There is no relationship entirely free from conflict and disagreement. Children suffer when their parents fight. When parents argue, children show sadness. Their reactions are fear, anxiety, anger, sadness, and depression, and they are at a high risk of worsening. The main goal was to examine parental conflict and how it hurts the growth of children's behavior in demographic and cultural contexts. The research was done in the urban areas of District Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. A multistage sampling method was used to get a sample of 400 respondents between the ages of 10 and 19 who had both parents. To find out about the research goals, a well-made questionnaire was made. Data analysis, based on univariate and bivariate (chi-square and gamma text), was used to examine the responses and how they were related to the destructive effect on behavior growth. The results of a quantitative study showed that most people who had a lot of fighting between their parents at home had many bad things happen to them as they grew up. The chi-square value is significant at (0.000). In the sample, insufficient behavior growth was strongly linked to age, family type, number of siblings, the reason for parental conflict, level of parental competition, drug use, and health problems. It is suggested that parents understand that their kids are hurting when they see their parents fighting. A psychologist or counsellor should ensure that fighting between parents doesn't break the kids.
Depression is a serious psychological disorder which negatively affects human feelings and actions. The use of antidepressants is the therapy of choice while treating depression. However, such drugs are associated with severe side effects. There is a need for efficient and harmless drugs. In this connection, the present study was designed to synthesize several substituted benzodiazepine derivatives and explore their antidepressant potentials in an animal model. The chalcone backbone was initially synthesized, which was then converted into several substituted benzodiazepine derivatives designated as 1–6. The synthesized compounds were identified using spectroscopic techniques. The experimental animals (mice) after acclimatation were subjected to forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) after oral administration of the synthesized compounds to evaluate their antidepressant potentials. At the completion of the mentioned test, the animals were sacrificed to determine GABA level in their brain hippocampus. The chloro-substituent compound (2) significantly reduced the immobility time (80.81 ± 1.14 s; p < 0.001 at 1.25 mg/kg body weight and 75.68 ± 3.73 s with p < 0.001 at 2.5 mg/kg body weight dose), whereas nitro-substituent compound (5) reduced the immobility time to 118.95 ± 1.31 and 106.69 ± 3.62 s (p < 0.001), respectively, at the tested doses (FST). For control groups, the recorded immobility time recorded was 177.24 ± 1.82 s. The standard drug diazepam significantly reduced immobility time to 70.13 ± 4.12 s while imipramine reduced it to 65.45 ± 2.81 s (p < 0.001). Similarly, in the TST, the compound 2 reduced immobility time to 74.93 ± 1.14 s (p < 0.001) and 70.38 ± 1.43 s (p < 0.001), while compound 5 reduced it to 88.23 ± 1.89 s (p < 0.001) and 91.31 ± 1.73 s (p < 0.001) at the tested doses, respectively, as compared to the control group immobility time (166.13 ± 2.18 s). The compounds 1, 3, 4, and 6 showed weak antidepressant responses as compared to compounds 2 and 5. The compounds 2 and 5 also significantly enhanced the GABA level in the brain’s hippocampus of experimental animals, indicating the possible involvement of GABAergic mechanism in alleviating the depression which is evident from the significant increase in mRNA levels for the α subunit of the GABAA receptors in the prefrontal cortex of mice as well. From the results, it can be concluded that compound 2 and 5 could be used as alternative drugs of depression. However, further exploration in this connection is needed in other animal models in order to confirm the observed results in this study.
The aim of this study was to report the genotype and allelic frequency at rs438228855 in SLC35A3 receptor gene and its association with complex vertebral malformation (CMV) in enrolled Pakistani cattle. Our results, indicated that allelic and genotype frequency at rs438228855 varied non-significantly (P > 0.05) among the three enrolled cattle breed. GT (heterozygous) genotype was most abundant (0.54) followed by GG (wild type) genotype (0.45) while mutant genotype (TT) was not observed. It was observed that enrolled Holstein Friesian breed had more GG than GT genotypes while Sahiwal and cross cattle breed had more heterozygous (GT) combination at rs438228855 than the wild type (GG) genotype. Significant variations in white blood cell count, % lymphocytes, red blood cell count, % monocytes, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were observed when compared between the enrolled cattle breeds. Most of the studied hematological parameters showed no association with the genotype at rs438228855. In conclusion the heterozygosity at rs438228855 is not limited to Holstein Friesian breed as local Sahiwal and crossbred cattle had also higher heterozygosity at rs438228855. We recommend that animals must be genotyped for rs438228855 before their selection as breeders to prevent from economic losses.
In rice, various types of non-coding RNA molecules (ncRNAs) exist which are distinguished by their origin, biogenesis, and biological functions. Based on size and structure, ncRNAs are broadly categorized into short non-coding (sncRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Both of the groups have been further split into several subtypes based on their distinct features including biogenesis, length, polarity, and putative functions. In rice and other higher plants, the majority of sncRNAs negatively regulate gene expression through interactions with mRNA. Research evidence has shown that they play a vital role in different developmental processes including growth, phase transition, and against various biotic and abiotic stresses, by mediating endogenous gene silencing in a precise fashion. These molecules act either at the transcriptional level through DNA methylation and repressive modification of histone protein or at the post-transcriptional level by the degradation of mRNA and translational repression. Recent progress in research has revealed that lncRNA is responsible to stabilize alterations in the plant genome and is the key regulator of transcription via interactions with both coding and non-coding RNA molecules as well as transcription factors (TFs). This review article briefly summarizes the important types of ncRNAs in rice and current progress towards the understanding of the biogenesis of ncRNAs and their main biological functions.
The current sedimentological and petrographical research of the Abbottabad Formation has been carried out in order to understand the formation and evolution of the Proto-Tethys Ocean during the Cambrian on the northern margin of the Indian Plate. The Muzaffarabad region is located east of the Upper Indus Basin and the southern part of the Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis. The geological history of the region varies from the Precambrian to the recent period. The Cambrian Abbottabad Formation is well exposed along the Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis at the core of the 500-m-thick Muzaffarabad anticline. The Abbottabad Formation is an unconformity-bounded allo-strati-graphic unit. It has an unconformable lower contact with the Late Precambrian Dogra Formation and an unconformable upper contact with the Paleocene Hangu Formation. The Abbottabad Formation has been divided into four lithofacies, from bottom to top, namely, thinly interbedded do-lomite and shale, cherty-stromatolitic dolomite, oxidized limonitic-brecciated zone, and quartzite, with significant lithological changes. Petrographic studies revealed four types of dolomites: fine crystalline dolomite (Dol. I), dolomitic cryptocrystalline chert (Dol. II), algal mat-stromatolitic do-lomite (Dol. III), and intraclastic-dolo-grain stone (Dol. IV). The mineral composition of dolostone was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and found to be consistent with previous petrographic studies. The dolomite mineral content decreased from base to top, while chert increased towards the top. Elemental weight percentages through energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis show different elements constitute the minerals found in the dolostone, as confirmed by petrographic and XRD analysis. Using outcrop data, facies information, and geochemical data, a modified deposi-tional model of the Abbottabad Formation was developed. During the Early Cambrian period, the formation was deposited in a shallow subtidal to supratidal setting of the Proto-Tethys Ocean. The top of this deposit marks the Cambrian-Paleocene boundary. Because of the progressively coarsen-ing outcrop sequences, this formation seems to be at the very top of the Proto-Tethys Ocean's shallow marine system. Citation: Ali, S.K.; Lashari, R.A.; Sahito, A.G.; Kontakiotis, G.; Janjuhah, H.T.; Mughal, M.S.; Bilal, A.; Mehmood, T.; Majeed, K.U.
Oil oxidation is important in terms of taste, nutritive component quality and toxic effect of the oil. In this study, the oxidized sunflower oil was used along with chia seed in rabbits for the determination of its effects on various hematological and serum biochemical parameters as well as on liver histopathology. Three rabbits were fed with oxidized oil (obtained by heating) at the dose rate of 2 ml/kg body weight by mixing it with green fodder. The other rabbit groups were fed with Chia seed at dose rate of 1, 2 and 3 g/kg along with oxidized sunflower oil. Chia seed was fed alone to three rabbits at the dose rate of 2 g/kg body weight. All rabbits were fed regularly for twenty-one days. For the determination of hematological and biochemical parameters, whole blood and serum samples were collected on different days during feeding period. For histopathology, liver samples were used. Significant changes (p<0.05) were noted in the hematology and biochemical indices in the rabbits that were fed with oxidized sunflower oil alone, and along with different doses of Chia seed. In a dose-dependent manner, all these parameters were significantly improved (p<0.05), when the amount of Chia seed was increased. The biochemical and hematological indices were in normal range in the group fed only with Chia seed. In oxidized oil fed group, liver histopathological analysis showed that cholestasis was present at both sides (bile pigment secretion) and zone 3 necrosis with mild inflammatory cells. Mild vacuolization of hepatocytes was also observed. In Chia seed fed group, hepatocyte vacuolization and mild necrosis was noted. It was concluded that oxidized sunflower oil alters the biochemical and hematological parameters and causes liver abnormalities. Chia seeds act as an antioxidant and retrieve those alterations.
Currently, the deep integration of the Internet of Things (IoT) and edge computing has improved the computing capability of the IoT perception layer. Existing offloading techniques for edge computing suffer from the single problem of solidifying offloading policies. Based on this, combined with the characteristics of deep reinforcement learning, this paper investigates a computation offloading optimization scheme for the perception layer. The algorithm can adaptively adjust the computational task offloading policy of IoT terminals according to the network changes in the perception layer. Experiments show that the algorithm effectively improves the operational efficiency of the IoT perceptual layer and reduces the average task delay compared with other offloading algorithms.
Emergency message (EM) dissemination is a significant process in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) and plays a vital role in road safety. Nonetheless, EMs’ dissemination while avoiding broadcast storms poses a considerable challenge. Moreover, selecting optimal cooperative forwarders is also challenging because of unreliability, high end-to-end delay, and packet loss caused by localization errors. Besides, the conventional broadcast-based schemes usually choose forwarder vehicles based on distance, neglecting the influence of links’ qualities. To that end, we propose multi-hop EM dissemination (MEMD) through optimal cooperative forwarder in grid-based fifth-generation (5G) VANET environment. To ensure reliable EMs’ dissemination, we incorporate vehicle-to-everything communication instead of the conventional short-range vehicle-to-vehicle communication. The proposed scheme obtains vehicle positions by integrating GPS measurements with a map-matching technique to avoid vehicle localization errors. Instead of a single parameter, the proposed scheme selects an optimal cooperative forwarder by using our proposed fitness function, which considers different mobility and social parameters. The proposed scheme categorizes EMs’ dissemination into single-hop and multi-hop broadcasting to avoid unnecessary rebroadcasting and communication congestion in the network. Simulation results demonstrate that for varying density, the proposed scheme achieves an average increase of 12%, 9%, and 8.9% in coverage, and 7.95%, 4%, and 3.4% in PDR, and an average reduction of 13.5%, 7.2%, and 12.7% in E2E delay, and 20.9%, 11.3%, and 4% in rebroadcast ratio, as compared to LCL, REMD, and EMDZoI, respectively.
Cancer is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, and its cases are rapidly increasing every year. Several factors contribute to the development of tumorigenesis. including radiation, dietary lifestyle, smoking, environmental, and genetic factors. The cell cycle is regulated by a variety of molecular signaling proteins. However, when the proteins involved in the cell cycle regulation are altered, cellular growth and proliferation are significantly affected. Natural products provide an important source of new drug development for a variety of ailments. including cancer. Phytosterols (PSs) are an important class of natural compounds reported for numerous pharmacological activities, including cancer. Various PSs, such as ergosterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol, withaferin A, etc., have been reported for their anti-cancer activities against a variety of cancer by modulating the tumor microenvironment via molecular signaling pathways discussed within the article. These signaling pathways are associated with the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, growth factors, chemokines, and pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes. These mediators and their upstream signaling are very active within the variety of tumors and by modulating these signalings, thus PS exhibits promising anti-cancer activities. However, further high-quality studies are needed to firmly establish the clinical efficacy as well the safety of the phytosterols.
The purpose of this study was to assess the parameters of doxorubicin (DOX) loaded lipid polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPHNs) formulation development, and then the bioavailability of DOX were determined in the rabbit model, in order to evaluate the intrinsic outcome of dosage form improvement after the oral administration. LPHNs were prepared by combine approach, using both magnetic stirring and probe sonication followed by its characterization in terms of size-distribution (Zeta Size), entrapment efficiency (EE), loading capacity, and the kinetics of DOX. LPHNPs were further characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), powder X-Ray diffractometry (P-XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), in vitro and in vivo studies. The molecular modeling was determined through the density functional theory (DFT) simulations and interactions. DOX loaded and unloaded LPHNs were administered orally to the rabbits for bioavailability and pharmacokinetic parameters determinations. The plasma concentration of DOX was determined through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The average size of DOX-loaded LPHNs was 121.90 ± 3.0 nm. The drug loading of DOX was 0.391% ± 0.01 of aqueous dispersion, where its encapsulation efficiency was 95.5% ± 1.39. After oral administration of the DOX-LPHNs, the area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve (AUC) improved about 2-folds comparatively ( p < 0.05). DFT simulations were used to understand the interactions of polymers with different sites of DOX molecule. The larger negative binding energies (−9.33 to −18.53 kcal/mol) of the different complexes evince that the polymers have stronger affinity to bind with the DOX molecule while the negative values shows that the process is spontaneous, and the synthesis of DOX-LPHNs is energetically favorable. It was concluded that DOX-LPHNs provides a promising new formulation that can enhance the oral bioavailability, which have optimized compatibilities and improve the pharmacokinetic of DOX after oral administration.
Bernard et al. [(2019) Optimal strategies under omega ratio, European Journal of Operational Research 275 (2), 755–767] use convex ordering arguments to determine the bounded payoff for maximizing the omega ratio. However, it appears difficult to apply such reasoning to estimate the bounded payoff for maximizing the Sharpe ratio. As a proposed solution, this paper uses a Lagrange multiplier method to derive the bounded payoff for maximizing the Sharpe ratio. In contrast to the optimal strategy in Bernard & Vanduffel [(2014) Mean–variance optimal portfolios in the presence of a benchmark with applications to fraud detection, European Journal of Operational Research 234 (2), 469–480], the optimal strategy in this paper is bounded from below. It can protect investors from substantial losses when they invest in payoffs with a maximized Sharpe ratio.
Species distribution modelling (SDM) is an important tool to examine the possible change in the population range and/or niche-shift under current environment and predicted climate change. Monotheca buxifolia is an economically and ecologically important tree species inhabiting Pakistan and Afghanistan in dense patches, and species range is contracting rapidly. This study hypothesize that predicted climate change might remarkably influence the existing distribution pattern of M. buxifolia in the study area. A total of 75 occurrence locations were identified comprising M. buxifolia as a dominant tree species. The Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) algorithm was utilized to perform the SDM under current (the 1970s-2000s) and two future climate change scenarios (shared socioeconomic pathways: SSPs 245 and 585) of two time periods (the 2050s and 2070s). The optimal model settings were assessed, and simulation precision was assessed by examining the partial area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (pAUC-ROC). The results showed that out of 39 considered bio-climatic, topographic, edaphic, and remote sensing variables which were utilized in the preliminary model, 6 variables including precipitation of warmest quarter, topographic diversity, global human modification of terrestrial land, normalized difference vegetation index, isothermality, and elevation (in order) were the most influential drivers, and utilized in all reduced SDMs. A high predictive performance (pAUC-ROC; > 0.9) of all the considered SDMs was recorded. A total of about 67,684 km 2 of geographical area was predicted as suitable habitat (p > 0.8) for M. buxifolia, and Pakistan is the leading country (with about 54,975 km 2 of suitable land area) under the current climate scenario. Overall, the existing distribution of the tree species in the study area might face considerable loss (i.e. rate of change %;-27 to-107) in future, and simultaneously a northward (high elevation) niche shift is predicted for all the considered future climate change scenarios. Hence, development and implementation of a coordinated conservation program is required on priority basis to save the tree species in its native geographic range.
Zn(II), Pd(II), and Cd(II) complexes, [L TH MCl 2 ] (M = Zn, Pd; X = Br, Cl) and [L TH Cd(μ-X)X] n (X = Cl, Br; n = n, 2), supported by the (E)-N 1,N 1-dimethyl-N 2-(thiophen-2-ylmethylene)ethane-1,2-diamine (L TH ) ligand are synthesized and structurally characterized. Density functional theory (DFT) electronic structure calculations and variable-temperature NMR support the presence of two conformers and a dynamic interconversion process of the minor conformer to the major one in solution. It is found that the existence of two relevant complex conformers and their respective ratios in solution depend on the central metal ions and counter ions, either Cl- or Br-. Among the two relevant conformers, a single conformer is crystallized and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a distorted tetrahedral geometry for Zn(II) complexes, and a distorted square planar and square pyramidal geometry for Pd(II) and Cd(II) complexes, respectively. It is shown that [L TH MCl 2 ]/LiO i Pr (M = Zn, Pd) and [L TH Cd(μ-Cl)Cl] n /LiO i Pr can effectively catalyze the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) reaction of rac-lactide (rac-LA) with 94% conversion within 30 s with [L TH ZnCl 2 ]/LiO i Pr at 0 °C. Overall, hetero-enriched poly(lactic acid)s (PLAs) were provided by these catalytic systems with [L TH ZnCl 2 ]/LiO i Pr producing PLA with higher heterotactic bias (P r up to 0.74 at 0 °C).
Introduction The burgeoning population of the world is causing food insecurity not only by less food availability but also by the malnutrition of essential nutrients and vitamins. Malnutrition is mostly linked with food having micronutrients lower than the optimal concentration of that specific food commodity and becoming an emerging challenge over the globe. Microbial biofortification in agriculture ensures nutritional security through microbial nitrogen fixation, and improved phosphate and zinc solubilization, which increase the uptake of these nutrients. The present study evaluates the novel plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) to biofortify maize gain. Methods For this purpose, a pot and two field experiments for maize were conducted. PGPRs were applied alone and in combination for a better understanding of the biofortification potential of these strains. At physiological maturity, the growth parameters, and at harvest, the yield, microbial population, and nutritional status of maize were determined. Results and discussion Results revealed that the consortium (ZM27+ZM63+S10) has caused the maximum increase in growth under pot studies like plant height (31%), shoot fresh weight (28%), shoot dry weight (27%), root fresh (33%) and dry weights (29%), and microbial count (21%) in the maize rhizosphere. The mineral analysis of the pot trial also revealed that consortium of ZM27+ZM63+S10 has caused 28, 16, 20, 11 and 11% increases in P, N, K, Fe, and Zn contents in maize, respectively, as compared to un-inoculated treatment in pot studies. A similar trend of results was also observed in both field trials as the consortium of ZM27+ZM63+S10 caused the maximum increase in not only growth and biological properties but also caused maximum biofortification of mineral nutrients in maize grains. The grain yield and 1000-grain weight were also found significantly higher 17 and 12%, respectively, under consortium application as compared to control. So, it can be concluded from these significant results obtained from the PGPR consortium application that microbial inoculants play a significant role in enhancing the growth, yield, and quality of the maize. However, the extensive evaluation of the consortium may help in the formulation of a biofertilizer for sustainable production and biofortification of maize to cope with nutritional security.
Excessive levels of Fluoride in water is detrimental to human health as it can cause many health problems including both dental and skeletal fluorosis etc. The aims of the current research work were to prepare a novel check the efficiency of Mango (Mangifera indica) leaves powder (MLP) for fluoride removal as well as to observe the effect of various factors over fluoride adsorption from water. The experiments were performed under batch mode and the results indicated that maximum adsorption efficiency was noticed in the acidic range. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques were applied for adsorbent characterization. Data modeling declared that pseudo second order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm models were in best fitting. The study concluded that the investigated adsorbent material is suitable for reducing the high fluoride concentration in water to the WHO established level and is suggested as an ecofriendly material for water purification. Conclusively, future research prospects and further modification of mango leaves materials for fluoride adsorption are recommended.
The extent and nature of sexual violence throughout the war vary. Sexual violence is pervasive in some conflicts, such as ethnic conflicts, but it is relatively rare in other conflicts. Sexual slavery is one form of sexual violence in inevitable conflicts, while detention torture is another. The ICTY has carried out in-depth prosecutions and investigations of cases of sexual violence committed during times of war, leading to the filing of several indictments for crimes perpetrated in Bosnia-Herzegovina as early as 1995. By enabling the litigation of sexual violence as a war crime, crime against humanity, and genocide, the ICTY has advanced international criminal equity in sex crimes. This article attempts to provide readers with a clear understanding of two types of obligations: personal criminal culpability and state responsibility. The responsible for sexual violence presents a significant challenge to international law and misinterprets other laws, according to the conclusion. People are struggling with responsibility because, as the article pointed out, there are two different kinds of accountability in contemporary society: individual accountability and state accountability. The article's conclusions indicate that sexual violence is a personal responsibility.
The modernization of human civilization has led to the prospect of better and more durable building materials. Marble, found in various colors and textures, has been used as a building stone for centuries, either as cut stone or polished stone. The present study evaluated the petrological, geochemical, and geotechnical characterizations of the Gahirat Marble formation as a building stone. It is exposed over an area of 160 square kilometers in southwestern Chitral. The Gahirat Marble formation has been divided into two parts, i.e., the eastern and western parts. The eastern part is a coarse crystalline rock that exhibits a granulose structure and was subjected to amphibolite facies metamorphism, whereas its western part is a coarse-to-medium crystalline rock that displays a differential granulose structure and was subjected to green schist facies metamorphism. Petrographically, it is composed mainly of calcite (>92%) with minute quartz, chlorite, muscovite, biotite, garnet, and opaque minerals. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique was used to analyze the chemical composition of the Gahirat Marble showing that it is a pure calciocarbonate marble (CaO: 53.16-55.02 wt.%). The specific gravity measured varies from 2.46-2.71 gm/cm 3 , water absorption is <0.2%, sulfate soundness is <0.65, and due to its unconfined compressive strength, it is classified as strong rock, thus conforming to ASTM C503 specifications. The results acquired from the investigated samples suggest they are suitable as dimension stones. Until now, it has been limitedly mined and marketed but can be further exploited for export trade, based upon its petrographic, geotechnical, and geochemical characterization.
The modern digital world and associated innovative and state-of-the-art applications that characterize its presence, render the current digital age a captivating era for many worldwide. These innovations include dialogue systems, such as Apple’s Siri, Google Now, and Microsoft’s Cortana, that stay on the personal devices of users and assist them in their daily activities. These systems track the intentions of users by analyzing their speech, context by looking at their previous turns, and several other external details, and respond or act in the form of speech output. For these systems to work efficiently, a dialogue state tracking (DST) module is required to infer the current state of the dialogue in a conversation by processing previous states up to the current state. However, developing a DST module that tracks and exploit dialogue states effectively and accurately is challenging. The notable challenges that warrant immediate attention include scalability, handling the unseen slot-value pairs during training, and retraining the model with changes in the domain ontology. In this article, we present a new end-to-end framework by combining BERT, Stacked Bidirectional LSTM (BiLSTM), and a multiple attention mechanism to formalize DST as a classification problem and address the aforementioned issues. The BERT-based module encodes the user’s and system’s utterances. The Stacked BiLSTM extracts the contextual features and multiple attention mechanisms to calculate the attention between its hidden states and the utterance embeddings. We experimentally evaluated our method against the current approaches over a variety of datasets. The results indicate a significant overall improvement. The proposed model is scalable in terms of sharing the parameters and it considers the unseen instances during training.
A detailed sedimentological analysis of the Palaeocene Lockhart Limestone has been conducted to evaluate the depositional environment, diagenetic processes and hydrocarbon potential of the eastern margin of the Upper Indus Basin. From bottom to top, there are three microfacies recorded. The lower microfacies, composed of fine‐grained micrite and some diagenetic dolomite, reflect the low energy and calm palaeo‐current in the shallower section (1‐2 m) of the inner shelf close to shore. The middle microfacies contain algae that suggest 5–15 m of water depth, especially along the inner‐middle shelf, but fractured and mixed bioclasts in micrite material indicate calm to moderately active water close to the wave base. Progressing from the lower microfacies to the middle microfacies, a gradual shift from orthochem to allochem components is observed. The top microfacies is dominated by massive benthic microfossils, indicating moderate energy‐water conditions with normal salinity. However, the presence of limestone intraclasts surrounded by microspar, miliolids and nummulites at the top indicates a high‐energy environment with increasing salinity and water depths from 20 to 130 m. These findings show that the Lockhart Limestone was deposited in a shallow shelf environment, spanning the inner‐mid shelf. Diagenetic processes observed include micritisation, cementation, dissolution, replacement, physical and chemical compaction, and fracture filling by calcite cement. The Lockhart Limestone represents a deepening upward sequence deposited below the shelf margin system tract and high stand system tract in a regressive environment that could reflect good reservoir characteristics, has the potential to serve as an excellent hydrocarbon reservoir rock, and could be a primary target for future hydrocarbon exploration.
Unrestricted disposal of tannery solid waste (TSW) into agricultural soils has resulted in the contamination of heavy metals (HMs) such as chromium (Cr) cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), and Zinc (Zn) along with the severe potential to degrade the environmental quality around the world. In the present study, a combined phyto- and myco-remediation strategy was evaluated to enhance the growth, ionic contents, and phytoextraction potential of Brassica juncea and Vigna radiata for HMs from TSW-contaminated soil. A pot experiment was conducted in the greenhouse using single or combined inoculation of Trichoderma pseudokoningii (Tp) and Aspergillus niger (An) in B. juncea and V. radiata under TSW-contaminated soil at different doses (0, 50, and 100%). The results showed that the growth parameters of both B. juncea and V. radiata were severely affected under 50 and 100% TSW treatment. The combined inoculation of both the fungal species ameliorated the positive impacts of 50 and 100% TSW application on growth and ionic contents accumulation in B. juncea and V. radiata. The combined application of An + Tp at 100% TSW enhanced the shoot length (87.8, 157.2%), root length (123.9, 120.6%), number of leaves (184.2, 175.0%), number of roots (104.7, 438.9%), and dry weight (179.4, 144.8%) of B. juncea and V. radiata, respectively as compared to control with any fungal treatment at 100% TSW. A single application of An at different doses of TSW enhanced the metal concentration in B. juncea, whereas Tp increased the concentration of the metals in V. radiata. The concentration of Cr in roots (196.2, 263.8%), shoots (342.4, 182.2%), Cu in roots (187.6, 137.0%), shoots (26.6, 76.0%), Cd in roots (245.2, 184.6%), shoots (142.1, 73.4%), Zn in roots (73.4, 57.5%), shoots (62.9, 57.6%), in B. juncea were increased by the application of An at 50 and 100% treatment levels of TSW, respectively compared to control (C). Moreover, the HMs (Cr, Cu, Cd, and Zn) uptake was also improved under 50 and 100% TSW with the combined inoculation of Tp + An in both B. juncea and V. radiata. In conclusion, the combined inoculation of Tp + An was more effective in metal removal from TSW-treated soil. • NOVELTY STATEMENT • Limited studies have been conducted on filamentous fungi systematically under metal-contaminated sites for their diversity, metal tolerance, and their potential in enhancing the phytoremediation potential of different crop plants. • In the present study, single and/or combined inoculation of fungal strains was found effective in alleviating different metals stress in tannery solid waste contaminated soil by improving defense mechanisms and plant growth due to the association between fungal strains and plants. • The combined application of both fungal strains had an additive effect in enhancing the bioaccumulation capacity of B. juncea and V. radiata compared to their single inoculation.
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Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Sheringal, 18050, Upper Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Head of institution
Prof. Dr. Rahmat Ali Khan (Vice-Chancellor)