synthesize polymers containing guanidinium groups for self‐selective depletion of specific pathogenic bacteria without disturbing microbial communities. Different from conventional antibiotics, repeated treatment of bacteria with the templated polymers does not evolve drug resistance mutants after 20 days of serial passaging. Especially, high in vivo therapeutic effectiveness of the templated polymers is achieved in E. coli ‐ and P. aeruginosa ‐induced microbial peritonitis. The templated polymers have shown high selectivity in in vivo antimicrobial activity, which has excellent potential as systemic antimicrobials against bacterial infections. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and cold metal transfer arc welding (CMTAW) processes on microstructure and mechanical properties of AA8011-H18 aluminum alloy joints. The AA8011-H18 alloy sheets of thickness 3 mm were welded in butt joint configuration using conventional GMAW and CMTAW processes. The optical microscopy was employed for analyzing the microstructure of weld metal (WM) and heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the developed joints. The tensile properties and hardness of welded joints were evaluated using universal testing machine (UTM) and Vickers microhardness testing machine. The GMAW and CMTAW joints disclosed the joint efficiency of 58.33 % and 75.98 %, respectively. The CMTAW joints showed 30.25 % and 27.28 % improvement in tensile and yield strength compared to GMAW joints. However, there is a loss of 20 % ductility in CMTAW joints compared to GMAW joints. The superior tensile strength of CMTAW joints is correlated to microstructural refinement of WM and reduced grain growth in HAZ. It alludes to the wire retraction mechanism, which help to regulate the droplet transfer and lower the heat input.
Abstract It has been extensively discussed that negative marriage/fertility intentions in developed societies are caused by structural constraints especially soaring housing price. However, as marriage/fertility intentions reflect the joint effects of family formation desires and structural constraints, previous research using observational data has been limited in its ability to disentangle the structural effects of high housing price. The study aims to investigate to what extent high housing price is a structural constraint of marriage/fertility and how manipulating the degree of structural constraint via government housing policies can shape marriage and fertility intentions of young unmarried people. A population-based vignette survey experiment (N= 727) was conducted in Shanghai, China, where high housing price and low marriage/ fertility rates coexist. The data were analyzed by weighted ordered logistic regression and bootstrapping mediation models. The results show that the exposure to both demand- and supply-side housing policy information could significantly facilitate positive marriage and fertility intentions of young unmarried people in Shanghai, and the effects are comparable across socio-demographic groups. The positive effects of housing policies could be largely mediated by respondents’ more positive attitudes toward marriage, higher perceived housing affordability, and stronger perceived social norms supporting family formation. Overall, this study facilitates a deeper understanding of the role of supportive government housing policies in shaping marriage and fertility intentions and its underlying socio-psychological mechanisms.
The authors are concerned with the sharp interface limit for an incompressible Navier-Stokes and Allen-Cahn coupled system in this paper. When the thickness of the diffuse interfacial zone, which is parameterized by ε, goes to zero, they prove that a solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes and Allen-Cahn coupled system converges to a solution of a sharp interface model in the L∞(L2) ∩ L2(H1) sense on a uniform time interval independent of the small parameter ε. The proof consists of two parts: One is the construction of a suitable approximate solution and another is the estimate of the error functions in Sobolev spaces. Besides the careful energy estimates, a spectral estimate of the linearized operator for the incompressible Navier-Stokes and Allen-Cahn coupled system around the approximate solution is essentially used to derive the uniform estimates of the error functions. The convergence of the velocity is well expected due to the fact that the layer of the velocity across the diffuse interfacial zone is relatively weak.
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