# Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences

• Tehran, Iran
Recent publications
Nanotechnology is a novel area that has exhibited various remarkable applications, mostly in medicine and industry, due to the unique properties coming with the nanoscale size. One of the notable medical uses of nanomaterials (NMs) that attracted enormous attention recently is their significant anticoagulant activity, preventing or reducing coagulation of blood, decreasing the risk of strokes, heart attacks, and other serious conditions. Despite successful in vitro experiments, in vivo analyses are yet to be confirmed and further research is required to fully prove the safety and efficacy of nanoparticles (NPs) and to introduce them as valid alternatives to conventional ineffective anticoagulants with various shortcomings and side-effects. NMs can be synthesized through two main routes, i.e., the bottom-up route as a more preferable method, and the top-down route. In numerous studies, biological fabrication of NPs, especially metal NPs, is highly suggested given its eco-friendly approach, in which different resources can be employed such as plants, fungi, bacteria, and algae. This review discusses the green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as two of the most useful metal NPs, and also their alloys in different studies focussing on their anticoagulant potential. Challenges and alternative approaches to the use of these NPs as anticoagulants have also been highlighted.
Context Cyclosporine is the first drug to revolutionize organ transplantation; this drug was approved for autoimmune and graft versus host disease (GVHD) treatment. Based on case reports, Cyclosporine overdose has morbidities (including acute renal failure (ARF), seizure, coma, hepatitis, and neurologic disorder) and mortality. Background Although cyclosporine was discovered many years ago and is still used to treat many diseases, its narrow therapeutic index can cause significant problems. Methods We performed a literature search across three databases, including Medline, EMBASE, and Science Direct, and reviewed statistical sources from January 1, 1983, to April 31, 2020. Papers were eligible for what they described, either acute or acute chronic cyclosporine overdose. At least one serum cyclosporine concentration had to be reported for inclusion. Reports on chronic poisoning, studies on side effects of therapeutic drug uses, and animal studies were excluded. Results We found 81 cases from 37 articles that met inclusion criteria, potentially life-treating symptom coma (10%), seizure (16%), cardiac tachycardia (3%), and death (5%). Pediatrics are more susceptible to cyclosporine overdose, treatment interventions like gastric lavage (6.3%), charcoal administration (6.3%), whole blood exchange (5%), a huge overdose of more than 400 mg/kg oral route, or serum levels of more than > 3800 ng/ml related to death, seizure associated with upper threshold level > 500 ng/ml and coma related to the upper level of 1000 ng/ml cyclosporine levels, charcoal administration, and whole blood exchange reduce cyclosporine level and cure the patients. Conclusions Fifty percent of patients showed no or minimum toxicity and fifty percent showed severe signs and symptoms of poisoning. Almost all patients have a good outcome if cyclosporine overdose is diagnosed and treated on time.
Background Recently, machine learning (ML) methods have been progressively applied in medical researches. Predicting ICU outcome helps hospitals to better manage their resources. In addition, by recognition of the most important factors in predicting ICU outcome, some new protocols may be developed to consider these factors in the treatment. Objective The present study is a descriptive applied study in the field of ML and intensive care unit (ICU) to determine the predicting factors associated with the outcome of neurosurgery ICU. Method Data of 1200 patients admitted to the neurosurgery ICU, [BLINDED FOR REVIEW] during the period of 2017 to 2019 was studied. Demographic features (age, sex, weight, height), comorbidities, ICU admission time, ICU re-admission, smoking and related complications were collected. Neighborhood Component Analysis (NCA) was used as a non-parametric strategy for choosing features with the aim of enhancing prediction accuracy of regression and classification algorithms. Results Using this approach, we found that the most important predictor factors for the outcome of neurosurgery patients were age, weight, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, prior operation, smoking and alcohol, sex, blood glucose, ischemic heart disorder, meningitis, acute kidney injury, tracheostomy, prior ICU admission, seizure, and fever. Conclusion The application of ML enables the prediction of outcomes of neurosurgery patients.
Present study was to evaluate the relationship between suicide attempt, gender and age. We used all of suicide attempt entered in Hamadan Suicide Registry Program (2016-2017). Finding revealed that suicide attempt was lower among elderly patients. Using poison and self-immolation was more common in elder patients. Suicide attempt in females against males was higher in married. In males the higher rate of suicide attempt was in autumn, while in females was in summer. Using of drug was more frequent in females, while self-harm was more common in males. Gender and age are important risk factors of suicide attempts.
A nature inspired plasmonic core-shell architecture was proposed by incorporating a natural siliceous insulator shell (Navicula salinicola frustules) in Ag/diatomite/ZnO hierarchical nanostructures to overcome the recombination of energetic charge carriers (e⁻/h⁺), corrosion of bare metal, and to facilitate the composite separation after reaction. The photocatalytic performance of the as-prepared composites, monitored by decomposition of methylene blue (MB), was investigated under both UV and simulated sunlight irradiation. Ag/diatomite/ZnO exhibited efficient photocatalytic performance (near 100% degradation and 95% mineralization) under simulated sunlight irradiation with apparent rate constant of 0.0246 min⁻¹, which was found to follow pseudo-first order kinetics. The enhanced photocatalysis action of metal/insulator/semiconductor as compared to metal/semiconductor and the semiconductor alone could be ascribed to the synergistic effects of the photonic structure of regular frustules, improved sunlight harvesting efficiency, suppressed back electron transfer, and prohibited oxidization of Ag. While the as-synthesized composite was easy to separate from the reaction, however, it was in the throes of losing the photocatalytic activity after three rounds of reuse. A possible mechanism of photocatalytic degradation of MB induced by Ag/diatomite/ZnO under sunlight irradiation was proposed based on dye degradation measurements and reactive species trapping experiments. While the reusability of as-prepared composite will doubtless be much scrutinized, our study may provide a new insight into the design and fabrication of plasmonic-based nanomaterials for use in industry applications under solar light illumination.
Resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) is a major issue of the current era in cancer immunotherapy. Immune evasion is a multi-factorial event, which occurs generally at a base of cold immunity. Despite advances in the field, there are still unsolved challenges about how to combat checkpoint hijacked by tumor cells and what are complementary treatment strategies to render durable anti-tumor outcomes. A point is that anti-programed death-1 receptor (PD-1)/anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is not the solo path of immune escape, and responses in many types of solid tumors to the PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors are not satisfactory. Thus, seeking mechanisms interconnecting tumor with its immune ecosystem nearby unravel more about resistance mechanisms so as to develop methods for sustained reinvigoration of immune activity against cancer. In this review, we aimed to discuss about common and specific paths taken by tumor cells to evade immune surveillance, describing novel detection strategies, as well as suggesting some approaches to recover tumor sensitivity to the anti-PD-(L)1 therapy based on the current knowledge.
Objective: Hypertension is one of the major modifiable risk factors in developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Hence, we aimed to ascertain age- and sex-specific population attributable fraction (PAF) for CVD in different blood pressure levels to implement efficient preventive strategies at the population level. Methods: Participants' data were obtained from the Iranian stepwise approach for surveillance of noncommunicable disease risk factors (STEPs) survey to calculate PAF in four subsequent phases. In phase 0, PAF was measured, irrespective of the diagnosis status. In phase 1, the theoretical minimum range of 115 ≤SBP less than 130 mmHg was considered as the low-risk and measurements equal to or higher than 130 mmHg as the high-risk group. Across phase 2, patients were divided into normal and hypertensive groups based on the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline. In phase 3, patients were divided into two categories based on treatment coverage. Results: A total number of 27 165 participants aged ≥25 years had valid blood pressure measurements and were enrolled. Phase 0: PAF generally had an upward trend with age advancing. Phase 1: participants with BP ≥130 mmHg comprised the largest PAF, extending from 0.31 (0.25-0.37) in older male individuals to 0.85 (0.79-0.91) in younger females. Phase 2: higher values were found in younger ages for hypertension. Phase 3 represented that attributable fractions among hypertensive patients who received treatment were much lower than drug-naïve hypertensive participants. Conclusion: Our study enlightens the necessity for implementing effective screening strategies for the younger generation and providing adequate access to antihypertensive medications for the low-risk population.
Aims: Allergic asthma is associated with anxiety-related behaviors, leading to poor quality of life. Previous studies mainly described the neuropathophysiology of asthma-induced anxiety. However, the effects of corticosteroids, the most common anti-inflammatory agents for asthma treatment, on the neurophysiological foundations of allergic asthma-induced anxiety are unexplored. Main methods: Here, we evaluated lung and brain inflammation as well as anxiety in an animal model of allergic asthma pretreated with inhaled fluticasone propionate. Furthermore, to define the neurophysiological bases of these conditions, we studied the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)-amygdala circuit, which is previously shown to accompany asthma-induced anxiety. Key findings: Our data showed that allergen induces anxiety, mPFC and amygdala inflammation, as well as disruptions in the local and long-range oscillatory activities within the mPFC-amygdala circuit. Interestingly, we observed a roughly consistent trend of changes with inhaled fluticasone pretreatment. Namely, the asthma-induced behavioral, inflammatory, and neurophysiological changes were partly, but not totally, prevented by inhaled fluticasone pretreatment. Significance: We suggest that early treatment of asthmatic patients with inhaled corticosteroids improves mPFC-amygdala circuit function by attenuating neuroinflammation leading to reduced anxiety. These findings could lead clinical guidelines of asthma to consider the neuropsychiatric disorders of patients in treatment recommendations.
Inborn errors of immunity (IEIs) are monogenic diseases of the immune system. Despite the increasing genetic advancements, the diagnosis of IEIs still lean on clinical diagnosis. Dermatological manifestations are observed in a large number of IEI patients and can lead to proper approach and prompt intervention. This cross‐sectional study was carried out between 2018 and 2020 on IEIs at a Children's tertiary care center in Tehran, Iran. Demographic details and age at onset of symptoms of IEI were recorded. Overall, 212 patients were included. Cutaneous findings were reported in 95 (44.8%) patients, and 61 of 95 (64.2%) reported skin lesions as the first clinical presentation. Skin infection (69, 72.6%) was the most frequent cutaneous manifestation, followed by eczematous rash (24, 25%). Skin manifestations are a common feature in IEI patients and are readily recognizable by healthcare providers. This study tried to provide information on prognostic consequences. Skin manifestations are a common feature in inborn errors of immunity patients and are readily recognizable by healthcare providers. This study tried to provide information on prognostic consequences.
In this study, phenolic derivatives and antioxidant activities of fourteen Ziziphora clinopodioides populations, as well as LC-MS/MS analysis of three specific flavonoids were evaluated. Generally, high contents of phenolic derivatives were found in shoot extracts compared to roots. LC-MS/MS, a powerful analytical technique, was employed for the identification and quantify the individual flavonoids in Z. clinopodioides populations’ extracts, in a quantity order of quercetin > rutin > apigenin. Scavenging activity by DPPH and FRAP was performed, and accordingly, in the shoot, the highest values for the DDPH were 4.61 ± 0.4 and 7.59 ± 0.26 µg ml− 1 in populations 1 and 13, respectively, and for the FRAP were 328.61 ± 5.54 and 292.84 ± 2.85 mg g DW− 1, in populations 6 and 1 respectively. Multivariate analysis results of the principal component analysis indicated the amount of polyphenols to be useful indicators in differentiating the geographical localities which explain 92.7% of the total variance. According to the results of hierarchical cluster analysis, the studied populations could be separated into two groups in that the contents of phenolic derivatives and antioxidant activities of different plant parts. Both shoot and root samples were well discriminated with the orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (R2X: 0.861; Q2: 0.47) model. The validity of the model was confirmed by using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and permutation tests. Such data make an important addition to our current knowledge of Ziziphora chemistry and are decisive in the identification of germplasms with a homogeneous phytochemical profile, high chemical content and bioactivity. The present results could also be helpful for the potential application of Z. clinopodioides in different kinds of industries as natural antioxidants.
Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway, connected upstream with Janus kinases (JAK) proteins, is known to be capable of the integration of inputs from various signaling pathways. Each family member exerts a particular role in signal transduction and is hence crucial to mediate different cellular responses to cytokines. STAT proteins especially STAT3 and STAT 5 are widely investigated and known to be involved in breast cancer progression. On the other hand, STAT1 and STAT4 exert opposite roles through suppression of breast tumor growth. Persistent activation of STAT3/5 can promote chronic inflammation, increasing healthy cells susceptibility to carcinogenesis. In this chapter, we discuss the structure, functional development, and activation of STAT family members. We also summarize the roles of different STAT proteins in breast cancer and its different subtypes. We also discuss STAT signaling pathway inhibitors used to treat breast cancer.
Background: Despite existing several kinds of studies on idiopathic hirsutism (IH) and its association with metabolic disturbances, a limited number of studies have assessed lipid profiles in patients with IH with conflicting and inconclusive results. This study aimed to evaluate the lipid profiles in women with IH, compared to those of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and healthy controls. Materials and methods: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, PubMed, Scopus, and EMBASE databases were searched to obtain studies published from inception to July 2021 investigating the lipid parameters, including triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in women with IH, compared to control groups. A meta-regression and subgroup analysis were conducted to explore heterogeneity sources. Publication bias was assessed by the Egger test. Results: Of 209 studies retrieved through searching databases and other sources, a total of 12 studies including 3913 participants were included for the meta-analysis. This meta-analysis showed higher standardized mean difference (SMD) of TC (SMD: 0.09 mg/dl; 95% CI: 0.001, 0.18) and lower SMD of HDL-C (SMD: -0.10 mg/dl; 95% CI: -0.18, -0.02) in women with IH, compared to those of the healthy controls, whereas there were no significant differences in the SMDs of TG and LDL-C between the study groups. This study also revealed no difference in the levels of lipid profiles of women with IH in comparison with PCOS patients, except for TG (SMD: -0.24 mg/dl; 95% CI: -0.46, -0.02). The results of subgroup analysis based on the study design revealed no significant differences in the SMD of lipid parameters between women with IH and healthy controls. We also found no significant difference in the levels of lipid profiles of women with IH versus PCOS patients, except for HDL-C in the subgroup of case-control studies (SMD: 0.18 mg/dl; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.34). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the majority of lipid parameters were not significantly different in women with IH, compared to those of healthy and PCOS controls.
Purpose: We investigated the design of a prompt gamma camera for real-time dose delivery verification and the partial mitigation of range uncertainties. Methods: A slit slat (SS) camera was optimized using the trade-off between the signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution. Then, using the GATE Monte Carlo package, the camera performances were estimated by means of target shifts, beam position quantification, changing the camera distance from the beam, and air cavity inserting. A homogeneous PMMA phantom and the air gaps induced PMMA phantom were used. The air gaps ranged from 5 mm to 30 mm by 5 mm increments were positioned in the middle of the beam range. To reduce the simulation time, phase space scoring was used. The batch method with 5 realizations was used for stochastic error calculations. Results: The system's detection efficiency was 1.1 × 10 - 4 P G s E m i t t e d P G s ( 1.8 × 10 - 5 $1.1\ \times {10}^{ - 4}\frac{{PGs}}{{Emitted\ PGs}}\ (1.8\ \times {10}^{ - 5}$ PGs/proton) for a 10 × $\times$ 20 cm2 detector (source-to-collimator distance = 15.0 cm). Axial and transaxial resolutions were 23 mm and 18 mm, respectively. The SS camera estimated the range as 69.0 ± 3.4 (relative stochastic error 1-sigma is 5%) and 67.6 ± 1.8 mm (2.6%) for the real range of 67.0 mm for 107 and 108 protons of 100 MeV, respectively. Considering 160 MeV, these values are 155.5 ± 3.1 (2%) and 152.2 ± 2.0 mm (1.3%) for the real range of 152.0 mm for 107 and 108 protons, respectively. Considering phantom shift, for a 100 MeV beam, the precision of the quantification (1-sigma) in the axial and lateral phantom shift estimation is 2.6 mm and 1 mm, respectively. Accordingly, the axial and lateral quantification precision were 1.3 mm and 1 mm for a 160 MeV beam, respectively. Furthermore, the quantification of an air gap formulated as g a p d e t = 0.98 × g a p r e a l $ga{p}_{det} = 0.98\ \times ga{p}_{real}$ , where g a p d e t $ga{p}_{det}$ and g a p r e a l $ga{p}_{real}$ are the estimated and real air gap, respectively. The precision of the air gap quantification is 1.6 mm (1-sigma). Moreover, 2D PG images show the trajectory of the proton beam through the phantom CONCLUSION: The proposed slit-slat imaging systems can potentially provide a real-time, in-vivo, and non-invasive treatment monitoring method for proton therapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Background: Child maltreatment has been a major worldwide problem and has remained a persistent public health challenge in all countries. Physicians have a significant role in the prevention and intervention of child maltreatment. An educated physician that can effectively identify and report child maltreatment can fill one of the most significant gaps in reducing child abuse. This study was performed to examine the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding child maltreatment among Iranian medical students through an internship course. Method: All the medical students (235 students) of the Iran University of Medical Sciences who passed the internship entrance exam in the 2019-2020 academic year participated in this study. The participants completed a 49-item scale questionnaire built by combining three other validated questionnaires that evaluate their attitude, knowledge, and practice skills in the first month of their internship course and then completed the same questionnaire 18 months later, at the end-point of the internship period. Results: One-hundred thirty nine (59.1%) participants were female, and 96 (40.9%) were male. The mean age of the subjects was 24.35 ± 0.76. Only 7 (3%) of them formerly received any education about child maltreatment. There was a significant improvement in scores of the knowledge of prevention (p-value = 0.001), the practice of prevention (p-value < 0.001) and the general subscale of the practice section (p-value < 0.001) during the internship course. However, the performance of participants decreased significantly in the subscales of the attitude towards diagnosis (p-value = 0.001) and the attitude towards reporting (p-value < 0.001) of child maltreatment. At the end of the study, the result of graduated physicians was: The total knowledge and attitude of participants were satisfactory, and the majority were at reasonable levels. Although in the practice subscale, 70.6% of the participants didn't identify, 84.7% didn't refer, and 86.4% didn't report a child abuse case in the past year. Conclusion: The knowledge and attitude of Iranian physicians regarding child maltreatment are at a satisfactory level. Although, the practice level has deficiencies. In addition, our findings show that Iranian interns have a shallow experience regarding child maltreatment, particularly despite the higher scores in attitude and knowledge, which can be the reason for deficiencies in the practice level.
Introduction The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of mesenchymal stem cells-derived extracellular vesicles (MSC-EVs) on the production of cytokines and expression of genes, which are corresponded to the subsets of T helper cells. Materials and Methods The supernatant of the second passage of MSCs that had been isolated from C57BL/6 mice abdominal adipose tissue was used to collect the MSC-EV. Splenocytes of healthy mice were activated using anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies and simultaneously were treated using the MSC-EVs. The proliferation rate of lymphocytes and the frequency of regulatory T cells were measured using flow cytometry. In addition, the expressions of T helper cell subset-specific transcription factors were evaluated using a real-time PCR assay. To appraise the effects of MSC-EV on splenocytes, the levels of IFN-γ, IL-17A, IL-10, and TGF-β were measured using ELISA. Results The results showed that the treatment of the CD3/CD28-activated splenocytes with MSC-EV did not statistically change the proliferation of CD3⁺ splenocytes. However, after the treatment, the mRNA levels of Foxp3 and Elf4 as well as the frequency of regulatory T cells was significantly higher when compared to the control group. The expression levels of Gata3, Rorc, and Tbx21 were down-regulated while, the corresponding cytokines levels did not alter. Conclusion The results revealed that the in vitro treatment of MSC-EV was associated with the increase in the frequency of CD4⁺CD25⁺FOXP3⁺ T cells and upregulation of Foxp3 mRNA level.
Objective: The current study aimed to examine the added value of serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) concentration to the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and Pooled Cohort Equations (PCE) in predicting the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women of reproductive age. Methods: Women 30 years and older were considered eligible for this population-based prospective study. The univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the association between the serum concentrations of AMH and the risk of CVD. Results: In the enhanced model, which integrated AMH into FRS and PCE and was adjusted for family history of premature CVD, AMH showed a significant association with the risk of CVD during a 19-year follow-up of 800 women (hazard ratio, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.60-0.99] and hazard ratio, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.48-0.84], respectively). According to the likelihood-ratio test, the addition of AMH measurements to FRS and PCE could significantly improve the risk prediction of CVD (P = 0.02 and P < 0.001, respectively); however, the integration of this biomarker did not improve the classification of risk categories. Conclusions: The present findings revealed that the addition of serum AMH concentrations to FRS and PCE could potentially improve the risk prediction of CVD.
Background and Aim. Haller cells arise from anterior ethmoid air cells and are located in the medial orbital floor, lateral to the maxillary infundibulum. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of the Haller cells and its relationship with orbital floor dehiscence on cone beam CT images. Materials and Methods. CBCT images of 120 patients were interpreted in coronal plane for the presence of Haller cells and orbital floor dehiscence. The prevalence of Haller cell, presence of dehiscence, unilateral, or bilateral frequency were assessed. In addition, the size was categorized in three groups of small, medium, and large. Chi-square and Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel tests were used for statistical analysis of the data, and p < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results. A total of 51 male and 69 female with mean ± SD age of 38.84 ± 68.14 were assessed. The overall prevalence of Haller cells was 56.7%, of which 44 (64.7%) were unilateral and 24 were bilateral (35.3%). The majority of the cells (70.7%) were seen in medium (2–4 mm) sized. There was a significant association between Haller cells and orbital floor dehiscence ( p ≤ 0.001 ). Conclusion. The prevalence of Haller cells was remarkably high and the presence of Haller cells was strongly associated with ipsilateral orbital floor dehiscence. Based on the findings of this study, CBCT can be useful in delineation of the bony anatomy of sinonasal complex.
A 34-year-old woman presented with acute abdomen, and her paraclinical data showed evidence concerning renal failure and its consequences in addition to ascites upon ultrasonography. Her symptoms did not abate after dialysis, and she underwent laparotomy, which revealed bladder perforation. Consequently, cystorrhaphy and cystoplasty were done without postoperative complications.
Background: Effective culture systems for attachment, migration, proliferation, and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) can be a promising therapeutic modality for preserving male fertility. Decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) from native testis tissue creates a local microenvironment for testicular cell culture. Furthermore, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains various growth factors for the proliferation and differentiation of SSCs. Methods: In this study, human testicular cells were isolated and cultured for four weeks, and SSCs were characterized using immunocytochemistry (ICC) and flow cytometry. Human testicular tissue was decellularized (0.3% SDS, 1% Triton), and the efficiency of the decellularization process was confirmed by histological staining and DNA content analysis. SSCs were cultured on the human decellularized testicular matrix (DTM) for four weeks. The viability and the expression of differentiation genes were evaluated by MTT and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. Results: Histological evaluation and DNA content analysis showed that the components of ECM were preserved during decellularization. Our results showed that after four weeks of culture, the expression levels of BAX, BCL-2, PLZF, and SCP3 were unchanged, while the expression of PRM2 significantly increased in the cells cultured on DTM supplemented with PRP (ECM-PRP). Also, the expression of GFRA1 was significantly decreased in the ECM group compared to the control and PRP groups. Furthermore, the MTT test indicated that viability was significantly enhanced in cells plated on DTM supplemented with PRP. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that DTM supplemented with PRP can provide an effective culture system for the differentiation and viability of SSCs.
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• Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition
• Department of Psychiatry
• Department of Ophthalmology, Torfeh eye hospital
• Department of Nuclear Medicine
• Department of Immunology
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