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    ABSTRACT: Therapeutic efficacy of a new 'Indigenous vaccine' prepared from native highly pathogenic 'Indian Bison Type' genotype of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) of goat origin has been evaluated with respect to control of clinical Johne's disease in naturally infected Mehsana breed of goat in North Gujarat. Fifty goats from Sheep and Goats Research Station, Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar, were randomly divided into 2 groups viz.,'Vaccinated'(n = 35) and 'Control'(n = 15). After vaccination, goats were monitored for physical condition, morbidity, mortality, body weights, shedding of MAP in feces, internal condition, gross lesions and humoral immune responses up to 120 days (at each interval of 30 days). At the end of 120 days trial, there was marked overall improvement in physical condition and body weights of vaccinated goats as compared to 'Control' goats. Vaccinated goats gained significantly (P < 0.05) higher body weights, hardly exhibited any lesions characteristic of JD, had significantly higher (P < 0.01) antibody titers and shedding of MAP was significantly (P < 0.01) reduced. Few of the vaccinated goats were positive for MAP DNA in faecal PCR and blood PCR before vaccination. However, all were found as negative at 120 days post vaccination (DPV). Overall vaccine exhibited effective in restriction of MAP infection and significant improvement in production parameters and reduction in mortality and morbidity due to JD. The trial in the herd will be continued.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Veterinary Research Communications
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Single-dose pharmacokinetics of orbifloxacin (2.5mg/kg body weight) were determined in clinically normal female Patanwadi sheep (n=6) following intravenous and intramuscular administration. Methods: Orbifloxacin concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The concentration-time data were analyzed by non-compartmental kinetic method. Results and discussion: Following a single intravenous injection, an elimination half-life (t(1/2β)) of 8.31±0.102h. Steady-state volume of distribution (Vd(ss)) and total body clearance (Cl(B)) were 3.09±0.282L/kg and 0.158±0.006L/kg/h, respectively. Following intramuscular administration, an elimination rate constant (β), the area under the curve from zero to infinity (AUC(0-∞)) and the mean absorption time (MAT) were 0.015±0.001h(-1), 23.49±1.722μg·h/mL and 7.50±0.58h, respectively. The peak plasma concentration (C(max)) of 1.81±0.005µg/mL was achieved at 1.00±0.00h. The mean residence time (MRT) was 26.25±1.083h and the absolute bioavailability was 150.8±12.35%, respectively. Orbifloxacin could be useful for the treatment of bacterial infections in sheep that are sensitive to this drug.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of pharmacological and toxicological methods
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    ABSTRACT: In India, Ayurveda has made a major contribution to the drug discovery process with new means of identifying active compounds. Recent advancement in bioavailability enhancement of drugs by compounds of herbal origin has produced a revolutionary shift in the way of therapeutics. Thus, bibliographic investigation was carried out by analyzing classical text books and peer-reviewed papers, consulting worldwide-accepted scientific databases from last 30 years. Herbal bioenhancers have been shown to enhance bioavailability and bioefficacy of different classes of drugs, such as antibiotics, antituberculosis, antiviral, antifungal, and anticancerous drugs at low doses. They have also improved oral absorption of nutraceuticals like vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and certain herbal compounds. Their mechanism of action is mainly through absorption process, drug metabolism, and action on drug target. This paper clearly indicates that scientific researchers and pharmaceutical industries have to give emphasis on experimental studies to find out novel active principles from such a vast array of unexploited plants having a role as a bioavailability and bioefficacy enhancer. Also, the mechanisms of action by which bioenhancer compounds exert bioenhancing effects remain to be explored.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · The Scientific World Journal


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