San Pedro College
  • Davao, Philippines
Recent publications
Herbal and dietary supplements (HDSs) are frequently obtained from community pharmacies, but community pharmacists (CPs) have been underutilized for information regarding them. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of, factors behind, and reasons for consultation with CPs among HDS consumers in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study using an online survey was conducted among conveniently sampled individuals in Malaysia. Reasons for consultation or non-consultation with CPs about HDSs were sought from the respondents. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the predictors of consultation with CPs. Overall, 40.3% (239/593) of participants consulted CPs about the HDSs that they purchased. The participants were predominantly unmarried (362/588, 61.6%) and belonged to the 18-29 age group (332/593, 56%). The multivariate analysis showed that a suburban residential setting was the only significant predictor for consultation with CPs (adjusted odds ratio = 0.390, 95% CI = 0.260-0.583). Respondents who consulted CPs generally agreed that the CPs were the right people to consult on HDSs (mean = 4.37, SD = 0.73). However, their discussion with CPs regarding HDSs mostly revolved around the benefits and directions for use, but little on the potential risks. Meanwhile, most respondents who did not consult CPs agreed that they had never thought of consulting CPs about their HDS use (mean = 3.45, SD = 1.02). The majority of them referred to the Internet (61.3%, 217/354) and social media (59.9%, 212/354) for information about HDSs. The findings from this study show that more efforts are warranted in encouraging consumers to consult CPs about their HDS use and to enhance their awareness of the roles of CPs in ensuring the safe use of HDSs.
Background: Mass vaccination campaigns have significantly reduced the COVID-19 burden. However, vaccine hesitancy has posed significant global concerns. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics that influence perceptions of COVID-19 vaccine efficacy, acceptability, hesitancy and decision making to take vaccine among general adult populations in a variety of socioeconomic and cultural contexts. Methods: Using a snowball sampling approach, we conducted an online cross-sectional study in 20 countries across four continents from February to May 2021. Results: A total of 10,477 participants were included in the analyses with a mean age of 36±14.3 years. The findings revealed the prevalence of perceptions towards COVID-19 vaccine’s effectiveness (78.8%), acceptance (81.8%), hesitancy (47.2%), and drivers of vaccination decision-making (convenience [73.3%], health providers’ advice [81.8%], and costs [57.0%]). The county-wise distribution included effectiveness (67.8–95.9%; 67.8% in Egypt to 95.9% in Malaysia), acceptance (64.7–96.0%; 64.7% in Australia to 96.0% in Malaysia), hesitancy (31.5–86.0%; 31.5% in Egypt to 86.0% in Vietnam), convenience (49.7–95.7%; 49.7% in Austria to 95.7% in Malaysia), advice (66.1–97.3%; 66.1% in Austria to 97.3% in Malaysia), and costs (16.0–91.3%; 16.0% in Vietnam to 91.3% in Malaysia). In multivariable regression analysis, several socio-demographic characteristics were identified as associated factors of outcome variables including, i) vaccine effectiveness: younger age, male, urban residence, higher education, and higher income; ii) acceptance: younger age, male, urban residence, higher education, married, and higher income; and iii) hesitancy: male, higher education, employed, unmarried, and lower income. Likewise, the factors associated with vaccination decision-making including i) convenience: younger age, urban residence, higher education, married, and lower income; ii) advice: younger age, urban residence, higher education, unemployed/student, married, and medium income; and iii) costs: younger age, higher education, unemployed/student, and lower income. Conclusions: Most participants believed that vaccination would effectively control and prevent COVID-19, and they would take vaccinations upon availability. Determinant factors found in this study are critical and should be considered as essential elements in developing COVID-19 vaccination campaigns to boost vaccination uptake in the populations.
As cardiovascular diseases are still a major cause of death in most countries, it is still relevant to look into treatment of such diseases. Dyslipidemia is one of the important identified risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. As this is largely driven by lifestyle and diet, it may be difficult to control it with lifestyle modifications alone. Currently, Statins remains to be the mainstay therapy for dyslipidemia but this is also met by problems within certain patient population. The drug may be contraindicated in certain patient groups; some patients tend to not respond to Statins; while certain patients may not tolerate the adverse events. This study looked into available literature on studies done on dyslipidemia using plant-based formulations using randomized clinical trial. Based on the review conducted, there are several plant-based formations with potential to be similar in efficacy to Statins. Some of the plants used are abundant or may be easily sourced. With the increasing popularity of food supplements or nutraceuticals, exploration on the potential of plant-based products is attractive. Despite the promising results of some studies, these will need further investigations and targeting a larger population size. Formulation options may need to be explored also focused on its stability.
Background Vaccines are effective and reliable public health interventions against viral outbreaks and pandemics. However, hesitancy regarding the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccine is evident worldwide. Therefore, understanding vaccination-related behavior is critical in expanding the vaccine coverage to flatten the infection curve. This study explores the public perception regarding COVID-19 vaccination and identifies factors associated with vaccine hesitancy among the general adult populations in six Southeast Asian countries. Methods Using a snowball sampling approach, we conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study among 5260 participants in Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam between February and May 2021. Binary logistic regression analysis with a backward conditional approach was applied to identify factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Results Of the total, 50.6% were female, and the median age was 30 years (range: 15–83 years). The majority of the participants believed that vaccination effectively prevents and controls COVID-19 (81.2%), and 84.0% would accept COVID-19 vaccines when they become available. They agreed that health providers’ advice (83.0%), vaccination convenience (75.6%), and vaccine costs (62.8%) are essential for people to decide whether to accept COVID-19 vaccines. About half (49.3%) expressed their hesitancy to receive the COVID-19 vaccines. After adjustment for other covariates, COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was significantly associated with age, residential area, education levels, employment status, and family economic status. Participants from Indonesia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam were significantly more likely to express hesitancy in receiving COVID-19 vaccines than those from Philippines. Conclusions In general, participants in this multi-country study showed their optimistic perception of COVID-19 vaccines’ effectiveness and willingness to receive them. However, about half of them still expressed their hesitancy in getting vaccinated. The hesitation was associated with several socioeconomic factors and varied by country. Therefore, COVID-19 vaccination programs should consider these factors essential for increasing vaccine uptake in the populations.
Background Antibiotics are losing their effectiveness because of the rapid emergence of resistant bacteria. Unnecessary antimicrobial use increases antimicrobial resistance (AMR). There are currently no published data on antibiotic consumption in Pakistan at the community level. This is a concern given high levels of self-purchasing of antibiotics in Pakistan and variable knowledge regarding antibiotics and AMR among physicians and pharmacists. Objective The objective of this repeated prevalence survey was to assess the pattern of antibiotic consumption data among different community pharmacies to provide a baseline for developing future pertinent initiatives. Methods A multicenter repeated prevalence survey conducted among community pharmacies in Lahore, a metropolitan city with a population of approximately 10 million people, from October to December 2017 using the World Health Organization (WHO) methodology for a global program on surveillance of antimicrobial consumption. Results The total number of defined daily doses (DDDs) dispensed per patient ranged from 0.1 to 50.0. In most cases, two DDDs per patient were dispensed from pharmacies. Co-amoxiclav was the most commonly dispensed antibiotic with a total number of DDDs at 1018.15. Co-amoxiclav was followed by ciprofloxacin with a total number of 486.6 DDDs and azithromycin with a total number of 472.66 DDDs. The least consumed antibiotics were cefadroxil, cefotaxime, amikacin, and ofloxacin, with overall consumption highest in December. Conclusion The study indicated high antibiotic usage among community pharmacies in Lahore, Pakistan particularly broad-spectrum antibiotics, which were mostly dispensed inappropriately. The National action plan of Pakistan on AMR should be implemented by policymakers including restrictions on the dispensing of antimicrobials.
Mathematics low achievement has undeniably been found in both national examinations and international assessments. An educator needs to be aware and determine the factors in students’ achievement. However, there were no observable studies focusing on the mediating effect of students' attitudes toward career aspiration and academic achievement. With this, it aims to determine the mediating effect of students’ attitudes on students’ career aspirations and academic achievement in learning Mathematics in a higher educational institution in the Davao Region. The researcher utilized sets of adopted and self-made test questionnaires to gather data from the 199 respondents. In analyzing the data, the researcher performed descriptive statistics, Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient, and Regression Analysis as statistical tools. These analyses indicated that students have a high level of career aspiration, a satisfactory level of academic achievement, an average level of attitude towards mathematics, and an insignificant relationship between students’ career aspirations and academic achievement. The relationship between the student’s attitude and career aspiration is significant. The latter is the only relationship that is significant among all steps, and thus full and partial mediation analysis will not be warranted. Based on the findings, the students must be responsible for helping themselves to make an efficient move in developing their aspiration to have a considerable positive attitude in learning mathematics.
The COVID-19 pandemic shifted pharmacy education to remote teaching and learning (T&L) strategies. To share changes, challenges, and experiences in pharmacy education among member countries, the Federation of Asian Pharmaceutical Associations hosted a 1.5-hour webinar on 15th May 2020. Questions collected during registration and the live webinar were coded using thematic analysis. A total of 794 participants from 18 countries/territories registered, while 346 attended the webinar. Of 445 questions, 392 were from the registration form and 53 from the webinar. All questions were coded to four major themes: new normal pharmacy education, ethics and safety, material accessibility, and teaching and evaluation methods. Questions during registration were mostly on new normal adaptation (n=79), T&L formats (n=65), and access/resources/ sustainability (n=59). Webinar questions were mainly on assessment format (n=13), laboratory skills (n=9), and access/resources/sustainability (n=9). The webinar provided an opportunity to quickly identify issues regarding pharmacy education during the COVID-19 pandemic for prompt actions and further research.
Background and purpose: Food insecurity exists whenever accessibility to nutritious food is limited. It affects a person's health with regards to nutritional status, indicated by malnourishment or overnutrition. This study aims to study the relationship between household income, household food insecurity, and weight status of migrant workers in Klang Valley, Selangor. Method: A cross-sectional study involving a convenience sampling of 125 documented migrant workers from five selected countries was conducted. A researcher-administered questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic questions, three-day 24-hour dietary recall (3DR), and nine-item Household Food Insecurity Access Scale was used. Anthropometric measurements, including body weight, height, and waist circumference, were taken. Findings: About 57.6% of the households studied were food insecure (24.8% mildly, 29.6% moderately, and 3.2% severely). Burmese were found to have the highest rate of household food insecurity (96%). The majority of the migrant workers were of normal weight (68.0%). No significant relationship was found between monthly household income and household food security status (p = 0.475), as well as between household food security status and weight status (p = 0.535). Conclusion: Results imply that food security status affects certain nutrient intake among migrant workers. There were no significant associations between variables. Interventions focusing on nutritional education on food choices and implementation on health policy are recommended. Further studies should consider the accessibility, nutritional-related diseases, and dietary aspects of migrant workers, which are risk factors for food insecurity.
Speaking is one of the most exploited skills. However, despite the many endeavors conducted by English teachers, speaking proficiency remains poor among tertiary students. This qualitative-phenomenological study aimed to determine the experiences of the students on the use of communicative task-based instruction in improving their speaking abilities. Using the focus group discussion, the researcher found that gener-ally, the participants believed that the communicative task-based instruction provided them opportunities to enhance their communicative abilities; let them overcome the fear of speaking; gave them a lot of fun; and allowed them to apply the tasks even outside their classrooms. The participants suggested that exposure to real conversa-tion tasks might be done; design individual tasks would be interesting, and that technology might be used in doing the tasks. Thorough discussions and conclusion were provided.
The importance of locomotion in value systems of elderly emphasizes the high profile of physiotherapist in the care of elderly. This research sought to: (i) assess the urban–rural differences in functional status as measured by self-report and performance-based measure; and (ii) determine factors that are associated with functional status among community-dwelling elderly women. One hundred and twenty-three randomly selected community-dwelling elderly women (65–80 years of age) completed the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Physical Performance Test (PPT), Lawton's Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) and demographic questionnaires. Geographical difference was observed in performing physical function but not reporting functional disability. Cognitive function appears to have the strongest association with functional performance in both areas. Age and education were strongly associated with self-reported disability among rural-dwellers, whereas cognitive function and depression was related to self-reported disability among urban-dwellers. This study demonstrated how risk factors vary for elderly women living in different environments. Knowing the different as well as common factors influencing functional status is relevant not only for the deployment of secondary and tertiary prevention, but also suggests an effective treatment for rehabilitation especially among elderly living in different environments.
This document presents a study of the design and functionality characterization of current, voltage and power for a PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell). Design Engineering is applied to manufacture current collector plates (polar plates), particularly for feeding reaction gases and to the type of feeding. Its purpose is to understand the effect of fluid flow phenomena of reagent gases on the PEMFC, using high purity hydrogen and oxygen. The PEMFC performance study was done by obtaining polarization curves at room temperature, applying a two factor (pressure and flow type) experimental design with different pressure levels for each factor. This experimental design applies four different pressure levels inside the cathodic compartment and two flow types for feeding the reagent gases: the co-current and crosscurrent flows. Results show a positive effect on the performance of the PEMFC due to the two experimental factors. Greater current densities are obtained when PEMFC is working with crosscurrent flow, whereas greater electrical power levels are observed in the co-current flow.
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538 members
Erwin Martinez Faller
  • Department of Pharmacy
Elsa May Delima- Baron
  • Research. Publication and Innovation Center
Cristela Candelario
  • Medical Laboratory Science
Joseph Mari B. Querequincia
  • Department of Pharmacy
Marian Dara Tiongco Tagoon
  • School of Business Management Education Arts and Sciences
Davao, Philippines