Seoul National University Hospital
Recent publications
Study objective Binaural audio induces sedation and reduces pain and anxiety in surgical patients. This study tested the hypothesis that dexmedetomidine requirement for adequate sedation during spinal anesthesia would be lower in patients listening to music with binaural sound than that in patients listening to plain or no music. Design A triple-arm, assessor-blind, randomized controlled study. Setting Operating room. Patients One hundred and eighty-nine patients undergoing orthopedic surgery under spinal anesthesia. Interventions Patients were randomly assigned to music with binaural sound, plain music, or no music groups. Dexmedetomidine was infused for sedation during surgery. The loading infusion rate was 6 μg/kg predicted body weight (PBW)/h, followed by continuous infusion at 0.6 μg/kg PBW/hr. Loading was stopped after achieving adequate sedation, defined as the Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (OAA/S) scale score of 3. Infusion rate was adjusted every 30 min per the OAA/S scale. Measurements Primary outcomes were the difference in the dexmedetomidine loading dose adjusted for the patient's PBW between (1) the binaural and plain music groups and (2) the binaural and control groups. Secondary outcomes were the total dose and total loading time of dexmedetomidine; Patient State Index; relative powers of the alpha, theta, and delta bands; recovery from sedation; and patient satisfaction score. Main results The final analyses included 184 patients. The PBW-adjusted dexmedetomidine loading dose was significantly lower in patients listening to music with binaural sound (1.15 ± 0.30 μg/kg PBW) than that in patients without music (1.33 ± 0.33 μg/kg PBW; mean difference, 0.18 μg/kg PBW; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06 to 0.29; P = 0.002). However, the difference was not statistically significant when compared with the plain music group (1.26 ± 0.36 μg/kg PBW; mean difference, 0.11 μg/kg PBW; 95% CI, −0.01 to 0.23; P = 0.070). Dexmedetomidine total dose, recovery from sedation, and patient satisfaction score showed no difference among the three groups. Conclusions Compared with no music, music with binaural sound reduced the dexmedetomidine loading dose; however, this sedative-sparing effect of binaural sound was not found when compared to plain music.
Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends systematic tuberculosis (TB) screening in prisons. Evidence is lacking for accurate and scalable screening approaches in this setting. We aimed to assess the accuracy of artificial intelligence-based chest x-ray interpretation algorithms for TB screening in prisons. Methods We performed prospective TB screening in three male prisons in Brazil from October 2017 to December 2019. We administered a standardized questionnaire, performed a chest x-ray in a mobile unit, and collected sputum for confirmatory testing using Xpert MTB/RIF and culture. We evaluated x-ray images using three algorithms (CAD4TB version 6, Lunit version 3.1.0.0 and qXR version 3) and compared their accuracy. We utilized multivariable logistic regression to assess the effect of demographic and clinical characteristics on algorithm accuracy. Finally, we investigated the relationship between abnormality scores and Xpert semi-quantitative results. Findings Among 2075 incarcerated individuals, 259 (12.5%) had confirmed TB. All three algorithms performed similarly overall with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.88–0.91. At 90% sensitivity, only LunitTB and qXR met the WHO Target Product Profile requirements for a triage test, with specificity of 84% and 74%, respectively. All algorithms had variable performance by age, prior TB, smoking, and presence of TB symptoms. LunitTB was the most robust to this heterogeneity but nonetheless failed to meet the TPP for individuals with previous TB. Abnormality scores of all three algorithms were significantly correlated with sputum bacillary load. Interpretation Automated x-ray interpretation algorithms can be an effective triage tool for TB screening in prisons. However, their specificity is insufficient in individuals with previous TB. Funding This study was supported by the US National Institutes of Health (grant numbers R01 AI130058 and R01 AI149620) and the State Secretary of Health of Mato Grosso do Sul.
Background General control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2) senses amino acid deprivation and activates activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), which regulates many adaptive genes. We evaluated the impact of AST-0513, a novel GCN2 inhibitor, on the GCN2-ATF4 pathway. Additionally, we evaluated the antitumor effects of AST-0513 in amino acid deprivation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines. Methods GCN2 expression in HNSCC patient tissues was measured by immunohistochemistry. Five HNSCC cell lines (SNU-1041, SNU-1066, SNU-1076, Detroit-562, FaDu) grown under amino acid deprivation conditions, were treated with AST-0513. After AST-0513 treatment, cell proliferation was measured by CCK-8 assay. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate apoptosis and cell cycle phase. In addition, immunoblotting was performed to evaluate the effect of AST-0513 on the GCN2-ATF4 pathway, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Results We demonstrated that GCN2 was highly expressed in HNSCC patient tissues. AST-0513 inhibited the GCN2-ATF4 pathway in all five HNSCC cell lines. Inhibiting the GCN2-ATF4 pathway during amino acid deprivation reduced HNSCC cell proliferation and prevented adaptation to nutrient stress. Moreover, AST-0513 treatment led to p21 and Cyclin B1 accumulation and G2/M phase cycle arrest. Also, apoptosis was increased, consistent with increased bax expression, increased bcl-xL phosphorylation, and decreased bcl-2 expression. Conclusion A novel GCN2 inhibitor, AST-0513, inhibited the GCN2-ATF4 pathway and has antitumor activity that inhibits proliferation and promotes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Considering the high expression of GCN2 in HNSCC patients, these results suggest the potential role of GCN2 inhibitor for the treatment of HNSCC.
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) damage is a major factor in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The RPE in AMD shows mitochondrial dysfunction suggesting an association of AMD with mitochondrial function. Therefore, exogenous mitochondrial transplantation for restoring and replacing dysfunctional mitochondria may be an effective therapeutic strategy for AMD. Here, we investigated the effects of extrinsic mitochondrial transplantation on senescence-induced ARPE-19 cells. We demonstrated mitochondrial dysfunction in replicative senescence-induced ARPE-19 cells after repeated passage. Imbalanced mitophagy and mitochondrial dynamics resulted in increased mitochondrial numbers and elevated levels of mitochondrial and intracellular reactive oxygen species. Exogenous mitochondrial transplantation improved mitochondrial dysfunction and alleviated cellular senescence hallmarks, such as increased cell size, increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, augmented NF-κB activity, increased inflammatory cytokines, and upregulated the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p16. Further, cellular senescence properties were improved by exogenous mitochondrial transplantation in oxidative stress-induced senescent ARPE-19 cells. These results indicate that exogenous mitochondrial transplantation modulates cellular senescence and may be considered a novel therapeutic strategy for AMD.
The tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) in high-grade glioma (HGG) exhibits high spatial heterogeneity. Though the tumor core and peripheral regions have different biological features, the cause of this spatial heterogeneity has not been clearly elucidated. Here, we examined the spatial heterogeneity of HGG using core and peripheral regions obtained separately from the patients with HGG. We analyzed infiltrating immune cells by flow cytometry from 34 patients with HGG and the transcriptomes by RNA-seq analysis from 18 patients with HGG. Peripheral region-infiltrating immune cells were in vitro cultured in hypoxic conditions and their immunophenotypes analyzed. We analyzed whether the frequencies of exhausted CD8⁺ T cells and immunosuppressive cells in the core or peripheral regions are associated with the survival of patients with HGG. We found that terminally exhausted CD8⁺ T cells and immunosuppressive cells, including regulatory T (TREG) cells and M2 tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), are more enriched in the core regions than the peripheral regions. Terminally exhausted and immunosuppressive profiles in the core region significantly correlated with the hypoxia signature, which was enriched in the core region. Importantly, in vitro culture of peripheral region-infiltrating immune cells in hypoxic conditions resulted in an increase in terminally exhausted CD8⁺ T cells, CTLA-4⁺ TREG cells, and M2 TAMs. Finally, we found that a high frequency of PD-1⁺CTLA-4⁺CD8⁺ T cells in the core regions was significantly associated with decreased progression-free survival of patients with HGG. The hypoxic condition in the core region of HGG directly induces an immunosuppressive TIME, which is associated with patient survival.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern have been emerging. However, knowledge of temporal and spatial dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 is limited. This study characterized SARS-CoV-2 evolution in immunosuppressed patients with long-term SARS-CoV-2 shedding for 73–250 days, without specific treatment. We conducted whole-genome sequencing of 27 serial samples, including 26 serial samples collected from various anatomic sites of two patients and the first positive sample from patient 2‘s mother. We analysed the intrahost temporal dynamics and genomic diversity of the viral population within different sample types. Intrahost variants emerging during infection showed diversity between individual hosts. Remarkably, N501Y, P681R, and E484K, key substitutions within spike protein, emerged in vivo during infection and became the dominant population. P681R, which had not yet been detected in the publicly available genome in Korea, appeared within patient 1 during infection. Mutually exclusive substitutions at residues R346 (R346S and R346I) and E484 (E484K and E484A) of spike protein and continuous turnover of these substitutions occurred. Unique genetic changes were observed in urine samples. A household transmission from patient 2 to his mother, at least 38 days after the diagnosis, was characterized. Viruses may differently mutate and adjust to the host selective pressure, which could enable the virus to replicate efficiently for fitness in each host. Intrahost variants could be candidate variants likely to spread to the population eventually. Our findings may provide new insights into the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in response to interactions between the virus and host.
Background Multi-segment foot models (MFMs) for assessing three-dimensional segmental foot motions are calculated via various analytical methods. Although validation studies have already been conducted, we cannot compare their results because the experimental environments in previous studies were different from each other. This study aims to compare the kinematics, repeatability, and reproducibility of five MFMs in the same experimental conditions. Methods Eleven healthy males with a mean age of 26.5 years participated in this study. We created a merged 29-marker set including five MFMs: Oxford (OFM), modified Rizzoli (mRFM), DuPont (DFM), Milwaukee (MiFM), and modified Shriners Hospital for Children Greenville (mSHCG). Two operators applied the merged model to participants twice, and then we analysed two relative angles of three segments: shank-hindfoot (HF) and hindfoot-forefoot (FF). Coefficients of multiple correlation (CMC) and mean standard errors were used to assess repeatability and reproducibility, and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) of the t-value was employed to compare kinematics. Results HF varus/valgus of the MiFM and mSHCG models, which rotated the segment according to radiographic or goniometric measurements during the reference frame construction, were significantly more repeatable and reproducible, compared to other models. They showed significantly more dorsiflexed HF and plantarflexed FF due to their static offset angles. DFM and mSHCG showed a greater range of motion (ROM), and some models had significantly different FF points of peak angle. Conclusions Under the same conditions, rotating the segment according to the appropriate offset angle obtained from radiographic or goniometric measurement increased reliability, but all MFMs had clinically acceptable reliability compared to previous studies. Moreover, in some models, especially HF varus/valgus, there were differences in ROM and points of peak angle even with no statistical difference in SPM curves. Therefore, based on the results of this study, clinicians and researchers involved in the evaluation of foot and ankle dysfunction need an understanding of the specific features of each MFM to make accurate decisions.
Background Pulmonary venous aneurysm (PVA) is a rare condition characterized by aneurysmal dilatation of the pulmonary vein in humans. The diagnosis is incidental usually as there are no clinical symptoms. This case report describes a histological diagnosis of PVA in a New Zealand White rabbit. Case presentation A 1.5-kg male New Zealand White rabbit was acclimatized in an animal room for 5 weeks until the experiment began. However, the rabbit was found dead, with signs of nasal hemorrhage. Necropsy revealed tracheal and pulmonary hemorrhage, and the epistaxis had a pulmonary origin. PCR and ELISA to detect antigens and antibodies pertaining to the rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus showed negative results. Multiple ballooning lesions (50–200 μm size) in the pulmonary veins were observed on histological examination, and PVA was diagnosed. Death was attributed to a spontaneous rupture of the PVA and massive hemorrhage into the lung parenchyma that extended into the trachea and nasal passages. Conclusions To the author’s best knowledge, this is the first report of a PVA in a rabbit.
Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a novel cancer treatment, although recent immunotherapy trials have produced suboptimal outcomes, with durable responses seen only in a small number of patients. The tumor microenvironment (TME) has been shown to be responsible for tumor immune escape and therapy failure. The vital component of the TME is tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), which are usually associated with poor prognosis and drug resistance, including immunotherapies, and have emerged as promising targets for cancer immunotherapy. Recently, nanoparticles, because of their unique physicochemical characteristics, have emerged as crucial translational moieties in tackling tumor-promoting TAMs that amplify immune responses and sensitize tumors to immunotherapies in a safe and effective manner. In this review, we mainly described the current potential nanomaterial-based therapeutic strategies that target TAMs, including restricting TAMs survival, inhibiting TAMs recruitment to tumors and functionally repolarizing tumor-supportive TAMs to antitumor type. The current understanding of the origin and polarization of TAMs, their crucial role in cancer progression and prognostic significance was also discussed in this review. We also highlighted the recent evolution of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-macrophage cell therapy.
Background The common marmoset is widely used in current biomedical research for various research fields. We observed macrocytic anemia in a perinatal common marmoset with gradual weight loss and diarrhea. The objective of this case report is to describe the diagnosis and treatment of macrocytic anemia in a perinatal common marmoset. Case presentation A 7-year-old female common marmoset showed clinical signs of gradual weight loss and intermittent diarrhea beginning 3 months after giving birth. Macrocytic anemia was diagnosed due to a decreased red blood cell (RBC) count, low hemoglobin level, and increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Multivitamins containing cobalamin and folate were administered for 7 days, and the patient’s RBC count recovered to near the normal range with this treatment. Conclusions Macrocytic anemia can be diagnosed by evaluating the MCV on a complete blood count (CBC) and cobalamin or folate levels and be treated by supplementation with cobalamin and folate. Such supplements may be needed during pregnancy and lactation in female common marmosets and/or in animals with chronic diarrhea.
The relationship between androgen excess and bone health in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) with 21-hydroxylase (21-OH) deficiency is not fully understood. This study demonstrated positive correlations between androgen hormones and bone mineral density (BMD) in CAH women with 21-OH deficiency. Purpose: This study aims to assess BMD and its association with androgen excess in women with CAH. Methods: We enrolled 92 women with CAH with 21-OH deficiency and retrospectively reviewed their clinical features, hormone concentrations, body composition, glucocorticoid (GC) dose, and BMD. Results: BMD was not different according to the subtypes of CAH. BMD at the lumbar spine was lower in women with CAH with regular menstruation than those with irregular menstruation (1.081 vs. 1.165 g/cm2, P < 0.05). BMD was lower in women with CAH with 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) < 10 ng/mL than in those with ≥ 10 ng/mL (lumbar spine, 1.019 vs. 1.150 g/cm2; femur neck, 0.806 vs. 0.899 g/cm2; total hip, 0.795 vs. 0.943 g/cm2; all P < 0.05). After adjusting for age and BMI in correlation analyses, testosterone concentrations were positively correlated with lumbar spine, femur neck, and total hip BMD (r = 0.46, r = 0.38, and r = 0.35, respectively; all P < 0.05), while 17-OHP was positively correlated with lumbar spine BMD (r = 0.38, P < 0.01). In subgroup analysis, 17-OHP was positively correlated with BMD (lumbar spine, r = 0.22; femur neck, r = 0.22; total hip, r = 0.24; all P < 0.05) only in the group with a total cumulative dose of GC ≥ 156.0 g/m2. Conclusion: Androgen excess may have a protective effect on BMD in women with classic CAH and high cumulative doses of GC.
Aim As the geriatric population increased, the need of treatment for laryngeal atrophy and dysfunction increased. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of injection of human adipose-derived stem cell (hASC) spheroid-loaded catechol-conjugated hyaluronic acid (HA-CA) hydrogel on therapeutic rejuvenation of the geriatric larynx. Methods Stem cell spheroids with hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel were injected into the laryngeal muscles of 18-month-old Sprague–Dawley rats. The effects of hASC spheroids were examined in the following four groups: SHAM, injected with PBS; GEL, injected with HA-CA hydrogel; MONO, injected with single hASCs in HA-CA hydrogel; and SP, injected with hASCs spheroids in HA-CA hydrogel. The rejuvenation efficacy in geriatric laryngeal muscle tissues at 12 weeks postinjection was evaluated and compared by histology, immunofluorescence staining, and functionality analysis. Results Total myofiber cross-sectional area and myofiber number/density, evaluated by detection of myosin heavy chain with antibodies against laminin and fast myosin heavy chain, were significantly higher in the SP group than in the other groups. The lamina propria of the larynx was evaluated by alcian blue staining, which showed that the HA was increased significantly in the SP group compared to the other groups. In functional analysis, the glottal gap area was significantly reduced in the SP group compared to the other groups. The phase difference in the vocal fold during vibration was also smaller in the SP group than in the other groups, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion Injection of hASC spheroids with hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel improves the morphological and functional characteristics of geriatric larynx. Graphical abstract
Purpose Sepsis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and is characterized by vascular leak. Treatment for sepsis, specifically intravenous fluids, may worsen deterioration in the context of vascular leak. We therefore sought to quantify vascular leak in sepsis patients to guide fluid resuscitation. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of sepsis patients in four ICU databases in North America, Europe, and Asia. We developed an intuitive vascular leak index (VLI) and explored the relationship between VLI and in-hospital death and fluid balance using generalized additive models (GAM). Results Using a GAM, we found that increased VLI is associated with an increased risk of in-hospital death. Patients with a VLI in the highest quartile (Q4), across the four datasets, had a 1.61–2.31 times increased odds of dying in the hospital compared to patients with a VLI in the lowest quartile (Q1). VLI Q2 and Q3 were also associated with increased odds of dying. The relationship between VLI, treated as a continuous variable, and in-hospital death and fluid balance was statistically significant in the three datasets with large sample sizes. Specifically, we observed that as VLI increased, there was increase in the risk for in-hospital death and 36–84 h fluid balance. Conclusions Our VLI identifies groups of patients who may be at higher risk for in-hospital death or for fluid accumulation. This relationship persisted in models developed to control for severity of illness and chronic comorbidities.
Purpose We aimed to evaluate the influence of technological advances on ablation outcomes in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) (PeAF). Radiofrequency ablation for patients with AF has advanced, including contact force (CF)-sensing catheters and the ablation index (AI). Methods Between 2009 and 2018, we analyzed 173 patients with PeAF who underwent catheter ablation. We categorized them into three groups: AF ablation without CF and AI information (no-CF group, n = 63), with CF without AI (CF-only group, n = 49), and with optimal AI-guided ablation (AI group, n = 61). Early (within 3 months, ER) and late (from 3 months to 1 year, LR) AF recurrence after ablation was assessed. Procedure-related complications were also evaluated. Results The baseline characteristics were similar among the 3 groups, excluding the baseline antiarrhythmic drug history. Additional substrate modification after pulmonary vein isolation was significantly low in frequency in the AI group (71.4%, no-CF; 69.4%, CF-only; 41.0%, AI, p = 0.001). The AI group had a shorter mean procedure-related time than the other groups. Both ER and LR of PeAF showed a trend of reduction with technological advances. With a short experience (less than 1 year), the CF-only group showed more ER and LR than that shown by the AI group. However, with a long experience (more than 1 year), ER and LR occurred similarly in the two groups. Procedure-related complications improved with technological advances. Conclusion As ablation technology advanced, favorable clinical outcomes with short procedural times were observed. However, prospective, large multicenter studies are needed to verify these results.
Background As the number of large-scale studies involving multiple organizations producing data has steadily increased, an integrated system for a common interoperable format is needed. In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a number of global efforts are underway to develop vaccines and therapeutics. We are therefore observing an explosion in the proliferation of COVID-19 data, and interoperability is highly requested in multiple institutions participating simultaneously in COVID-19 pandemic research. Results In this study, a laboratory information management system (LIMS) approach has been adopted to systemically manage various COVID-19 non-clinical trial data, including mortality, clinical signs, body weight, body temperature, organ weights, viral titer (viral replication and viral RNA), and multiorgan histopathology, from multiple institutions based on a web interface. The main aim of the implemented system is to integrate, standardize, and organize data collected from laboratories in multiple institutes for COVID-19 non-clinical efficacy testings. Six animal biosafety level 3 institutions proved the feasibility of our system. Substantial benefits were shown by maximizing collaborative high-quality non-clinical research. Conclusions This LIMS platform can be used for future outbreaks, leading to accelerated medical product development through the systematic management of extensive data from non-clinical animal studies.
Close contacts of individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis are at risk for tuberculosis infection and the development of active tuberculosis. In current contact investigations, immunologic tests (the tuberculin skin test and interferon-gamma release assay) and chest X-ray examinations are used to dichotomize contacts with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections into those with active (X-ray abnormalities) versus latent tuberculosis (normal radiographs). This article is a critical review of computed tomographic (CT) and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomographic (PET) findings of incipient tuberculosis without X-ray abnormalities based on a systematic literature review of twenty-five publications. The CT and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET studies revealed minimal pauci-nodular infiltrations in the lung parenchyma and mediastinal lymph nodes abnormalities with metabolic uptake in approximately one-third of asymptomatic close contacts with negative chest radiographic and bacteriological/molecular results for active tuberculosis. Tuberculosis with minimal changes challenge the validity of simply dichotomizing cases of recent M. tuberculosis infections in contacts depending on the presence of X-ray abnormalities as the recent infections may spontaneously regress, remain stagnant, or progress to active tuberculosis in human and nonhuman primate studies. Whether contacts with tuberculosis with minimal changes are interpreted as having active tuberculosis or latent tuberculosis has clinical implications in terms of specific benefits and harms under the current contact management. Advanced imaging tools may help further stratify contacts intensely exposed to M. tuberculosis on a continuous spectrum from latent tuberculosis to incipient, subclinical and active tuberculosis. Identifying incipient tuberculosis would provide an opportunity for earlier and tailored treatment before active tuberculosis is established.
Many machine learning techniques provide a simple prediction for drug-drug interactions (DDIs). However, a systematically constructed database with pharmacokinetic (PK) DDI information does not exist, nor is there a machine learning model that numerically predicts PK fold change (FC) with it. Therefore, we propose a PK DDI prediction (PK-DDIP) model for quantitative DDI prediction with high accuracy, while constructing a highly reliable PK-DDI database. Reliable information of 3,627 PK DDIs was constructed from 3,587 drugs using 38,711 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug labels. This PK-DDIP model predicted the FC of the area under the time-concentration curve (AUC) within ± 0.5959. The prediction proportions within 0.8–1.25-fold, 0.67–1.5-fold, and 0.5–2-fold of the AUC were 75.77, 86.68, and 94.76%, respectively. Two external validations confirmed good prediction performance for newly updated FDA labels and FC from patients’. This model enables potential DDI evaluation before clinical trials, which will save time and cost.
Multifocal colorectal cancer (CRC) comprises both clonally independent primary tumors caused by inherited predisposition and clonally related tumors mainly due to intraluminal spreading along an intact basement membrane. The distinction between these multifocal CRCs is essential because therapeutic strategies vary according to the clonal association of multiple tumor masses. Here, we report one unique case of synchronous intestinal cancer (SIC) with tumors occurring along the entire bowel tract, including the small intestine. We established six patient-derived organoids (PDOs), and patient-derived cell lines (PDCs) from each site of the SIC, which were subjected to extensive genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic sequencing. We also estimated the drug responses of each multifocal SIC to 25 clinically relevant therapeutic compounds to validate how the clinically actionable alternations between SICs were associated with drug sensitivity. Our data demonstrated distinct clonal associations across different organs, which were consistently supported by multi-omics analysis, as well as the accordant responses to various therapeutic compounds. Our results indicated the imminent drawback of a single tumor-based diagnosis of multifocal CRC and suggested the necessity of an in-depth molecular analysis of all tumor regions to avoid unexpected resistance to the currently available targeted therapies.
Background Aminoacyl tRNA transferases play an essential role in protein biosynthesis, and variants of these enzymes result in various human diseases. FARSA, which encodes the α subunit of cytosolic phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase, was recently reported as a suspected causal gene for multiorgan disorder. This study aimed to validate the pathogenicity of variants in the FARSA gene. Results Exome sequencing revealed novel compound heterozygous variants in FARSA , P347L and R475Q, from a patient who initially presented neonatal-onset failure to thrive, liver dysfunction, and frequent respiratory infections. His developmental milestones were nearly arrested, and the patient died at 28 months of age as a result of progressive hepatic and respiratory failure. The P347L variant was predicted to disrupt heterodimer interaction and failed to form a functional heterotetramer by structural and biochemical analyses. R475 is located at a highly conserved site and is reported to be involved in phenylalanine activation and transfer to tRNA. The R475Q mutant FARSA were co-purified with FARSB, but the mutant enzyme showed an approximately 36% reduction in activity in our assay relative to the wild-type protein. Additional functional analyses on variants from previous reports (N410K, F256L, R404C, E418D, and F277V) were conducted. The R404C variant from a patient waiting for organ transplantation also failed to form tetramers but the E418D, N410K, F256L, and F277V variants did not affect tetramer formation. In the functional assay, the N410K located at the phenylalanine-binding site exhibited no catalytic activity, whereas other variants (E418D, F256L and F277V) exhibited lower ATPase activity than wild-type FARSA at low phenylalanine concentrations. Conclusions Our data demonstrated the pathogenicity of biallelic variants in FARSA and suggested the implication of hypomorphic variants in severe phenotypes.
Purpose: Using a new robotic endoscopic platform system developed for retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) called easyUretero (ROEN Surgical Inc.), we evaluated the feasibility and safety of renal stone retrieval in a porcine model. Materials and methods: Six female pigs were used for our in vivo study. First, 0.3-cm-sized phantom stones were inserted into the kidneys of each pig via the ureteral access sheath. Next, renal stone retrieval was attempted using manual RIRS in three pigs and robotic RIRS in three pigs. Three surgeons performed extraction of 10 stones in each session. Results: The mean stone retrieval time by manual RIRS was significantly shorter than that by robotic RIRS (399.9±185.4 sec vs. 1127.6±374.5 sec, p=0.001). In contrast, the questionnaire regarding usability showed high satisfaction in the surgeons' fatigue category for surgeons using robotic RIRS. The radiation exposure dose was also lower in robotic RIRS than in manual RIRS (0.14 µSv vs. 45.5 µSv). Postoperative ureteral injury assessment revealed Grade 0 in manual RIRS cases and Grades 0, 1, and 2 in robotic RIRS cases. Conclusion: The easyUretero system is a new robotic RIRS system that was developed in Korea. The results of the present study suggest that using easyUretero for stone retrieval during RIRS is safe and ergonomic.
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813 members
Sang-Bae Ko
  • Department of Neurology
Hyewon Youn
  • Department of Nuclear Medicine
Ann Yi
  • Department of Radiology
Su Jong Yu
  • Department of Internal Medicine
Sung-Hye Park
  • Department of Pathology, Department of Pediatric Pathology
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Seoul, South Korea