Santa Casa da Misericórdia do Rio de Janeiro
Recent publications
Objectives: To estimate the long-term exposure to glucocorticoids (GC), the factors associated with, and the variations in prescribing practices over time and across recruiting countries. Methods: We included patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) having a visit in the EUSTAR database from January 2013 onward. We analyzed the prevalence and the main features of GC users, the exposure to GC over time, and the respective dosages. Multivariable linear regression analysis identified factors associated with GC intake duration. Time trends, and variations in GC utilization across recruiting countries were explored. Missing data were imputed using multiple imputation with chained equations. Results: The 9819 patients included were mostly females (85%), lcSSc (73%), median age 58 years. At baseline, 34% of patients (n = 2769/8109) (48% dcSSc vs. 29% lcSSc) were on GC, median dose 7.5 mg/day. GC users were more frequently males, dcSSc, anti-Scl70 positive, with a more severe disease. On average, GC users spent 25% of their follow-up time (median 33.2 months) on GC, with no significant between-subsets difference. Notably, 33% (n = 971/2959) and 22% (n = 647/2959) of patients followed-up for >1 year, had received GC for >6 and >12 months, respectively. In multivariable analysis, patient and disease's characteristics poorly explained the variability of GC exposure (adjusted-R2 = 0.06, P < 0.001). GC utilization varied within and across countries, and gradually decreased over time (36% in 2013 vs. 23% in 2018). Conclusions: GC are widely and long-term prescribed in SSc, with significant between- and within-country(ies) differences. A gradual decrease in their utilization is observed.
Phaeohyphomycosis is a group of fungal infections caused by filamentous dematiaceous fungi, which have melanin in their cell walls. Phaeohyphomycosis has four clinical forms: superficial, subcutaneous, systemic, and disseminated. Although rare, the subcutaneous form shows a significant prevalence in immunocompromised individuals, especially in solid organ transplant recipients. We report a case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis in a renal transplant patient, caused by the species Exophiala dermatitidis. Although the case reveals characteristic clinical manifestations of the disease, laboratory and cultural findings were atypical. Based on this case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis, a brief literature review is carried out on this rare and important fungal infection in medical practice.
Background: Melasma is a common hypermelanosis characterized by symmetrical brownish macules, especially on the face. Histologic analysis demonstrates increased epidermal and dermal melanin. Dermoscopy is useful to estimate the depth of the melanin and may help in the diagnosis and classification of melasma, with therapeutic importance. Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic concordance of dermoscopic classification of epidermal or mixed subtypes of melasma and the correlation between dermoscopic and histopathological findings. Methods: Twenty-eight women with facial melasma, phototypes III to V, ages between 30 and 61 years were selected. Based on the evaluation of clinical and dermoscopic images, two independent observers classified melasma into epidermal or mixed subtypes. The intra and interobserver concordances were calculated. Histopathological analysis of epidermal melanin extension and maximum number of melanophages per high-power field (400X; HPF) have been assessed. Association between the melanophages count and the dermoscopic classification was evaluated. Results: Intraobserver agreement was 82.1%, and between observers, from 78.6% to 89.3%, according to the Kappa index. Histopathology revealed increased intraepidermal melanin and the presence of dermal melanophages in all the samples. Ten or more melanophages / HPF was significantly associated with mixed melasma. Conclusions: Moderate to substantial concordance in the dermoscopic classification of melasma was found, and the correlation between this classification and the dermal melanophages count have been suggested. Intradermal component of every case of melasma should be considered for therapeutic and prognostic purposes.
The new betacoronavirus, known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is the cause of COVID-19, and has spread rapidly around the world, reaching more than 200 countries, around 364 million people and causing more than 5 million deaths according to the World Health Organization, so this paper reports a fatal case of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a young pregnant woman with heart disease, without vertical transmission. A 26 years old patient at 28th week of pregnancy with regular prenatal care, presented dry cough, high fever, and severe respiratory distress. Due to her clinical symptoms, she sought medical care at a cardiology hospital in Northern Brazil. The medical conditions she presented were heart disease, rheumatic fever history and had no recent record of national or international travel. She was hospitalized and after clinical stabilization, she was referred for an emergency cesarean intervention. The young mother and the newborn were transferred to the intensive care unit after surgery, where diagnostic tests for respiratory viral infections, including SARS-CoV-2, were performed. The mother tested positive, while her newborn was negative for SARS-CoV-2 demonstrating no vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in this severe case. This study reveals that despite the mother’s initially mild symptoms, she progressed to severe clinical conditions resulting in death, although no vertical transmission was observed. This report highlights the relevance of comorbidities for the unfavorable clinical course of COVID-19.
Staging fibrosis accurately has always been a challenge in viral hepatitis and other liver diseases. Liver biopsy is an imperfect gold standard due to its intra and interobserver agreement limitations and additional characteristics such as its safety and cost. Hence, non-invasive tests have been developed to stage liver fibrosis. In addition to serological biomarkers, physical tests with reasonable accuracy are available and adopted in the daily clinic regarding viral hepatitis fibrosis staging. In this review, we discuss the published data regarding the staging of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B and C, emphasizing non-invasive markers of fibrosis, both serological and physical. Moreover, we also discuss a persistent central gap, the evaluation of liver fibrosis after HCV cure.
Background: acceptance of the Covid-19 vaccination is a key point to fight against the actual pandemic. The rapid development of Covid-19 vaccines caused worldwide concerns about its efficacy, side-effects and uncertainty in the future after immunization, thus contributing to vaccine acceptability and hesitancy. Historically, vaccine hesitancy by part of the populations constitutes a barrier to achieve control of preventable infectious diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the acceptance and hesitance rates to the Covid-19 vaccination among Brazilian veterinarians by the beginning of the national vaccination campaign. Methodology: a voluntary anonymous online survey conducted from November 10, 2020 to March 31, 2021, accessing a closed group of vets from the network Facebook. Results: our results showed that from the sample of 351 respondents, 239 (68.09%), 81(23.08%), and 31 (8.83%), declared themselves in favor, not now, and against vaccination, respectively, given about two-thirds acceptance and one-third vaccine hesitance. Conclusion: this study demonstrated a positive but moderate level of acceptance of the Covid-19 vaccination by part of Brazilian veterinarians.
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common form of non-cicatricial alopecia in both genders. Currently approved drugs for the treatment of AGA include topical minoxidil in women and topical minoxidil and oral finasteride in men. Other routes of administration of approved drugs have been proposed to enhance therapeutic results for AGA, including intradermal injections, known as mesotherapy. Mesotherapy – or intradermotherapy – is a non-surgical procedure, consisting of multiple intradermal injections of pharmacological substances diluted in small doses. Although minimally invasive, mesotherapy may be related to mild side effects like burning, erythema and headaches, as a few reports indicate. Among the most serious adverse events, subcutaneous necrosis, scalp abscesses, and angioedema have been described. This multicenter retrospective, descriptive study aims to report 14 cases of frontal edema resulting from mesotherapy for AGA treatment. In our patients, the edema mostly arose in the first two sessions and lasted between one and four days, with a favorable outcome after a local cold compress. In all our cases of edema, lidocaine was the anesthetic used. Minoxidil and dutasteride might also play a role as causative agents. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest case series focused on frontal edema after mesotherapy for AGA and gives clinicians helpful information for when performing this technique. Dermatologists should already consider and be conscious of this possible mesotherapy side effect, as it can be remarkably disruptive to affected patients.
Introduction: Endometriosis is a disorder that can significantly affect quality of life (QOL) and interfere in biological, psychological, social, marital and family aspects. Objective: To analyze the influence of endometriosis on the QOL of women diagnosed with the disease. Methods: The study was carried out from March to April 2018, with 10 volunteers from the Santa Casa de Misericórdia do Pará Foundation, with a clinical diagnosis of endometriosis. The Portuguese version of the endometriosis health profile questionnaire (EHP-30) was applied in order to assess QOL in women with this pathology. Results: The sociodemographic results revealed a predominance of women aged between 29 and 55 years, most of whom were married (6) and high school graduates (5). Seven of the ten volunteers had previous pregnancies. Of the aspects evaluated in the EHP-30, 79% of the items associated with pelvic pain in the core questionnaire were present in the participants. In other questionnaires, sexual life (82%) was the most affected index, followed by professional life (70%) and infertility (58.82%). Conclusion: The aspects of QOL most impacted by pelvic pain associated with endometriosis in the women evaluated were sexuality and professional life, leading to biopsychosocial trauma.
A falta de conhecimento por parte dos profissionais de saúde pode levar a um aumento do risco de mortalidade e morbidade associada à transfusão de sangue. Os currículos oferecem pouco espaço para esse tema. O presente estudo objetiva analisar as intervenções educativas em medicina transfusional. Para isso, consultaram-se bases eletrônicas de dados, a partir dos descritores: Transfusão, Medicina Transfusional e Educação em Saúde. Várias são as opções propostas como intervenções educacionais. É necessário que estas se estabelecem na forma de educação continuada e que um processo avaliativo rigoroso validado seja aplicado. Palavras-chave: Transfusão, Medicina Transfusional, Educação em Saúde
Background: Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is a scarring alopecia that affects the frontotemporal hairline. Clinically, it may develop with cutaneous hypopigmentation of the affected areas, which has been associated with a reduction in the epidermal melanocyte count. In trichoscopy, peripilar white halos can be observed, which have been associated with fibrosis in other scarring alopecias. Objective: To evaluate the trichoscopic, histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of the peripilar white halos in FFA patients. Materials and methods: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study that included 12 patients with FFA presenting peripilar white halos. Two 2-mm punch trichoscopy-guided biopsies were performed in all patients, one fragment for vertical section and another for horizontal section. The vertical sections were stained with Fontana-Mason and Melan-A. Results: On trichoscopic examination, peripilar white halos ≤ 1 mm in size were observed on the affected scalp. In vertical sections, a reduction in basal melanin pigmentation and a decrease in the melanocyte count in the upper segment of the hair follicle were observed with Fontana-Masson staining and Melan-A immunostaining, respectively. Limitations: The small sample size and absence of a control group. Conclusion: This study shows follicular melanocyte involvement in FFA, and this finding may be associated with the peripilar white halos observed in trichoscopy.
Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a group of chronic inflammatory systemic diseases characterized by axial and/or peripheral joints inflammation, as well as extra-articular manifestations. Over some decades, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been the basis for the pharmacological treatment of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). However, the emergence of the immunobiologic agents brought up the discussion about the role of NSAIDs in the management of these patients. The objective of this guideline is to provide recommendations for the use of NSAIDs for the treatment of axSpA. A panel of experts from the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials for 15 predefined questions. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology to assess the quality of evidence and formulate recommendations were used, and at least 70% agreement of the voting panel was needed. Fourteen recommendations for the use of NSAIDs in the treatment of patients with axSpA were elaborated. The purpose of these recommendations is to support clinicians’ decision making, without taking out his/her autonomy when prescribing for an individual patient.
Background There is a lack of information on the role of chronic use of hydroxychloroquine during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. Our aim was to compare the occurrence of COVID-19 between rheumatic disease patients on hydroxychloroquine with individuals from the same household not taking the drug during the first 8 weeks of community viral transmission in Brazil. Methods This baseline cross-sectional analysis is part of a 24-week observational multi-center study involving 22 Brazilian academic outpatient centers. All information regarding COVID-19 symptoms, epidemiological, clinical, and demographic data were recorded on a specific web-based platform using telephone calls from physicians and medical students. COVID-19 was defined according to the Brazilian Ministry of Health (BMH) criteria. Mann–Whitney, Chi-square and Exact Fisher tests were used for statistical analysis and two binary Final Logistic Regression Model by Wald test were developed using a backward-stepwise method for the presence of COVID-19. Results From March 29th to May 17st, 2020, a total of 10,443 participants were enrolled, including 5166 (53.9%) rheumatic disease patients, of whom 82.5% had systemic erythematosus lupus, 7.8% rheumatoid arthritis, 3.7% Sjögren’s syndrome and 0.8% systemic sclerosis. In total, 1822 (19.1%) participants reported flu symptoms within the 30 days prior to enrollment, of which 3.1% fulfilled the BMH criteria, but with no significant difference between rheumatic disease patients (4.03%) and controls (3.25%). After adjustments for multiple confounders, the main risk factor significantly associated with a COVID-19 diagnosis was lung disease (OR 1.63; 95% CI 1.03–2.58); and for rheumatic disease patients were diagnosis of systemic sclerosis (OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.19–6.63) and glucocorticoids above 10 mg/ day (OR 2.05; 95% CI 1.31–3.19). In addition, a recent influenza vaccination had a protective effect (OR 0.674; 95% CI 0.46–0.98). Conclusion Patients with rheumatic disease on hydroxychloroquine presented a similar occurrence of COVID-19 to household cohabitants, suggesting a lack of any protective role against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Trial registration Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (ReBEC; RBR – 9KTWX6).
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic and systemic immune disease characterized by inflammation of peripheral and/or axial joints and entheses in patients with psoriasis (PsO). Extra-articular and extracutaneous manifestations and numerous comorbidities can also be present. These recommendations replace the previous version published in May 2013. A systematic review of the literature retrieved 191 articles that were used to formulate 12 recommendations in response to 12 clinical questions, divided into 4 sections: diagnosis, non-pharmacological treatment, conventional drug therapy and biologic therapy. These guidelines provide evidence-based information on the clinical management for PsA patients. For each recommendation, the level of evidence (highest available), degree of strength (Oxford) and degree of expert agreement (interrater reliability) are reported.
Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical, epidemiological and laboratory aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy and postpartum in 16 maternity hospitals. Methods and analysis A prospective multicentre study, with five axes. First, the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among women admitted for childbirth will be described in a cross-sectional study. Second, maternal and perinatal outcomes will be assessed in a prospective cohort study including pregnant or postpartum women with suspected COVID-19. Third, a cohort of positive COVID-19 cases with sampling of a variety of biological material. Histopathological and viral analysis of biological maternal and neonatal samples will be performed, and the assessment of nutritional variables to evaluate the association between vitamin D and severity of infection. Fourth, a monitoring and evaluation committee to collect relevant healthcare information and plan actions in centres facing the pandemic. Furthermore, qualitative studies will be performed to study pregnant women, their families and health professionals. Fifth, an ecological study will monitor the number of live births, stillbirths and other outcomes to explore any trend among the periods before, during and after the pandemic. Data will systematically be collected in an electronic platform following standardised operational procedures. For quantitative study components, an appropriate statistical approach will be used for each analysis. For qualitative data, in-depth interviews recorded in audio will be transcribed, checking the text obtained with the recording. Subsequently, thematic analysis with the aid of the NVivo programme will be performed. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained (letters of approval numbers 4.047.168, 4.179.679 and 4.083.988). All women will be fully informed to sign the consent form before enrolment in the study. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and scientific conferences.
Geographic tongue (GT) is a chronic condition of unknown aetiology, with no defined parameters to establish the protocol for evidence-based management. Validation of a newly developed and proposed clinical index to assess the severity of GT could assist in its diagnosis, especially in cases associated with systemic dermatological diseases in the form of psoriasis. Objective: To verify the applicability of the geographic tongue area and severity index (GTASI). This involved healthcare professionals from different specialties to evaluate the usefulness of the GTASI in supporting GT classification, as well as the follow-up process. Methods: One hundred cases of previously diagnosed GT were initially evaluated by three independent, experienced researchers/clinicians to obtain a standardised classification baseline. Subsequently, nine cases of GT were selected, three cases for each category-mild, moderate and severe. These stages were professionally evaluated by 51 healthcare professionals from three groups: 17 dentists (33%), 22 oral medicine specialists (43%) and 12 specialist dermatologists (24%) during a cross-sectional survey. Results: The quantitative and qualitative assessment based on experts' opinions in the cross-sectional survey demonstrated an acceptable, similar level of GT clinical diagnosis (p > 0.05), with coherence between the various groups of professionals critically appraising the GTASI. An apparent divergence was observed for the moderate GT category, as well as in the group of less experienced evaluators. Conclusion: Whilst the validation of GTASI applicability was successfully executed, the general dental practitioners, specialists in oral medicine and dermatologists were equally capable of correct GT diagnosis and appropriately rating its severity. These coherent results were especially replicated among the experienced clinicians. The validation of the newly proposed index confirmed its reliability as a feasible instrument in oral medicine, with the prospect of its wider implementation in clinical practice.
Background: Some children can develop severe forms of SARS-CoV-2 infection either acutely or later, as represented by multisystemic inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS- C). To identify the risk factors for worse outcomes in hospitalized children and adolescents with severe acute SARS-CoV-2 infection and MIS-C. Methods: This multicenter cohort study included all children and adolescents with confirmed or suspected critical SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to the PICU between April 2020 and September 2021. The exclusion criteria were incomplete vaccinal status, immunocompromised status, and end-of-life decision. The main variables analyzed were epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data, and ventilator settings at admission and after 72 h. The patients were divided into three groups (G): confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) with MIS-C criteria (G1), confirmed COVID-19 without MIS-C criteria (G2), and MIS-C criteria without confirmed COVID-19. Results: The median age of the patients was 28 months in G1, with comorbidities in 40 patients (72.7%) (p < 0.0001). The duration of exposure (median 23 days; p = 0.004) and fever were longer in G1 (12 days; p = 0.001). Moreover, invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) was required in 44 patients (80%, p < 0.0001), and cardiogenic shock occurred in 26 patients (54.2%, p < 0.0001) in G1. Subnutrition was most frequent in G1 in 55 cases (57.3%; p = 0.01). Under nutrition (< 2 SD for weight), longer exposure time (odds ratio [OR]: 2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.37–3.25; p = 0.001), IMV time (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.15–5.85; p = 0.03), and length of hospital stay (OR: 10.94; 95% CI: 1.93–63.1; p = 0.007) were associated with critical MIS-C in G1. Conclusions: In the Brazilian Amazon area, specifically in the Pará state, we identified a cluster of more severe forms of pediatric acute or late SARS-CoV-2 infection.
The Scientific Department of Neuroimmunology of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology (DCNI/ABN) and Brazilian Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunological Diseases (BCTRIMS) provide recommendations in this document for vaccination of the population with demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) against infections in general and against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes COVID-19. We emphasize the seriousness of the current situation in view of the spread of COVID-19 in our country. Therefore, reference guides on vaccination for clinicians, patients, and public health authorities are particularly important to prevent some infectious diseases. The DCNI/ABN and BCTRIMS recommend that patients with CNS demyelinating diseases (e.g., MS and NMOSD) be continually monitored for updates to their vaccination schedule, especially at the beginning or before a change in treatment with a disease modifying drug (DMD). It is also important to note that vaccines are safe, and physicians should encourage their use in all patients. Clearly, special care should be taken when live attenuated viruses are involved. Finally, it is important for physicians to verify which DMD the patient is receiving and when the last dose was taken, as each drug may affect the induction of immune response differently.
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28 members
Gustavo Luiz Gouvêa de Almeida
  • Department of Cardiology
Washington Bianchi
  • Rherumatology
João Carlos Regazzi Avelleira
  • Instituto de Dermatologia professor Rubem David Azulay
Rodrigo Pirmez
  • Department of Dermatology
Regina Casz Schechtman
  • Instituto de Dermatologia Prof Rubem David Azulay
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Rio de Janeiro, Brazil