Indigenous Peoples have an inherent responsibility and right to “exercising” sovereignty—the practice of sport and physical activity in performance of our cultural, political, and spiritual citizenship. By exercising this inherent right and responsibility, sport has the power for communities to reenvision their futures. Sport and physical activity are highly regarded and practiced in multiple contexts within Indigenous communities. Utilizing Indigenous ways of knowing, practices of resurgence, Indigenous activism, and Indigenous responses to political and cultural injustices, we apply the five protective factors of “exercising” sovereignty, including community, relationality, strength, abundance, and resilience to analyze Indigenous sport research in North America.
The introductory article for the SSJ 40th Anniversary Special Issue
Turkey’s political leaders: authoritarian tendencies in a democratic state Turkey’s political leaders: authoritarian tendencies in a democratic state , by Tezcan Gumuş, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 2023, 299 pp., $110, ISBN 9781399500081 (hardback), 9781399500111 (e-book).: by Tezcan Gumuş, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 2023, 299 pp., $110, ISBN 9781399500081 (hardback), 9781399500111 (e-book).
Music plays an important role in our daily life. It can have a powerful effect on our emotions, mental health, and even the community we live in. Although numerous studies have been conducted to prove the great impact music has on humans, few investigations place an emphasis on the exploration of the relationship between music and listener’s sentiment. To this end, we first examined three song demographics: Beats Per Minute, Key, and Length, and six song metrics: Danceability, Energy, Speechiness, Acousticness, Liveness, and Valence of popular songs, and then conducted an empirical study to examine the potential correlation between song demographics/metrics and the sentiment expressed as in written text (such as social media). To accomplish this, we scraped around 20 million tweets referencing the most popular songs from 2018 to 2022 as shown on Spotify’s Top Global chart, as well as the immediate surrounding tweets, and performed a double sentiment analysis on the data. Our study concludes that there exists a significant correlation between all the pairs of song metrics. From the sentiment analysis of tweets, our results indicate that there may not be a significant correlation between the sentiment expressed in tweets of a song’s listeners and the song itself. Our study provides empirical evidence for a deeper understanding of popular songs using data mining techniques.
Background Many perform resistance training (RT) to increase muscle mass and strength. Energy surpluses are advised to support such gains; however, if too large, could cause unnecessary fat gain. We randomized 21 trained lifters performing RT 3 d/wk for eight weeks into maintenance energy (MAIN), moderate (5% [MOD]), and high (15% [HIGH]) energy surplus groups to determine if skinfold thicknesses (ST), squat and bench one-repetition maximum (1-RM), or biceps brachii, triceps brachii, or quadriceps muscle thicknesses (MT) differed by group. COVID-19 reduced our sample, leaving 17 completers. Thus, in addition to Bayesian ANCOVA comparisons, we analyzed changes in body mass (BM) with ST, 1-RM, and MT changes via regression. We reported Bayes factors (BF10) indicating odds ratios of the relative likelihood of hypotheses (e.g., BF10 = 2 indicates the hypothesis is twice as likely as another) and coefficients of determination (R²) for regressions. Results ANCOVAs provided no evidence supporting the group model for MT or squat 1-RM. However, moderate (BF10 = 9.9) and strong evidence (BF10 = 14.5) indicated HIGH increased bench 1-RM more than MOD and MAIN, respectively. Further, there was moderate evidence (BF10 = 4.2) HIGH increased ST more than MAIN and weak evidence (BF10 = 2.4) MOD increased ST more than MAIN. Regression provided strong evidence that BM change predicts ST change (BF10 = 14.3, R² = 0.49) and weak evidence predicting biceps brachii MT change (BF10 = 1.4, R² = 0.24). Conclusions While some group-based differences were found, our larger N regression provides the most generalizable evidence. Therefore, we conclude faster rates of BM gain (and by proxy larger surpluses) primarily increase rates of fat gain rather than augmenting 1-RM or MT. However, biceps brachii, the muscle which received the greatest stimulus in this study, may have been positively impacted by greater BM gain, albeit slightly. Our findings are limited to the confines of this study, where a group of lifters with mixed training experience performed moderate volumes 3 d/wk for 8 weeks. Thus, future work is needed to evaluate the relationship between BM gains, increases in ST and RT adaptations in other contexts.
Anti-amyloid therapies (AATs), such as anti-amyloid monoclonal antibodies, are emerging treatments for people with early Alzheimer’s disease (AD). AATs target amyloid β plaques in the brain. Amyloid-related imaging abnormalities (ARIA), abnormal signals seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in patients with AD, may occur spontaneously but occur more frequently as side effects of AATs. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a major risk factor for ARIA. Amyloid β plays a key role in the pathogenesis of AD and of CAA. Amyloid β accumulation in the brain parenchyma as plaques is a pathological hallmark of AD, whereas amyloid β accumulation in cerebral vessels leads to CAA. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of ARIA is necessary for early detection of those at highest risk. This could lead to improved risk stratification and the ultimate reduction of symptomatic ARIA. Histopathological confirmation of CAA by brain biopsy or autopsy is the gold standard but is not clinically feasible. MRI is an available in vivo tool for detecting CAA. Cerebrospinal fluid amyloid β level testing and amyloid PET imaging are available but do not offer specificity for CAA vs amyloid plaques in AD. Thus, developing and testing biomarkers as reliable and sensitive screening tools for the presence and severity of CAA is a priority to minimize ARIA complications.
Greater heterogeneity exists in older adults relative to young adults when performing highly-skilled manual tasks. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of visual feedback and attentional demand on visual strategy during a submaximal force-steadiness task in young and older adults. Eye movements of 21 young (age 20-38 years; 11 female, 10 male) and 21 older (age 65-90 years; 11 female, 10 male) adults were recorded during a pinch force-steadiness task while viewing feedback with higher and lower gain and while performing a visuospatial task. For the visuospatial task, participants imagined a star moving around four boxes and reported the final location after a series of directions. Performance on standardized tests of attention was measured. All participants gazed near the target line and made left-to-right saccadic eye movements during the force-steadiness tasks without the visuospatial task. Older adults made fewer saccades than young adults (23.6 ± 4.4 and 21.0 ± 2.9 saccades, respectively) and with higher versus lower gain (23.7 ± 3.5 and 20.9 ± 4.0 saccades, respectively). Most participants used the same visual strategy when performing the visuospatial task though 7 older adults used an altered strategy; gaze did not stay near the target line nor travel exclusively left to right. Performance on standardized measures of attention was impaired in this subset compared to older adults who did not use the altered visual strategy. Results indicate that visual feedback influences visual strategy and reveal unique eye movements in some older adults when allocating attention across tasks.
This manuscript first presents the development and then the implementation of simple design aids that allow bridge engineers to quickly estimate idealized moment–curvature relationships for circular concrete columns in compliance with current specifications by using a pocket calculator or a spreadsheet. The design aids were developed in a normalized domain, so they are particularly convenient for preliminary stages of design when the engineer may want to know the nonlinear static (pushover) response of circular columns for selected reinforcement ratios (longitudinal and transverse) and axial load levels. The formulation is applicable to column diameters up to 2.44 m (8 ft), longitudinal reinforcement ratios (ρ) from 1% to 3%, spiral reinforcement ratios (ρs) from 0.5% to 2.5%, nominal concrete compressive strengths (f'c) from 28 MPa (4 ksi) to 56 MPa (8 ksi), axial loads from –0.5fyρAg (tension) to 0.5f'cAg (compression), and grade 420 MPa (60 ksi) reinforcement. Application examples are presented to illustrate the use of the design aids and to validate the obtained results with commercially available software.
This article, which begins with a survey of receptions of Simon Magus, explores Lluís Borrassà (c.1350/60–c.1424/25), who was a renowned artist in Catalunya in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, but today is little known except among specialists of Catalan medieval art. The main scene depicted in the altar piece is the moment when Simon Magus was vanquished by Peter and Paul. The main literary sources behind the Borrassà altarpiece were the Passio, “The Passions of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul,” and also, the medieval Legenda Aurea of Jacobus of Voragine that popularized the Simon Magus legends in the medieval and early modern periods. The article seeks to establish the relationship of the images in the altar piece that Lluis Borrassà executed and the Passio apocryphal narrative.
Nerone (Nero), one of the operas by Arrigo Boito (Padua, 1842—Milan, 1918), the Italian librettist (he collaborated with Giuseppe Verdi), was premièred posthumously in 1924. Boito had both written and set to music two operas: Mefistofele and Nerone. Simon Magus features prominently in the opera Nerone. Boito ascribes to Simon Magus in his lifetime a shrine in Rome (where Nero discovers he is being duped), and one comes across the ascription of Valentinian doctrines to Simon Magus’ chorus in Nerone. Of course, conflating the Valentinians with Simon Magus is historically incorrect. Simon’s flight is because Nero has him thrown in the arena, after Simon’s was instrumental in Nero’s subjecting Christians to martyrdom. Nero gives order that Simon Magus be made to fly like Icarus. The German guards pull Simon Magus towards a wooden ladder. The crowd, along with Gobrias (Simon Magus’ former pupil) and Tigellinus, laugh and taunt Simon Magus: “Vola, /Se sai volar! Icaro, vola!” (“Fly, /If you know how to fly. Icarus, fly!”). It was usual for ones being executed in the Roman arenas to be stripped of their dignity, by being made to impersonate some mythical character. A condemned man made to impersonate Daedalus in the arena in Flavian times was described in Martial’s attributed Liber spectaculorum. Boito was probably inspired, for his reinterpretation of Simon Magus’ death, by the executed man made to impersonate Icarus in Nero’s times, according to Suetonius.
The first section surveys selectively, in eight subsections, scholarly receptions of the narratives about Simon Magus. Was the historical Simon a Gnostic? Was he a magus, or a sorcerer, or neither? A claim even makes him a grammarian. We consider David Flusser’s insights connecting Simon Magus’ theology to the pagan syncretism with monotheistic trends of a Roman-age goddess from Samaria, the great Kore. Simon Magus was sometimes associated with Irish Druidism, or with the Antichrist, or with Muhammad. We then turned to levitation or flight as evidence of sainthood, rather than of sorcery, across cultures. The twelve subsections of the second section begin by considering artwork about Simon Magus’ flight and then enumerate (for the sake of typology), and sometimes discuss in some depth, such occurrences. There is the episode of Griffolino of Arezzo from Dante Alighieri’s Inferno, Canto 29, lines 73–120. Bladud, King of Bath (the father of King Lear), flies to London and crashes down. Among Victorian London’s esotericists, flying in and out of windows was claimed (and we are not talking about Peter Pan). In the Buddhist Far East, we considered the flight contest between the Buddhist monk Milaraspa (Milarepa) and Tibet’s Bon magician Na ro Bon chung (Bon was the religion that preceded Buddhism in Tibet). An especially saintly lama floats over the pine tree tops while being shot by a Soviet guard, silently implores the guard to desist, and when he is killed, the executioner sees a large flower and converts, in a tale from Buryat folklore. Levitation is a successful argument for conversion to Manichaeism concerning the King of Turan. We also considered a fowler and bird allegory in an early modern German broadsheet: a man clad like a fool flies to his doom. There are some Jewish narratives, for example, Balaam flies, but comes crashing down upon being shown the High Priest’s forefront pendant. The biblical patriarch Jacob’s military prowess and superhero superpowers in the medieval imagination: he leaps two thousand cubits, and Judah, his son, leaps like a flea while fighting the army of Nineveh, in the thirteenth-century Hebrew Book of Tales from Northern France. Simon Magus is still a fertile subject for research and more general interest.
Manichaeism, which also eventually spread in the Roman Empire, having originated in the western (Aramaic-speaking rather than Iranic) territories of the Persian Empire under the early Sasanian dynasty, was met with official antipathy and eventually persecution, in both the Roman Empire and Persian Empire, and the Christian Acta Archaelai stressed traits of the founder, Mani, such as his Persian dress and a physical handicap, to warn the intended audience about his inherently hostile Otherness. In contrast, Mithraism, a religion also originating in the Roman Empire’s problematic neighbour Iran, was accepted within the Roman Empire as this subserved the ideology extolling the Emperor. The Acta Archelai portrayed Mani negatively in several manners, which we have considered. Madeleine Scopello did much to point out (especially in a French-language study of hers, from which we have quoted here in both an English translation and her original French) how Simon Magus was the archetype to which Mani was being likened. This is an important example of how Simon Magus could be and was used in order to attack a current perceived threat at the time of the writing of a text: the Acta Archelai, sometime during the dozen years or so preceding the middle of the fourth century.
We present as a case study the evolution of a series of participant-centered workshops designed to meet a need in the life sciences education community-the incorporation of best practices in the assessment of student learning. Initially, the ICABL (Inclusive Community for the Assessment of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology/BMB Learning) project arose from a grass-roots effort to develop material for a national exam in biochemistry and molecular biology. ICABL has since evolved into a community of practice in which participants themselves-through extensive peer review and reflection-become integral stakeholders in the workshops. To examine this evolution, this case study begins with a pilot workshop supported by seed funding and thoughtful programmatic assessment, the results of which informed evidence-based changes that, in turn, led to an improved experience for the community. Using participant response data, the case study also reveals critical features for successful workshops, including participant-centered activities and the value of frequent peer review of participants' products. Furthermore, we outline a train-the-trainer model for creating a self-renewing community by bringing new perspectives and voices into an existing core leadership team. This case study, then, offers a blueprint for building a thriving, evolving community of practice that not only serves the needs of individual scientist-educators as they seek to enhance student learning, but also provides a pathway for elevating members to positions of leadership.
This paper examines the potential promises and limitations of the human rights framework in the age of AI. It addresses the question: what, if anything, makes human rights well suited to face the challenges arising from new and emerging technologies like AI? It argues that the historical evolution of human rights as a series of legal norms and concrete practices has made it well placed to address AI-related challenges. The human rights framework should be understood comprehensively as a combination of legal remedies, moral justification, and political analysis that inform one another. Over time, the framework has evolved in ways that accommodate the balancing of contending rights claims, using multiple ex ante and ex post facto mechanisms, involving government and/or business actors, and in situations of diffuse responsibility that may or may not result from malicious intent. However, the widespread adoption of AI technologies pushes the moral, sociological, and political boundaries of the human rights framework in other ways. AI reproduces long-term, structural problems going beyond issue-by-issue regulation, is embedded within economic structures that produce cumulative negative effects, and introduces additional challenges that require a discussion about the relationship between human rights and science & technology. Some of the reasons for why AI produces problematic outcomes are deep rooted in technical intricacies that human rights practitioners should be more willing than before to get involved in.
Disclosure: M. Thomas: None. N. Janakiram: None. J. Leary: None. K.E. Foster-Schubert: None. R.R. Narla: None. Background: Electrolyte disorders are commonly seen with chemotherapy (CTX) agents. Cetuximab is an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor and irinotecan is topoisomerase 1 inhibitor. Both agents have been associated with hypomagnesemia which can adversely lead to hypocalcemia (HC). Case: A 66-year-old woman with osteoporosis (last bisphosphonate use was 24 months ago), primary hyperparathyroidism status post parathyroidectomy in 2015 (R inferior and superior glands) and 2017 (L inferior gland) with recent diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma of unknown primary who presented with nausea, tetany, leg cramps and found to have severe HC of corrected calcium (CCa) of 5.7, a week post-chemotherapy. On the day of her CTX, her CCa was 7.0, ionized calcium (iCal) of 1.7 with Magnesium (Mg) of 2.0; she received IV calcium (Ca), then underwent CTX. She was prescribed Ca supplements and reports adherence. She returned endorsing the above symptoms with positive Chvostek and Trousseau sign on exam. Labs were notable for CCa of 5.7, iCal of 1.6, Mg of 1.6, Phosphorus of 4.5, PTH 123 (ULN 65), 25-OH vitamin D of 28.6 and normal eGFR. She was hospitalized and received multiple infusions of IV Ca and CCa improved to 7.5. She was discharged on Ca carbonate 1000 mg TID, Mg oxide 420 mg BID and Vitamin D. Before her second cycle of CTX with same agents, she received IV Ca for CCa of 7.3. She remained on Ca and Mg supplements. One week later, she endorsed paresthesia, diarrhea and was admitted again for HC. She was initiated on calcitriol on this admission and 24-hour urine studies showed low Ca excretion and elevated fractional excretion of magnesium (FeMg). Her CCa was 8.0 and she was discharged on calcitriol 0.25 mg BID. Oncology discontinued this CTX regimen. Her HC resolved and calcitriol and Ca supplements were gradually weaned off. Discussion: After both rounds of cetuximab and irinotecan, our patient developed profound HC without hypomagnesemia. Cetuximab can cause occasional Mg wasting syndrome with inappropriate urinary excretion. However, she was started on Mg since her first hospitalization despite normal serum Mg levels. Interestingly, her 24-hour urine studies revealed FeMg of 6.5% suggestive of renal Mg wasting. In the literature, there is a case report of severe HC with irinotecan but they had speculated germline mutations in Ca metabolism genes. It remains unclear how these CTX agents impact Ca homeostasis. It is difficult to discern if the severe HC in our patient could be attributed to Mg wasting with normal Mg levels. It is evident that her HC was associated with the timing of her CTX regimen. Therapy for HC can be complex, involves short- and long-term interventions, and correction is critical. Serum Ca surveillance before and during CTX management of cancer patients may reveal more instances and provide insight into the exact mechanisms. Presentation: Saturday, June 17, 2023
Background Criminal legal system data are one source for measuring some types of firearm-related harms, including those that do not necessarily result in injury or death, but measurement can be hampered by imprecise criminal code statutes. We quantified the degree of misclassification in Washington state criminal codes for measuring firearm-related crime. Findings In this study of individuals aged 18 years and older who were convicted of a misdemeanor in Washington Superior Courts from 1/1/2015 through 12/31/2019, we compared firearm-related charges as measured with criminal codes and with manual review of probable cause documents, considered the gold standard. The sample included 5,390 criminal cases. Of these, 77 (1.4%) were firearm-related as measured with criminal codes and 437 (8.1%) were firearm-related as measured via manual record review. In the sample overall, the sensitivity of criminal codes was 17.6% (95% CI 14.2–21.5%), and negative predictive value (NPV) was 93.2% (95% CI 92.5–93.9%). Sensitivity and NPV were higher for cases with exclusively non-violent charges. For all cases and for cases with any violent crime charge, firearm-related crimes described in probable cause documents most often involved explicit verbal threats, firearm possession, and pointing a firearm at or touching a firearm to someone; almost 10% of all cases involved shooting/discharging a firearm. For cases with exclusively non-violent charges, the most common firearm-related crime was unlawful possession. Conclusions Criminal records can be used for large-scale policy-relevant studies of firearm-related harms, but this study suggests Washington state criminal codes substantially undercount firearm-related crime, especially firearm-related violent crime.
In recent decades, a substantial volume of work has examined the neural mechanisms of cognitive reappraisal. Distancing and reinterpretation are two frequently used tactics through which reappraisal can be implemented. Theoretical frameworks and prior evidence have suggested that the specific tactic through which one employs reappraisal entails differential neural and psychological mechanisms. Thus, we were motivated to assess the neural mechanisms of this distinction by examining the overlap and differentiation exhibited by the neural correlates of distancing (specifically via objective appraisal) and reinterpretation. We analyzed 32 published functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in healthy adults using multilevel kernel density analysis. Results showed that distancing relative to reinterpretation uniquely recruited right bilateral dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) and left posterior parietal cortex, previously associated with mentalizing, selective attention and working memory. Reinterpretation relative to distancing uniquely recruited left bilateral ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC), previously associated with response selection and inhibition. Further, distancing relative to reinterpretation was associated with greater prevalence of bilateral amygdala attenuation during reappraisal. Finally, a behavioral meta-analysis showed efficacy for both reappraisal tactics. These results are consistent with prior theoretical models for the functional neural architecture of reappraisal via distancing and reinterpretation and suggest potential future applications in region-of-interest specification and neural network analysis in studies focusing on specific reappraisal tactics.
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