Semi-Arid regions of Sub-Saharan Africa are vulnerable to weather shocks, especially rural areas where households depend on rainfed agriculture and access to stable food markets are limited by high transaction costs. Understanding how weather shocks affect rural Sub-Saharan African households through both production and market price changes is crucial in designing sustainable and effective programs to increase resilience. Weather shock impacts on agricultural production and market prices are well documented in Africa. But little is known about the impacts of weather shocks on market price seasonality, which is an important determinant of food security. We investigate the distinct impacts of positive and negative rainfall shocks on millet production and millet price seasonality in Niger using district-level longitudinal production and price data, along with high-resolution rainfall data. We find that a one standard deviation decrease in seasonal rainfall from historical averages is associated with declines in millet market price initially after harvest, but strong upward pressure on market prices 6 months after harvest. As a result, drought exacerbates existing price seasonality, which in turn can amplify negative impacts on households. Social protection programs need to account for potential increases in seasonal price variability in the design of programs to enhance household resilience to weather shocks.
This chapter examines eighteenth-century evangelical missions as they developed in India, the Caribbean, and South Africa. Early Evangelical missionaries were involved in many other geographical contexts, but these locations were among the most formative for the future trajectory of the movement. The political contexts and evangelical mission theories and practices in these places highlight the transcontinental connections and relationships among missionaries as well as Indigenous leaders of evangelical efforts. Pietist, Moravian, Methodist, Baptist, and independent evangelical mission illustrate the diversity of early evangelical institutions, perspectives, and practices. The institutions, churches, and movements these groups established in the early years of evangelical movement profoundly influenced subsequent generations of Indigenous Christian practices around the world.
Psychotherapy for GAD Psychotherapeutic Treatments for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Cognitive and Behavioral Therapies, Enhancement Strategies, and Emerging Efforts s Psychotherapeutic Treatments for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Cognitive and Behavioral Therapies, Enhancement Strategies, and Emerging Efforts
Introduction Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is common and disabling. Different versions of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) have been tested, but no treatment works for everyone. Therefore, researchers have attempted approaches to enhance CBT. Areas covered The current narrative review examines meta-analyses and individual trials of CBT-based treatments for GAD. We focus on CBT and its cognitive and behavioral components as well as efforts to enhance CBT and its dissemination and generalizability. Enhancement efforts included interpersonal and emotional processing therapy, mindfulness-based CBT, emotion regulation therapy, intolerance of uncertainty therapy, the unified protocol, metacognitive therapy, motivational interviewing, and contrast avoidance targeted treatment. Emerging strategies to enhance dissemination have focused on technologically based treatments. Attempts at generalizability have included examination of efficacy within diverse racial and ethnic groups. Expert opinion We conclude that CBT is efficacious, and a number of enhancement efforts have shown some promise in improving upon CBT in single trials. However, more research is needed, particularly efforts to determine which enhancements work best for which individuals and what are the mechanisms of change. Furthermore, few technological interventions have been compared to active treatments. Finally, much more attention needs to be paid to ethnic and racial diversity in randomized controlled trials.
Assertion is widely regarded as an act associated with an epistemic position. To assert is to represent oneself as occupying this position and/or to be required to occupy this position. Within this approach, the most common view is that assertion is strong: the associated position is knowledge or certainty. But recent challenges to this common view present new data that are argued to be better explained by assertion being weak. Old data widely taken to support assertion being strong has also been challenged. This paper examines such challenges and finds them wanting. Far from diminishing the case for strong assertion, carefully considering new and old data reveals that assertion is as strong as ever.
The COVID-19 pandemic brought about many changes in family routines and introduced new stressors for parents. While stressors can lead to parental burnout, coparenting support may mitigate the effects of parental stress on parental burnout. The current study explored the effects of parental stress, COVID-19 stress, and coparenting support on parental burnout during the second year of the pandemic. Participants consisted of one hundred fifty-five parents in the USA ( M = 39.6, SD = 7.38; female = 94.8%). Results suggested parental stress was positively associated with parental burnout while coparenting support was negatively associated with parental burnout. These findings highlight the importance of addressing parental stress and support to minimize the risk of parental burnout.
“If your horse is dead, dismount,” is Dakota tribal wisdom that reminds us to do the most obvious thing. In this paper, we describe how middle school students in summer school finally challenged us to ‘dismount’ from our traditional remedial reading instruction. In our new approach, middle schoolers chose topics for study and shared what they were learning. Ongoing interviews, along with tutor reflections and researcher observations, showed the criticality of students’ identities in their topic studies. Pursuing questions that were connected to their identities resulted in self-regulatory behaviors, including goal-setting and persistence. Additionally, students labeled as struggling readers demonstrated a broad range of literate behaviors, including reading, writing, speaking, listening, viewing, and composing. This paper adds to the research that challenges a model of remedial instruction where students are positioned as deficient and instead reframes literacy instruction as a tool for helping students act agentically.
This paper investigates the effect of social connections on outside director turnover before stock performance crashes. We find that outside directors who are more connected with managers through social ties are more likely to leave the firm before a crash. The positive association between turnover and outside director connectedness is robust to different model specifications, measures of crashes and turnovers, and sample selection criteria. Moreover, we document that this positive association is moderated by the concentration of the outside directors' social capital within the current firm and the availability of alternative information channels to the outside directors. Our findings contribute to the literature on the supply side incentives of outside directors by revealing information sharing through social connections as a mechanism through which outside directors assess their firms' future performance and make turnover decisions before crashes.
Given the need for multiple representations of historically underrepresented voices in children’s literature, this research study explored critical depictions of agency of Latinx youth within the Pura Belpré awarded texts from 1996 to 2021. The findings report a critical multicultural analysis of depictions of age, sex, socio-economic status, ethnicities, and geographic regions of these awarded texts. Using a secondary analysis of opportunities for agency, we examine how focal subjects (Vaughn et al., 2021; Crisp, 2015) exert their agency in their respective contexts. Our aim in doing so is to highlight the notion of agency in these texts of Latinx children and youth, specifically understanding who exerts agency, how, and for what purposes. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
As migration and displacement continue to increase around the world, guidelines are needed clarifying how school counselors can use their power and privilege in working with refugee students and their families across K-12 education, more so in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic. We introduce the Refugee Well-Being Project intervention to school counselors and school counselor interns, focusing on the social determinants of health impacting the overall well-being of refugee students.
The American 911 emergency call system fulfills a unique role in preventing suicide and is universally available to all residents suffering a mental health crisis. Previous studies have found disparities between socioeconomic and racial groups in mental health treatment and in help-seeking behaviors. However, very few studies have analyzed disparities in the use of the 911 system for mental health or suicidal crises. The present study conducted negative binomial regression analyses to determine if an increase in suicide-related 911 call rate is associated with race and socioeconomic characteristics in Western King County, Washington. We used the geographic locations of 4823 suicide-related calls from January 2019 to June 2020 to contrast against 2019 demographic data from the Census Bureau. We found increased percentage of Black, Indigenous and People of Color (BIPOC), residents relying on private health insurance, and lower education levels were associated with a decreased suicide-related 911 call rate. We found residents relying on public health insurance to be associated with an increased suicide-related 911 call rate. Future research should explore how residents use 911 in mental health crises to further improve public suicide prevention efforts. Our findings demonstrate how areas with poor health care options may rely more on the 911 system amidst a suicidal crisis.
Coping with culture shock and adjustment difficulties is vital to immigrants’ mental health, yet most existing research and interventions are grounded in a deficit-centered narrative, which can veil immigrants’ unique strengths and resilience. We discuss how to optimize immigrants’ mental well-being by leveraging their lived experiences and strengths via a “two-way street” approach.
Background There is a substantial mental health treatment gap globally. Increasingly, mental health treatments with evidence of effectiveness in western countries have been adapted and tested in culturally and contextually distinct countries. Findings from these studies have been promising, but to better understand treatment outcome results and consider broader scale up, treatment acceptability needs to be assessed and better understood. This mixed methods study aimed to examine child and guardian acceptability of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) in two regions in Tanzania and Kenya and to better understand how TF-CBT was perceived as helpful for children and guardians. Methods Participants were 315 children (7–13), who experienced the death of one or both parents and 315 guardians, both of whom participated in TF-CBT as part of a randomized controlled trial conducted in Tanzania and Kenya. The study used mixed methods, with quantitative evaluation from guardian perspective ( N=315) using the Treatment Acceptability Questionnaire (TAQ) and the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire-8 (CSQ-8). Acceptability was assessed qualitatively from both guardian and child perspectives. Qualitative evaluation involved analysis using stratified selection to identify 160 child and 160 guardian interviews, to allow exploration of potential differences in acceptability by country, setting (urban/rural), and youth age (younger/older). Results Guardians reported high acceptability on the TAQ and, using an interpretation guide from U.S.-based work, medium acceptability on the CSQ-8. Guardians and children noted high acceptability in the qualitative analysis, noting benefits that correspond to TF-CBT’s therapeutic goals. Analyses exploring differences in acceptability yielded few differences by setting or child age but suggested some potential differences by country. Conclusion Quantitative and qualitative data converged to suggest high acceptability of TF-CBT from guardian and child perspectives in Tanzania and Kenya. Findings add to accumulating evidence of high TF-CBT acceptability from Zambia and other countries (United States, Norway, Australia). Plain Language Summary: Evidence-based treatments have been shown to be effective in countries and regions that are contextually and culturally distinct from where they were developed. But, perspectives of consumers on these treatments have not been assessed regularly or thoroughly. We used open-ended questions and rating scales to assess guardian and youth perspectives on a group-based, cognitive behavioral treatment for children impacted by parental death, in regions within Tanzania and Kenya. Our findings indicate that both guardians and youth found the treatment to be very acceptable. Nearly all guardians talked about specific benefits for the child, followed by benefits for the family and themselves. Eighty percent of youth mentioned benefits for themselves and all youth said they would recommend the program to others. Benefits mentioned by guardians and youth corresponded to treatment goals (improved mood/feelings or behavior, less distress when thinking about the parent/s’ death). Both guardians and children named specific aspects of the treatment that they liked and found useful. Dislikes and challenges of the treatment were less frequently mentioned, but point to areas where acceptability could be further improved. Recommendations from participants also offer areas where acceptability could be improved, namely guardians’ recommendation that the treatment also address non-mental health needs and offer some follow-up or opportunity to participate in the program again. Our study provides an example of how to assess acceptability and identify places to further enhance acceptability.
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